Embedded Retaining Wall Design Engineering or Paradox?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Embedded Retaining Wall Design Engineering or Paradox?"

Transcription

1 Embedded Retaining Wall Design Engineering or Paradox? A personal viewpoint by A.Y. Chmoulian, associate at Royal Haskoning Introduction Retaining wall design theory is a complicated subject with a long history. The problem was, for a long time, solved exclusively in terms of Coulomb s approach, that is, through equilibrium calculations based on post-failure soil pressures. The geometry of the wall reflecting its equilibrium could then be enhanced to create a desired margin of safety on wall stability. In a similar way, direct factoring of the calculated stresses would ensure the necessary margin of wall structural strength. The main disadvantage of this method was its oversimplified approach to the soil-structure interaction. However, most of the sophisticated methods of soilstructure interaction analysis were not capable of dealing with the conventionally used definitions of factors of safety on wall stability. Hence, the advances in numerical analysis required modification of the safety factor approach to ensure compatibility of the results. An easy way forward was available through factoring soil strength and was often adopted. The idea is very simple and clear for wall stability: if the soil strength is reduced by a factor and the wall is still standing the problem is solved. The problem becomes less clear when dealing with structural forces induced in the by soil pressures. Common sense suggests that reducing the soil strength would cause consequential increases in soil pressures on the interface with the wall and therefore in the structural forces, providing the ultimate design loading conditions. This idea was suggested in the original (1994) edition of BS82 [2]. But it was noticed that when factored soil parameters are used, the stability requirement is for the external forces to be in equilibrium only, that is by calculation the wall may actually be as near to the point of failure as possible. For a cantilever wall or a wall with a single prop near the top this may mean that the soil on the interface with the wall has reached the point of failure and so interface stresses are lower than those in the working conditions. The amended edition of BS82 states that the earth pressures at ultimate limit state are actually lower than those under working conditions. It is noted that the British Standards for structural design, for example BS595 [1] and BS811 [2], have also introduced additional partial factors of safety on loads calculated using the BS82 design approach. This, in the author s experience, sometimes causes substantial increases in the overall structural strength demand compared with the traditional (unfactored) retaining wall design approach. While it is logical to accept that soil pressure reduces with the increasing wall deflection, it is more difficult to comprehend that a structure can deflect less under greater earth pressures. This paper will show examples from the author s experience, representing just a small sample of possible effects that may be caused by the use of factored soil parameters for designing embedded s. General The analyses presented in this paper represent real design situations. But to make the effect of different design parameters clearer, only simple geometries are presented, with the varying factors applied independently. The basic initial conditions always implied that the soil conditions are uniform and all structural elements are absolutely stiff, although the effect of finite wall stiffness was also studied. The groundwater pressures were ignored here to ensure that the primary effects caused by the soil pressures are clearer. It is a normal design practice that the majority of analyses within a single project are carried out using the same design software. It would be unusual in a routine design to find the same engineer using different analysis methods when carrying out the ultimate limit state (ULS) calculations using factored soil parameters, compared with the serviceability limit state (SLS) calculations using representative parameters. As the analyses presented here are supposed to represent normal The following notations are used here: Subscripts f and r refer to any results of f and r the analysis using respectively a factored or a representative set of design parameters ø δ d h D K a, K p, K o M R A m = Mf A r = Rf M r R r Internal friction angle of soil Adhesion angle on the interface between soil and Retaining wall embedment Retaining wall height, measured from top to toe Excavation depth Respectively, active, passive and atrest earth pressure coefficients Maximum calculated bending moment in the Maximum calculated prop force Ratio between maximum bending moments calculated in retaining structures of the same geometry using factored (M f) and representative (M r) sets of soil parameters Ratio between maximum prop forces calculated for retaining structures of the same geometry using factored (R f) and representative (R r) sets of soil parameters design conditions but to allow modelling of both the elastic and plastic soil behaviour, most of the calculations for this paper were performed using a standard industry software suite that allows modelling non-linear soil structure interaction with coupled subgrade reactions (Software Suite A). References to the results attained through other types of numerical modelling are given where necessary. All of the analyses have first been carried out using the factored sets of soil parameters to establish required wall embedment. The factored analyses would also give the structural design forces consistent with BS82 or with EC7 [4]. Analyses were then repeated using the same wall geometry but with the representative soil parameters. This would indicate the structural strength demand using the traditional design approach. It would also give the designer s best estimate of the real situation, which should attract a load factor when using structural design codes. When factoring the soil parameters in accordance with BS82 it was assumed that the critical state effective stress strength is greater than the factored representative strength value. Otherwise, the findings presented may be exaggerated even further, as the ratio between the factored and the representative values increases. Where references are made to BS82 δ-values it was assumed that δ r = 2/3ø r in the analysis using representative soil parameters and tan(δ f) =.75tan(ø f) for the factored soil parameters. The effect of factoring soil parameters is addressed here in the form of ratios A m and A r, which gives an indicative comparison of the structural strength demand when using different design approaches. Issues related to the analysis of stability are avoided if possible, although it should be acknowledged that different design approaches, for example, J.B. Burland and D.M. Potts (1981), may result in different wall embedment requirements, which can ultimately affect the structural design of the GROUND ENGINEERING JULY 27 31

2 Partial factor wall. The size of this paper does not permit inclusion of all available data. In particular, only uniform granular soil deposits are discussed. It should be noted that the design is very sensitive to the wall embedment; the calculated value was always rounded up to the nearest 1mm rather than the usual.5m to 1m. The results do not always align into smooth curves as they, like all numerical analyses, contain different types of small random errors due to various numerical inaccuracies. An example in Figure 1 shows a plot of A m versus ø-value for a cantilever in a uniform granular deposit. The values are hand calculated using a simple approximation of perfectly plastic soil behaviour, with the maximum bending moment corresponding to the zero shear point. The results of these calculations are not dependent on the depth of the excavation and the calculation errors are only caused by the inaccuracy of reading the K a and K p values from the BS82 charts. Naturally, A m- values for δ = were calculated directly and contain no error so they are aligned horizontally. It can be seen that a few per cent calculation error is possible just through the rounding of chart data. To design what is meant or to mean what is designed? General analysis of cantilever walls A large sample of analyses was carried out for a simple cantilever. The analysis covered various excavation depths from 3m to 12m, ø-values from 2º to 4º, wall stiffnesses ranging from 2 x 1 4 kn.m 2 /m.run (conversion is difficult to achieve for smaller stiffnesses) to the virtual infinity and soil stiffnesses from 1MPa to 1MPa. The values of K o =.6 were used in all analyses. A sample of analysis results for 9m deep excavations in soils of different strength is presented in Figure 2. These curves are based on the analyses assuming a partial factor of on the ø values. A very similar plot can be produced for the partial factor value δ-values 2/3 ø ø BS82 6 ±.2 96 ± ±.3 6 ± ± ±.57 - Table 1: A m ratios for different analysis parameters of 5, as per Table A.2 of EC7. It can be seen that bending moments for both representative and factored sets of parameters are dependent on the soil strength and on the adhesion factor. However, the curves are very similar in shape and as a result the A m ratios are virtually independent of the varied factors as shown in Table 1. Therefore, the designer can expect good predictability of the results whether the representative (or best guess) or the factored soil strength design is carried out in uniform ground conditions. The Table 1 values do not apply to layered soils. Effect of overexcavation on cantilever walls Figures 3 and 4 show the effect of overexcavation on the analysis results for absolutely stiff retaining walls. The depths of overexcavation were selected as the lesser of.1d or.5m and the overexcavations were only included in the analysis using the factored soil parameters, which is consistent with BS82. For all equations here, δ = ø was used. As can be seen, the effect of overexcavation depends on the depth of the main excavation, with the M f-values between 55% and 8% greater than the M r-values for the same wall geometry of absolutely stiff walls. This compares with about 38% when modelling the wall without overexcavation. Effect of embedment depth on cantilever walls Figure 5 shows the effect of extra depth of embedment, in excess of the stability requirement, on A m-values for stiff walls. As the embedment depth increases, the wall gradually approaches the fixed earth condition. As a result, earth pressure on the active side becomes closer to the at rest value for both representative and factored analyses and A m-ratio reduces. But, this effect develops very slowly and is unlikely to affect the results unless the embedment is substantially greater than is necessary. Naturally, the effect caused by extra wall embedment will be reduced for walls of finite stiffness. The analysis results presented above for cantilever walls do not represent anything unexpected δ = δ = 2/3ϕ δ = ϕ 9 Figure 1: Errors arising from scaling Ka and Kp values from charts Mf (δ = ) Mr (δ = ) Mf (δ = 2/3ϕ) Mr (δ = 2/3ϕ) Mf (δ = ϕ) Mr (δ = ϕ) Mf (BS82) Mr (BS82) 5 Figure 2: Maximum bending moments for a cantilever with 9m upstand Mf (without overexcavation) Mf (with overexcavation) Mr (with or without overexcavation) 5 Figure 3: Effect of overexcavation for a cantilever with 9m upstand No overexcavation (all depths) Overexcavation (D = 3m) Overexcavation (D = 6m) Overexcavation (D = 9m) Overexcavation (D = 12m) Figure 4: Effect of overexcavation on A m ratios for a cantilever 32 GROUND ENGINEERING JULY 27

3 The picture changes, however, when dealing with tied or propped s. General analysis of propped walls Figures 6 and 7 show, respectively, bending moments and strut forces for an absolutely stiff wall with an absolutely stiff prop at the top. These analyses were based on a soil strength factor of. The use of absolutely stiff structural elements allows avoiding distortions of diagrams that may potentially be caused by the secondary effects. It can be seen that the plots are similar for different δ-values, but, significantly, for soils of greater strength the forces calculated in the factored analyses are smaller than those from the representative analyses. It looks as if an increase in the soil strength causes an increase in the forces in the, which sounds as paradoxal as Hambly s stool. As a result, the respective A m and A r ratios vary from about for the weaker soils to to for the stronger soils, as shown on the plot in Figure 8. A similar set of results is shown in Figure 9 for the partial soil strength factor of 5, as per EC7. The amplitude of variation of A m and A r ratios is just slightly greater than for the BS82 factor, but the overall pattern remains the same. To demonstrate that the above effects were not caused by software error, a numerical analysis of a similar supporting a 15m excavation was carried out using standard industry numerical analysis software using finite differences approach (Software Suite B). The wall was modelled with an absolutely stiff support at the top. As numerical analysis software cannot properly converge to a solution for an absolutely stiff wall, a reduced stiffness was used in the analysis. This does not allow a direct comparison between the results for Software Suites A and B. Nevertheless, the comparison of bending moments calculated for representative and factored designs was confirmed by Software Suite B analysis, as shown in Figure 1. It can be seen that factored analysis yields higher values of bending moments for a relatively weak soil (ø = 25º), whereas for stronger soil (ø = 4º) representative bending moments were marginally higher than those from the factored analysis. A sensitivity analysis for the wall embedment can help to explain the apparent paradox of greater soil strength causing greater structural loads. This was carried out using Software Suite A, assuming an absolutely stiff wall and using soil parameters as above and δ = ø. The results are presented below. Effect of embedment depth on propped walls A plot of maximum bending moments calculated for different wall embedments is presented in Figure 11. It can be seen that relatively small increases in the wall embedment cause significant increases in the bending moments. This effect, which is particularly transparent for the soils of greater strength, is caused by relative stiffening of the embedded part of the wall. This effect occurs similarly to the cantilever walls but is much more pronounced for the propped walls. A stiffer toe response would, naturally, reduce wall deflections and increase the bending moments. A plot of the respective strut forces is very similar and is not presented here. Therefore, the phenomenon of increased soil strength resulting in greater structural forces is caused by a combination of effects of the increased soil strength and the Mf (δ = ) Mr (δ = ) Mf (δ = 2/3ϕ) Mr (δ = 2/3ϕ) Mf (δ = ϕ) Mr (δ = ϕ) Mf (BS82) Mr (BS82) Figure 6: Bending moments diagram for a tied with 15m upstand Strut force, kn/m run Rf (δ = ) 9 Rr (δ = ) Rf (δ = 2/3ϕ) 8 Rr (δ = 2/3ϕ) Rf (δ = ϕ) 7 Rr (δ = ϕ) 6 Rf (BS82) Rr (BS82) Figure 7: Strut forces diagram for a tied with 15m upstand and Ar (δ = ) (δ = 2/3ϕ) (δ = ϕ) (BS82) Ar (δ = ) Ar (δ = 2/3ϕ) Ar (δ = ϕ) Ar (BS82) Figure 8: A m and A r ratios for a tied (partial factor) and Ar (δ = 2/3ϕ) (δ = ϕ) Ar (δ = 2/3ϕ) Ar (δ = ϕ) Embedment = d Embedment = 2d Embedment = 3d Embedment = 4d Figure 5: Effect embedment depth on A m ratios for a cantilever reataining wall Figure 9: A m and A r ratios for a tied (partial factor5) GROUND ENGINEERING JULY 27 33

4 relatively increased wall embedment. Had two different walls been analysed separately, using either factored or representative strength for both stability and structural loads calculations, the one using the representative soil strength would have a smaller embedment and smaller design bending moments. The above effect seems only to be encountered when using software capable of numerical modelling of soil-structure interaction. The software suites that use a simplified analysis approach, even those based on non-coupled subgrade reaction analysis, just show a conventional increase in structural forces with reduced soil strength. Figure 12 shows the effect of extra wall embedment on A m and A r. It can be seen that for wall embedment just twice the design value, the ratios are very close to 1. Naturally, as wall stiffness reduces, A m and A r ratios become less dependent on the relative increase in the wall embedment. It should be noted that the relative wall stiffness depends on the depth of excavation. Figure 13 shows the effect of wall stiffness on the calculated M-values for a propped supporting a 15m deep excavation. It can be seen from Figure 14 that for a sufficiently soft wall A m is about to, that is, similar to the values calculated for cantilever walls. The A m values for soft walls do not seem to be affected by the soil strength or by the depth of excavation. To put the above sensitivity analysis into perspective of real walls, Figure 15 shows a sensitivity analysis for wall stiffness. Stiffnesses of some real walls are shown on the same plot for comparison. It should be noted that AZ12 sheet pile section is the lightest available from its manufacturer. It can be seen that A m-ratios may be close to or even less than 1 for quite real structures. Strut force plots are similar and not presented here. This phenomenon can be found in real design situations. For example, the author has been involved in reviewing designs in ground conditions comprising sands over completely weathered sandstone, where an increase in design values of sandstone strength caused an increase in the design bending moments. Effect of overexcavation on propped walls The above effect will be exaggerated by other factors increasing the relative embedment of the wall. Figure 16 shows the effect of including an overexcavation in the analysis. Although it was carried out for an absolutely stiff wall, similar effects will be encountered for walls of finite stiffness. It can be seen that M f values do indeed increase as a result of overexcavation. But due to the excess embedment, M r values increase to an even greater extent. Figure 17 shows the respective ratios A m and A r for different overexcavation scenarios. There is very little variation of the ratio values for different depths of excavation checked here, that is, within the range of 9m to 24m upstands. Comparing the A m and A r ratios for analyses with and without overexcavation, it can be seen that introduction of overexcavation increases the relative factored structural forces for weaker soils. For stronger soils the effect is the opposite introduction of overexcavation causes A m and A r ratios to reduce further compared with the results without overexcavation. In the same way, structural forces developing during gradual excavation of soil on the passive side of the may be greater than when the excavation is completed. This is only relevant for relatively stiff walls in stronger soils, but ignoring this factor in the design cases when it is actually applicable will certainly not increase the conservatism of the design. Similarly to the cantilever wall analyses, sensitivity to soil stiffness was checked for E-moduli range from 1MPa to 1MPa and no effect on the analysis results was encountered. No sensitivity analysis for strut stiffness is presented here. But this factor rarely causes a significant effect on the bending moments. The greatest effect is normally caused by introduction of pre-stressed anchors, which increases the stiffness of the system, thus reducing the deflections and increasing the anchor forces. This is similar to the way it works in pre-stressed concrete. Discussion & concluding remarks When designing a the designer would be concerned to provide a safe as well as efficient design. It is also usually desirable to ensure that differences between various designs of the same structure done by different designers are not just governed by their willingness to take risks. Based just on the limited analysis presented in this paper, it is possible to evaluate the range of structural design forces that are implied by current design codes. This is only a sample of the possible design outcomes. Depth, m - - Mr Mr -2 Mf -2 Mf (a) -22 (b) Figure 1: Bending moment diagrams from Software Suite B analysis: (a) for uniform soil strata with ø = 25, (b) for uniform soil strata with ø = Mf (Embedment = d) Mr (Embedment = d) Mf (Embedment = d) Mr (Embedment = d) Mf (Embedment = 5d) Mr (Embedment = 5d) Mf (Embedment = 2d) Mr (Embedment = 2d) Figure 11: Effect of embedment depth on bending moments for a tied with 15m upstand and Ar Rf/Rr (Embedment = d) Rf/Rr (Embedment = d) Rf/Rr (Embedment = 5d) Rf/Rr (Embedment = 2d) Mf/Mr (Embedment = d) Mf/Mr (Embedment = d) Mf/Mr (Embedment = 5d) Mf/Mr (Embedment = 2d) Figure 12: Effect of embedment depth on A m and A r ratios for a tied 6 Md (all stiffnesses) Mr (stiffness 2 x 1^8) Mr (stiffness 2 x 1^7) Mr (stiffness 2 x 1^6) Mr (stiffness 2 x 1^5) Mr (stiffness 2 x 1^4) Figure 13: Effect of wall stiffness on bending moments for a tied with 15m upstand 34 GROUND ENGINEERING JULY 27

5 s D = 6 (stiffness 2 x 1^8) D = 15 (stiffness 2 x 1^8) D = 24 (stiffness 2 x 1^8).6 D = 6 (stiffness 2 x 1^7) D = 15 (stiffness 2 x 1^7) D = 6 (stiffness 2 x 1^5).4 D = 24 (stiffness 2 x 1^7) D = 15 (stiffness 2 x 1^5) D = 6 (stiffness 2 x 1^6) D = 24 (stiffness 2 x 1^5).2 D = 15 (stiffness 2 x 1^6) D = 6 (stiffness 2 x 1^4) D = 24 (stiffness 2 x 1^6) D = 15 (stiffness 2 x 1^4) Figure 14: Effect of wall stiffness on A m ratios for a tied retaining wall with 15m upstand Mf (No overexcavation) Mr (No overexcavation) Mf (Overexcavation) Mr (Overexcavation) Figure 16: Effect of overexcavation on bending moments for a tied retaing wall with 15m upstand Contiguous RC pile wall d6mm at 9mm c/c Sheet pile wall AZ12.7 E +4 E +5 E +6 The Table 2 values are quoted directly from the results presented in this paper, for walls in a uniform granular stratum. There are other recommendations on the selection partial load factors that are currently available, however, some of them are not sufficiently explicit and some others imply Y f- values lower than those applied to the self weight of the structures. The author believes that a comparison based on the above three options would give a sufficient review here. Just to make the designer s task more challenging, it is interesting to see how the understanding of a conservative design translates into a paradox: a geotechnical engineer interpreting the ground conditions may believe that by ascribing ø = 4º to a soil whose real ø-value is 45º, makes the design conservative. That would translate into a factored ø-value of about 35º using a mobilisation factor of. m thick RC diaphragm wall RC T-diaphragm wall: flange 4x1m, web 3.6x1m D = 6m (ϕ = 2 ) D = 6m (ϕ = 4 ) D = 15m (ϕ = 2 ) E +7 D = 15m (ϕ = 4 ) D = 24m (ϕ = 2 ) D = 24m (ϕ = 4 ) E +8 E +9 Wall stiffness, kn m^2 Figure 15: A m ratios versus wall stiffness for a tied For a cantilever, for a wide range of input parameters For very stiff s propped near the top For propped wall of finite stiffness BS595 (1) (Clause 2.2.4) Yf = on nominal loads determined in accordance with CP2 BS811 (3) (Table 2.1 without BS811 (Table 2.1 with overexcavation) and BS595 (Table 2) Yf = on earth pressures obtained from BS82 including appropriate mobilisation factors 5-1.7, depending on the δ-value -5, depending on the ø and δ-values, but converges to about for walls with excessively large embedment -1.8, depending on the ø-values overexcavation) Yf = on earth pressures obtained from BS82, when unplanned excavation is included in the calculation 5-1.8, depending on excavation depth.75-, depending on the excavation depth (variation of δ-values not addressed in this paper) Not addressed in this paper Using this value, the design engineer will find the required embedment through analysis and then round it up to make the design more conservative. The detailer will then increase the wall strength (and stiffness too) for the same reason. The result may be that the wall embedment will be two to three times what was actually required for the real soil conditions and the bending moment may be up to twice greater than that calculated by design. Introduction of overexcavation into the design may increase the underdesign in structural strength by a further 1% to 15%. It should be remembered that the above refers just to the designs capable of modelling variation in soil structure interface stresses, depending on the relative deflections. The use of simpler types of analysis may introduce much different results. The progress in computer development has created the and Ar.7 environment when design can be done by engineers and managers with a very basic understanding of geotechnics, who just follow the published design recommendations. This creates a large variety of designs, some of which may be more pragmatic than desired. It is hoped that the above analysis gives some understanding of the difficulties arising from direct application of standard requirements for the use of factored soil parameter designs. The author suggests that when using a factored soil strength design approach (whether BS82, or EC7, or other) the designer may wish to ensure that: They understand that the analysis based on factored soil parameters may result in a set of structural design loads little related to the real working conditions. They understand the assumptions implied by the method of analysis or type of software employed, together with the consequences caused to the structural design of the wall. The comparative increase in structural strength demand against the analysis based on best estimate reflects the factual design uncertainties faced. (No overexcavation - all depths) (Overexcavation - all depths) Ar (No overexcavation - all depths) Ar (Overexcavation - all depths) Figure 17: Effect of overexcavation on A m and A r ratios for a tied Table 2: Ratio of the structural design moments to the serviceability moments (soil strengh factor M=) Any conservative changes made to the geometry of the structure after the design is completed are not causing an increase in the structural forces (this includes, for example, increasing embedment of the wall, its cross-section). The conservative assumptions made with regard to, for example, soil strength or construction staging are indeed conservative. The issues discussed in this paper will not disappear when using EC7 unless engineers understand the importance of using a combination of several design approaches in their practice. References 1. BS595-1:. Structural use of steelwork in building Part 1: Code of practice for design rolled and welded sections. 2. BS82:1994. Code of practice for earth retaining structures. 3. BS811-1:1997. Structural use of concrete Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction. 4. BS EN :24, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules. 5. J.B. Burland, D.M. Potts. The overall stability of free and propped embedded cantilever s. Ground Engineering, 1981, July, pp GROUND ENGINEERING JULY 27 35

Requirements for an Excavation and Lateral Support Plan Building (Administration) Regulation 8(1)(bc)

Requirements for an Excavation and Lateral Support Plan Building (Administration) Regulation 8(1)(bc) Buildings Department Practice Note for Authorized Persons, Registered Structural Engineers and Registered Geotechnical Engineers APP-57 Requirements for an Excavation and Lateral Support Plan Building

More information

EN 1997-1 Eurocode 7. Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section 12 Embankments. Trevor L.L. Orr Trinity College Dublin Ireland

EN 1997-1 Eurocode 7. Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section 12 Embankments. Trevor L.L. Orr Trinity College Dublin Ireland EN 1997 1: Sections 10, 11 and 12 Your logo Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 EN 1997-1 Eurocode 7 Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section

More information

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Tapani Halmea, Lauri Huusko b,a, Gary Marquis a, Timo Björk a a Lappeenranta University of Technology, Faculty of Technology Engineering, Lappeenranta,

More information

Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites

Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites Worked example to accompany MBIE Guidance on the seismic design of retaining

More information

Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls. D-Sheet Piling. User Manual

Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls. D-Sheet Piling. User Manual Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls D-Sheet Piling User Manual D-SHEET PILING Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls User Manual Version: 14.1.34974 31 July 2014 D-SHEET PILING, User Manual Published

More information

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Owen Brooker, The Concrete Centre Introduction The transition to using the Eurocodes is a daunting prospect for engineers, but this needn t be the case. Industry

More information

INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATES

INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATES 4 INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATES 1.0 INTRODUCTION A Civil Engineering Designer has to ensure that the structures and facilities he designs are (i) fit for their purpose (ii) safe and (iii) economical and

More information

8.2 Elastic Strain Energy

8.2 Elastic Strain Energy Section 8. 8. Elastic Strain Energy The strain energy stored in an elastic material upon deformation is calculated below for a number of different geometries and loading conditions. These expressions for

More information

Technical handbook Panel Anchoring System

Technical handbook Panel Anchoring System 1 Basic principles of sandwich panels 3 Design conditions 4 Basic placement of anchors and pins 9 Large elements (muliple rows) 10 Small elements (two rows) 10 Turned elements 10 Slender elements 10 Cantilevering

More information

ick Foundation Analysis and Design

ick Foundation Analysis and Design ick Foundation Analysis and Design Work: ick Foundation Location: Description: Prop: Detail analysis and design of ick patented foundation for Wind Turbine Towers Gestamp Hybrid Towers Date: 31/10/2012

More information

Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods

Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods Steve Macklin Principal Engineering Geologist GHD Melbourne 1. Introduction, scope of Part 1 2. Terminology

More information

Program COLANY Stone Columns Settlement Analysis. User Manual

Program COLANY Stone Columns Settlement Analysis. User Manual User Manual 1 CONTENTS SYNOPSIS 3 1. INTRODUCTION 4 2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 4 2.1 Material Properties 2.2 Dimensions 2.3 Units 6 7 7 3. EXAMPLE PROBLEM 8 3.1 Description 3.2 Hand Calculation 8 8 4. COLANY

More information

Dimensional and Structural Data for Elliptical Pipes. PD 26 rev D 21/09/05

Dimensional and Structural Data for Elliptical Pipes. PD 26 rev D 21/09/05 Dimensional and Structural Data for Elliptical Pipes 21/09/05 Page 1 of 15 1. Foreword This document details a method for the structural design of Stanton Bonna Elliptical pipes for the common conditions

More information

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS Technical Innovation Consultancy Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering Kingston University, London.

More information

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ASPECTS OF BASEMENT RETAINING WALLS

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ASPECTS OF BASEMENT RETAINING WALLS GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ASPECTS OF BASEMENT RETAINING WALLS John Byrne Byrne Looby Partners John Byrne graduated from South Bank University in London with an Honours Degree in Civil Engineering in 1992. He

More information

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES PART V SEISMIC DESIGN

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES PART V SEISMIC DESIGN DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES PART V SEISMIC DESIGN MARCH 2002 CONTENTS Chapter 1 General... 1 1.1 Scope... 1 1.2 Definition of Terms... 1 Chapter 2 Basic Principles for Seismic Design... 4

More information

METHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION

METHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 45-66, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Static analysis of restrained sheet-pile walls

Static analysis of restrained sheet-pile walls Static analysis of restrained sheet-pile walls Bogdan Rymsza Warsaw University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Poland Krzysztof Sahajda Aarsleff Sp. z o.o., Poland ABSTRACT: The results of displacement

More information

Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil

Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil Jae H. Chung, Ph.D. Bid Bridge Software Institute t University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Content 1. Background 2.

More information

Forensic engineering of a bored pile wall

Forensic engineering of a bored pile wall NGM 2016 Reykjavik Proceedings of the 17 th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting Challenges in Nordic Geotechnic 25 th 28 th of May Forensic engineering of a bored pile wall Willem Robert de Bruin Geovita AS, Norway,

More information

S-Parameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09

S-Parameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09 S-Parameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09 Basic Concept of S-Parameters S-Parameters are a type of network parameter, based on the concept of scattering. The more familiar network parameters

More information

Estimation of Adjacent Building Settlement During Drilling of Urban Tunnels

Estimation of Adjacent Building Settlement During Drilling of Urban Tunnels Estimation of Adjacent Building During Drilling of Urban Tunnels Shahram Pourakbar 1, Mohammad Azadi 2, Bujang B. K. Huat 1, Afshin Asadi 1 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University Putra Malaysia

More information

DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA

DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA DIRECT SHEAR TEST OBJEVTIVES To determine the shear strength parameters for a

More information

Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-02

Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-02 ENGINEERING DATA REPORT NUMBER 51 Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-02 A SERVICE OF THE CONCRETE REINFORCING STEEL INSTITUTE Introduction Section 1.2.1 in the

More information

Calculation and Analysis of Tunnel Longitudinal Structure under Effect of Uneven Settlement of Weak Layer

Calculation and Analysis of Tunnel Longitudinal Structure under Effect of Uneven Settlement of Weak Layer Calculation and Analysis of Tunnel Longitudinal Structure under Effect of Uneven Settlement of Weak Layer 1,2 Li Zhong, 2Chen Si-yang, 3Yan Pei-wu, 1Zhu Yan-peng School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou University

More information

Outline MICROPILES SUBJECT TO LATERAL LOADING. Dr. Jesús Gómez, P.E.

Outline MICROPILES SUBJECT TO LATERAL LOADING. Dr. Jesús Gómez, P.E. MICROPILES SUBJECT TO LATERAL LOADING Dr. Jesús Gómez, P.E. Micropile Design and Construction Seminar Las Vegas, NV April 3-4, 2008 Outline When are micropiles subject to lateral load? How do we analyze

More information

Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials

Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials Ozkaya and Nordin Chapter 7, pages 127-151 Chapter 8, pages 173-194 Outline Modes of loading Internal forces and moments Stiffness of a structure

More information

Load and Resistance Factor Geotechnical Design Code Development in Canada. by Gordon A. Fenton Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada

Load and Resistance Factor Geotechnical Design Code Development in Canada. by Gordon A. Fenton Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada Load and Resistance Factor Geotechnical Design Code Development in Canada by Gordon A. Fenton Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada 1 Overview 1. Past: Where we ve been allowable stress design partial

More information

2. Axial Force, Shear Force, Torque and Bending Moment Diagrams

2. Axial Force, Shear Force, Torque and Bending Moment Diagrams 2. Axial Force, Shear Force, Torque and Bending Moment Diagrams In this section, we learn how to summarize the internal actions (shear force and bending moment) that occur throughout an axial member, shaft,

More information

EFFECT OF GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT ON LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF A COARSE SAND BED

EFFECT OF GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT ON LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF A COARSE SAND BED International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 01 06, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_001 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Stress and deformation of offshore piles under structural and wave loading

Stress and deformation of offshore piles under structural and wave loading Stress and deformation of offshore piles under structural and wave loading J. A. Eicher, H. Guan, and D. S. Jeng # School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail

More information

ESTIMATION OF UNDRAINED SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON LONDON CLAY

ESTIMATION OF UNDRAINED SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON LONDON CLAY International Conference on Structural and Foundation Failures August 2-4, 2004, Singapore ESTIMATION OF UNDRAINED SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON LONDON CLAY A. S. Osman, H.C. Yeow and M.D. Bolton

More information

When to Use Immediate Settlement in Settle 3D

When to Use Immediate Settlement in Settle 3D When to Use Immediate Settlement in Settle 3D Most engineers agree that settlement is made up of three components: immediate, primary consolidation and secondary consolidation (or creep). Most engineers

More information

EFFECTIVE BENDING CAPACITY OF DOWEL-TYPE FASTENERS

EFFECTIVE BENDING CAPACITY OF DOWEL-TYPE FASTENERS EFFECTIVE BENDING CAPACITY OF DOWEL-TYPE FASTENERS Hans Joachim Blass 1), Adriane Bienhaus 1) and Volker Krämer 1) 1) Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, University of Karlsruhe, Germany

More information

Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment interaction for steel plate girder bridges

Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment interaction for steel plate girder bridges Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment 017 Chris R Hendy MA (Cantab) CEng FICE Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Epsom, UK Francesco Presta CEng, MIStructE Senior

More information

SMIP05 Seminar Proceedings VISUALIZATION OF NONLINEAR SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE INTERSTATE 5/14 NORTH CONNECTOR BRIDGE. Robert K.

SMIP05 Seminar Proceedings VISUALIZATION OF NONLINEAR SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE INTERSTATE 5/14 NORTH CONNECTOR BRIDGE. Robert K. VISUALIZATION OF NONLINEAR SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE INTERSTATE 5/14 NORTH CONNECTOR BRIDGE Robert K. Dowell Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering San Diego State University Abstract This paper

More information

4B-2. 2. The stiffness of the floor and roof diaphragms. 3. The relative flexural and shear stiffness of the shear walls and of connections.

4B-2. 2. The stiffness of the floor and roof diaphragms. 3. The relative flexural and shear stiffness of the shear walls and of connections. Shear Walls Buildings that use shear walls as the lateral force-resisting system can be designed to provide a safe, serviceable, and economical solution for wind and earthquake resistance. Shear walls

More information

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Rakesh Sidharthan 1 Gnanavel B K 2 Assistant professor Mechanical, Department Professor, Mechanical Department, Gojan engineering college,

More information

Validation of methods for assessing tunnelling-induced settlements on piles

Validation of methods for assessing tunnelling-induced settlements on piles Validation of methods for assessing tunnelling-induced settlements on piles Mike Devriendt, Arup Michael Williamson, University of Cambridge & Arup technical note Abstract For tunnelling projects, settlements

More information

Deflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods

Deflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods Deflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods G. Kaklauskas, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 1223 Vilnius, Lithuania (gintaris.kaklauskas@st.vtu.lt) V.

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

IMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT

IMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 117 127, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Concepts in Communication Amplifier Redundancy Systems

Concepts in Communication Amplifier Redundancy Systems Concepts in Communication Amplifier Redundancy Systems Stephen D. Turner, PE PARADISE DATACOM, BOALSBURG, PA, 6827, USA ABSTRACT Redundancy is a major concern to satellite communication amplifier systems.

More information

Laterally Loaded Piles

Laterally Loaded Piles Laterally Loaded Piles 1 Soil Response Modelled by p-y Curves In order to properly analyze a laterally loaded pile foundation in soil/rock, a nonlinear relationship needs to be applied that provides soil

More information

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Doug Jenkins 1, Chris Lawson 2 1 Interactive Design Services, 2 Reinforced

More information

Anirudhan I.V. Geotechnical Solutions, Chennai

Anirudhan I.V. Geotechnical Solutions, Chennai Anirudhan I.V. Geotechnical Solutions, Chennai Often inadequate In some cases, excess In some cases, disoriented Bad investigation Once in a while good ones Depends on one type of investigation, often

More information

Association Between Variables

Association Between Variables Contents 11 Association Between Variables 767 11.1 Introduction............................ 767 11.1.1 Measure of Association................. 768 11.1.2 Chapter Summary.................... 769 11.2 Chi

More information

BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT RESPONSE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ON SAND USING STANDARD PENETRATION TEST METHOD

BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT RESPONSE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ON SAND USING STANDARD PENETRATION TEST METHOD SENRA Academic Publishers, British Columbia Vol., No. 1, pp. 27-2774, February 20 Online ISSN: 0-353; Print ISSN: 17-7 BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT RESPONSE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ON SAND USING STANDARD

More information

SHORE A DUROMETER AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES

SHORE A DUROMETER AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES SHORE A DUROMETER AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES Written by D.L. Hertz, Jr. and A.C. Farinella Presented at the Fall Technical Meeting of The New York Rubber Group Thursday, September 4, 1998 by D.L. Hertz,

More information

Report on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars

Report on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars Report on Wind Resistance of Signs supported by Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars Prepared for US Sign and Fabrication Corporation January, 2006 SUMMARY This study found the attachment of

More information

Transmission Line and Back Loaded Horn Physics

Transmission Line and Back Loaded Horn Physics Introduction By Martin J. King, 3/29/3 Copyright 23 by Martin J. King. All Rights Reserved. In order to differentiate between a transmission line and a back loaded horn, it is really important to understand

More information

Recitation #5. Understanding Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

Recitation #5. Understanding Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams Recitation #5 Understanding Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear force and bending moment are examples of interanl forces that are induced in a structure when loads are applied to that structure.

More information

Chapter 25: Exchange in Insurance Markets

Chapter 25: Exchange in Insurance Markets Chapter 25: Exchange in Insurance Markets 25.1: Introduction In this chapter we use the techniques that we have been developing in the previous 2 chapters to discuss the trade of risk. Insurance markets

More information

Design of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column

Design of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend

More information

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For

More information

Correlation Coefficient The correlation coefficient is a summary statistic that describes the linear relationship between two numerical variables 2

Correlation Coefficient The correlation coefficient is a summary statistic that describes the linear relationship between two numerical variables 2 Lesson 4 Part 1 Relationships between two numerical variables 1 Correlation Coefficient The correlation coefficient is a summary statistic that describes the linear relationship between two numerical variables

More information

SOLIDWORKS SOFTWARE OPTIMIZATION

SOLIDWORKS SOFTWARE OPTIMIZATION W H I T E P A P E R SOLIDWORKS SOFTWARE OPTIMIZATION Overview Optimization is the calculation of weight, stress, cost, deflection, natural frequencies, and temperature factors, which are dependent on variables

More information

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402-92) and Specifications

More information

B.TECH. (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) PROGRAMME (BTAE) Term-End Examination December, 2011 BAS-010 : MACHINE DESIGN

B.TECH. (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) PROGRAMME (BTAE) Term-End Examination December, 2011 BAS-010 : MACHINE DESIGN No. of Printed Pages : 7 BAS-01.0 B.TECH. (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) PROGRAMME (BTAE) CV CA CV C:) O Term-End Examination December, 2011 BAS-010 : MACHINE DESIGN Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70 Note : (1)

More information

EFFECT OF POSITIONING OF RC SHEAR WALLS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING RESTING ON SLOPING GROUND

EFFECT OF POSITIONING OF RC SHEAR WALLS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING RESTING ON SLOPING GROUND International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 373 384, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_038 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General

More information

USE OF CONE PENETRATION TEST IN PILE DESIGN

USE OF CONE PENETRATION TEST IN PILE DESIGN PERIODICA POLYTECHNICA SER. CIV. ENG. VOL. 47, NO. 2, PP. 189 197 (23) USE OF CONE PENETRATION TEST IN PILE DESIGN András MAHLER Department of Geotechnics Budapest University of Technology and Economics

More information

Toe Bearing Capacity of Piles from Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data

Toe Bearing Capacity of Piles from Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data Toe Bearing Capacity of Piles from Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data Abolfazl Eslami University of Ottawa, Civil Engineering Department PREPRINT International Symposium on Cone Penetrometer Testing, CPT

More information

Geotechnical Building Works (GBW) Submission Requirements

Geotechnical Building Works (GBW) Submission Requirements Building Control (Amendment) Act 2012 and Regulations 2012: Geotechnical Building Works (GBW) Submission Requirements Building Engineering Group Building and Construction Authority May 2015 Content : 1.

More information

Series 4000 Fiberglass Pipe and Fittings

Series 4000 Fiberglass Pipe and Fittings Series 4000 Fiberglass Pipe and Fittings for corrosive industrial service Uses and applications Listings Performance Acid drains Chemical process piping Corrosive slurries Food processing Geothermal Nonoxidizing

More information

Laying the First Course. 1. Excavate the site and construct the footing.

Laying the First Course. 1. Excavate the site and construct the footing. Use QUIKRETE Mortar Mix or Mason Mix lay up a concrete block wall as shown. QUIKRETE Mortar Mix or Mason Mix Concrete block Mason's line Line blocks 4' level brick trowel Jointer Mason's hammer Stiff brush

More information

The Binomial Distribution

The Binomial Distribution The Binomial Distribution James H. Steiger November 10, 00 1 Topics for this Module 1. The Binomial Process. The Binomial Random Variable. The Binomial Distribution (a) Computing the Binomial pdf (b) Computing

More information

System. Stability. Security. Integrity. 150 Helical Anchor

System. Stability. Security. Integrity. 150 Helical Anchor Model 150 HELICAL ANCHOR System PN #MBHAT Stability. Security. Integrity. 150 Helical Anchor System About Foundation Supportworks is a network of the most experienced and knowledgeable foundation repair

More information

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

More information

DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION PILES ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 7

DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION PILES ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 7 DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION PILES ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 7 Bauduin C. Besix, Brussels; V.U.B. University of Brussels, Belgium The Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design is based on Limit State Design,

More information

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver

More information

Physics Lab Report Guidelines

Physics Lab Report Guidelines Physics Lab Report Guidelines Summary The following is an outline of the requirements for a physics lab report. A. Experimental Description 1. Provide a statement of the physical theory or principle observed

More information

Course in. Nonlinear FEM

Course in. Nonlinear FEM Course in Introduction Outline Lecture 1 Introduction Lecture 2 Geometric nonlinearity Lecture 3 Material nonlinearity Lecture 4 Material nonlinearity continued Lecture 5 Geometric nonlinearity revisited

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS

INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS Third Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis

More information

CPTic_CSM8. A spreadsheet tool for identifying soil types and layering from CPTU data using the I c method. USER S MANUAL. J. A.

CPTic_CSM8. A spreadsheet tool for identifying soil types and layering from CPTU data using the I c method. USER S MANUAL. J. A. CPTic_CSM8 A spreadsheet tool for identifying soil types and layering from CPTU data using the I c method. USER S MANUAL J. A. Knappett (2012) This user s manual and its associated spreadsheet ( CPTic_CSM8.xls

More information

PILE FOUNDATIONS FM 5-134

PILE FOUNDATIONS FM 5-134 C H A P T E R 6 PILE FOUNDATIONS Section I. GROUP BEHAVIOR 6-1. Group action. Piles are most effective when combined in groups or clusters. Combining piles in a group complicates analysis since the characteristics

More information

FUTURE SLAB. PENETRATIONS and. DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS

FUTURE SLAB. PENETRATIONS and. DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS FUTURE SLAB PENETRATIONS and DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS 1.0 INTRODUCTION Post-tensioned floor slabs in Australia and South East Asia are now universally regarded as the most cost effective form

More information

Solution for Homework #1

Solution for Homework #1 Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen

More information

2.75 6.525 Problem Set 1 Solutions to ME problems Fall 2013

2.75 6.525 Problem Set 1 Solutions to ME problems Fall 2013 2.75 6.525 Problem Set 1 Solutions to ME problems Fall 2013 2. Pinned Joint problem Jacob Bayless a) Draw a free-body diagram for the pin. How is it loaded? Does the loading depend on whether the pin is

More information

Welded Fabric. The CARES Guide to Reinforcing Steels Part 5. Installation of welded fabric on a major contract. 1.0 Introduction

Welded Fabric. The CARES Guide to Reinforcing Steels Part 5. Installation of welded fabric on a major contract. 1.0 Introduction Welded Fabric 1.0 Introduction Welded fabric, often referred to as mesh, is a machine welded grid arrangement of reinforcing bars or wires. It is covered by British Standard BS4483. This was revised in

More information

Behaviour of buildings due to tunnel induced subsidence

Behaviour of buildings due to tunnel induced subsidence Behaviour of buildings due to tunnel induced subsidence A thesis submitted to the University of London for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and for the Diploma of the Imperial College of Science, Technology

More information

Naue GmbH&Co.KG. Quality Control and. Quality Assurance. Manual. For Geomembranes

Naue GmbH&Co.KG. Quality Control and. Quality Assurance. Manual. For Geomembranes Naue GmbH&Co.KG Quality Control and Quality Assurance Manual For Geomembranes July 2004 V.O TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Quality Assurance and Control 2.1 General 2.2 Quality management acc. to

More information

PART TWO GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT. Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone

PART TWO GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT. Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone DESIGN MANUAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT Keystone retaining walls

More information

Alliance Consulting BOND YIELDS & DURATION ANALYSIS. Bond Yields & Duration Analysis Page 1

Alliance Consulting BOND YIELDS & DURATION ANALYSIS. Bond Yields & Duration Analysis Page 1 BOND YIELDS & DURATION ANALYSIS Bond Yields & Duration Analysis Page 1 COMPUTING BOND YIELDS Sources of returns on bond investments The returns from investment in bonds come from the following: 1. Periodic

More information

Validation of Cable Bolt Support Design in Weak Rock Using SMART Instruments and Phase 2

Validation of Cable Bolt Support Design in Weak Rock Using SMART Instruments and Phase 2 Validation of Cable Bolt Support Design in Weak Rock Using SMART Instruments and Phase 2 W.F. Bawden, Chair Lassonde Mineral Engineering Program, U. of Toronto, Canada J.D. Tod, Senior Engineer, Mine Design

More information

Mathematical Induction

Mathematical Induction Mathematical Induction In logic, we often want to prove that every member of an infinite set has some feature. E.g., we would like to show: N 1 : is a number 1 : has the feature Φ ( x)(n 1 x! 1 x) How

More information

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

MODELLING OF AN INFILL WALL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF A BUILDING FRAME SUBJECTED TO LATERAL FORCE

MODELLING OF AN INFILL WALL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF A BUILDING FRAME SUBJECTED TO LATERAL FORCE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 180-187, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_015 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Logo Symmetry Learning Task. Unit 5

Logo Symmetry Learning Task. Unit 5 Logo Symmetry Learning Task Unit 5 Course Mathematics I: Algebra, Geometry, Statistics Overview The Logo Symmetry Learning Task explores graph symmetry and odd and even functions. Students are asked to

More information

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST Abstract Camelia SLAVE University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti

More information

Fifteen years experience of design, production and assembling of prestressed Bridge decks in Timber

Fifteen years experience of design, production and assembling of prestressed Bridge decks in Timber Fifteen years experience of design, production and assembling of pre-stressed Bridge decks in Timber P. Jacobsson 1 Fifteen years experience of design, production and assembling of prestressed Bridge decks

More information

Section A. Index. Section A. Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting Section A.2 Forecasting techniques... 1. Page 1 of 11. EduPristine CMA - Part I

Section A. Index. Section A. Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting Section A.2 Forecasting techniques... 1. Page 1 of 11. EduPristine CMA - Part I Index Section A. Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting Section A.2 Forecasting techniques... 1 EduPristine CMA - Part I Page 1 of 11 Section A. Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting Section A.2 Forecasting

More information

DESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT

DESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT DESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT Troy Oliver 1, Mark Rea 2 ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the work undertaken in the design of multiple buildings for one of

More information

Fatigue Assessment of Weld Terminations in Welded Cover-Plate Details; a Comparison of Local Approaches

Fatigue Assessment of Weld Terminations in Welded Cover-Plate Details; a Comparison of Local Approaches Nordic Steel Construction Conference 2012 Hotel Bristol, Oslo, Norway 5-7 September 2012 Fatigue Assessment of Weld Terminations in Welded Cover-Plate Details; a Comparison of Local Approaches Mohsen Heshmati

More information

INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS. Dr. K. M. Kouzer, Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, GEC Kozhikode

INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS. Dr. K. M. Kouzer, Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, GEC Kozhikode INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) Reference can be made to IS 2131 1981 for details on SPT. It is a field edtest to estimate e the penetration e resistance

More information

! n. Problems and Solutions Section 1.5 (1.66 through 1.74)

! n. Problems and Solutions Section 1.5 (1.66 through 1.74) Problems and Solutions Section.5 (.66 through.74).66 A helicopter landing gear consists of a metal framework rather than the coil spring based suspension system used in a fixed-wing aircraft. The vibration

More information

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents

More information

Advanced Structural Analysis. Prof. Devdas Menon. Department of Civil Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Module - 5.3.

Advanced Structural Analysis. Prof. Devdas Menon. Department of Civil Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Module - 5.3. Advanced Structural Analysis Prof. Devdas Menon Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 5.3 Lecture - 29 Matrix Analysis of Beams and Grids Good morning. This is

More information

Back Analysis of Material Properties

Back Analysis of Material Properties Back Analysis of Material Properties 23-1 Back Analysis of Material Properties This tutorial will demonstrate how to perform back analysis of material properties using sensitivity analysis or probabilistic

More information

Mechanically stabilized layers in road construction

Mechanically stabilized layers in road construction Mechanically stabilized layers in road construction Zikmund Rakowski, Jacek Kawalec Tensar International, UK, Technical University of Silesia, Poland Abstract: Effective and economical technologies are

More information