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1 MICROPILES SUBJECT TO LATERAL LOADING Dr. Jesús Gómez, P.E. Micropile Design and Construction Seminar Las Vegas, NV April 3-4, 2008 Outline When are micropiles subject to lateral load? How do we analyze them? Load testing Case histories 1

2 Where are micropiles subject to lateral load? Building foundations (earthquake, wind) Basement wall foundations Retaining wall foundations Excavation support Tower and stack foundations Machine foundations Slope stabilization Why not use another foundation system? Other solutions such as caissons or piles are not necessarily better Micropiles are installed within tight areas Micropiles can be inclined Advancing through difficult formations and obstructions 2

3 Building foundations P V Issues for analysis Analysis almost identical to other foundations Micropile characteristics Fixity of micropile head Soil properties Pile cap resistance Tolerable displacement Bending capacity of micropile Are batter piles necessary? 3

4 Micropile characteristics Reinforcement type (casing, bar, etc) Inertia and Section Modulus (I, S) of Micropile il section Grout can be taken into account for composite section modulus Consider cracking of grout Joints Installation (annular space?) Typical casing 4

5 Boundary condition: Fixity Fixed 50% Free θ = 0 θ/2 θ Fixity Fixity of Micropile Head: In caissons, often assumed as 0 to 50% In micropiles it should be higher than caissons under equal conditions 50% fixity often assumed. 100% fixity could be justified; however, fixity not only function of connection type. It also depends on superstructure. Ask Structural Engineer. Need further research 5

6 Fixity Fixity of Micropile Head: For single micropiles supporting unbraced structures (power pole, cantilever retaining wall, etc), use Free Head condition For single micropiles or small groups supporting framed structures, can achieve 50 to 100%. Ask Structural Engineer Quick check on fixity 6

7 Quick check on fixity Say 7-inch OD casing, t=0.5 inch, Fy =80 ksi Say F c = 4 ksi concrete At yield, My = 1,240 in-kip (no reduction) To develop this capacity in the connection, need about 15 to16 inch embedment For ductility, say 20 inch embedment Need to add pile cap steel to prevent splitting of concrete Soil properties Soil properties needed depend on analysis method used Typically, for sands, need friction angle, unit weight, lateral reaction modulus For clays, need undrained strength or cohesion, unit weight, and lateral reaction modulus or ε 50 Results not too sensitive to soil properties If lateral response is critical, run load test 7

8 Pile cap resistance Often significant. Previous studies in caissons report cap resistance as 50 percent or more of overall lateral l resistance of foundation system Should be considered in many cases Do not include if pile cap likely to be exposed (scour, future construction, etc) Tolerable lateral displacement Depends on project requirements Often 0.5 to 1 inch Really important to establish reasonable deflection tolerances Watch for P-Delta effect 8

9 P-Δ Effect: Lateral deflection Eccentricity Additional bending Additional deflection Δ Available Tools Similar analysis procedures as for caissons or piles May use Charts and/or simplified procedures (NAVFAC, etc) for simple checks Prefer numerical analysis to account for P-Δ effects, changes in section, 3-D effects, pile top fixity Lpile, Group,COM624, FLPier, Finite Element, Finite Differences 9

10 P-y Curves σ P = σ x B B = pile diam. P-y Curves Es (lb/in2) Pult y (in) 10

11 Example 0 Deflection (in) Medium Sand 50 Micropile: 7-inch casing t= 0.5 inch Fy = 80 ksi Free Head th (in) Dept kip 2 kip 5 kip 10 kip 20 kip 250 Example First 5-10 ft critical Acceptable deflection under 10 kip (~3/4 inch) Deflection (in) kip is close to ultimate 150 For fixed head, deflection <1 inch under 20 kip th (in) Dept kip 2 kip 5 kip 10 kip 20 kip 11

12 Example Moment (in-lb) Max Moment ~ 400 in-kip 0 at ~5ft Section Modulus of Casing 60 S = 15.5 in3 Maximum Stress = 400 in-kip / 15.5 = 26 ksi (0.32 Fy) OK Usually, deflection controls for free head condition. Moment often controls for fixed head condition Depth (in) Special Considerations for Micropiles Remember: Joints!! Better specify no joints in first 5 to 10 ft Remember: Annular space!! Better specify grouting outside casing Buckling usually not an issue, but should be checked in soft soils 12

13 Load Testing Predict capacity using Lpile, FLPier, etc Instrument pile if possible (inclinometer) Test Free Head Condition. Follow ASTM D3966 Using the same numerical model, backcalculate soil properties Check for problems and inconsistencies using numerical model and test data Predict deflection for expected boundary condition in structure (fixed head, 50% fixity, etc) Load Testing 13

14 Load Testing Load Testing Displacement (i in) Test Pile 1 Results LPile calibration for Free-End condition 0.5 L-Pile calibration 50% Fixity Load (kips) SCHNABEL ENGINEERING Pile Type : 7-5/8" O.D. Length : 39 ft Date Installed : 7/11/2002 Date Tested : 7/16/2002 ASSOCIATES Micropile Load Test Plot Design Load : 10 Kips Remarks: Lateral Load Test - TP " Thick Wall 80 ksi Steel Test Load : 20 Kips 4000 psi Grout CONTRACT NO. DATE 2-15 ft. long #18 75 ksi Williamsform Bars 14

15 Is Lateral Load Response a Problem? Verify boundary conditions in analysis (fixity) Verify soil properties used for analysis Verify units used Neglecting pile cap? Check through load test (two for the price of one!!) Use larger casing Use double casing in first 5-10 ft Increase number of micropiles Introduce batter micropiles Use drilled shafts Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art 15

16 Site Location Crystal Bridges 16

17 CRYSTAL BRIDGES Micropiles under wall 17

19 Lateral Load Test Load (kips) Disp placement (inches) Evidence of lateral deflection 19

20 Strain Gauges Jesús Gómez, Ph.D., P.E., Schnabel Engineering 20

21 Four Point Bending Test Data (at Threaded Joints) Casing Maximum Moment (Kip-in) 7 ½ wall (N80) ½ wall (N80) /8 ½ wall w/ 7 - ½ wall inside (N80) 3000 Typical Comparison Lateral loads (kn) in free-head condition required for 0.25-inch deflection 21

22 Dulles International Airport Dulles International Airport 22

23 Buckling Potential teral Reaction Modulus, c (Ksi) Lateral Reaction Modulus, Es (ksi) E s (k si) Lat ksi bar Hll Hollow core bars 80-ksi casing Use Fy for design 36-ksi casing Check Buckling Capacity Pile Factor, Fp (in2/kip) I E Pile Factor 2 4 (in /kip) 2 2 A f y Cadden and Gómez, 2002 LPile Use for single micropiles Nonlinear soil response modeled through P-y curves Linear or nonlinear pile response Define free head, fixed head, or rotation magnitude Multiple load combinations and boundary conditions Group effects not considered. Need to do manually 23

24 FLPier Best for pile group analysis Nonlinear soil response modeled through P- y curves Linear or nonlinear pile response Define rotational stiffness of superstructure May introduce batter Very powerful Slope stabilization 24

25 Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington, DC Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington, DC 25

26 Micropile Installation Bridge and tower foundations Courtesy: Fundaciones Franki, C.A. 26

27 Excavation support Union Station Washington, DC Micropiles for Temporary Excavation Support at Ramp Area Fixity Fixed Head? Free Head? 27

28 Source: Microsoft Virtual Earth Ellis Island seawall repair Concrete Stub Wall on Timber Relieving Platform 28

29 Ellis Island seawall repair 1. Fill Voids Underneath Seawall with Concrete 2. Placement of Filter Zone Behind Seawall 3. Installation of Steel Sheet Pile in Front of Seawall 4. Seawall Underpinning with Micropiles

EFFICIENT DESIGN OF VERTICAL MICROPILE SYSTEMS TO LATERAL LOADING Dr. Jesús Gómez, P.E. PE Andy Baxter, P.G. Outline When are micropiles subject to lateral load? How do we analyze them? Shear Friction

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