Calculation and Analysis of Tunnel Longitudinal Structure under Effect of Uneven Settlement of Weak Layer

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Calculation and Analysis of Tunnel Longitudinal Structure under Effect of Uneven Settlement of Weak Layer"

Transcription

1 Calculation and Analysis of Tunnel Longitudinal Structure under Effect of Uneven Settlement of Weak Layer 1,2 Li Zhong, 2Chen Si-yang, 3Yan Pei-wu, 1Zhu Yan-peng School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, *2,Corresponding Author Western Engineering Research Center of Disaster Mitigation in Civil Engineering, 3 Western Zhongda Construction 1,First Author Abstract By analyzing many problems of the longitudinal design of tunnels in soft ground, using the theory of elastic foundation beam and finite element methods, the force and vertical settlement joint set of tunnel longitudinal structure were calculated and analyzed at the bottom of the tunnel where the soil characteristics mutations and the thickness of covered soil layer changes sharply. Considered the effect of uneven settlement of weak layer, a plane numerical model is established based on elastic foundation beam. Then, the force and deformation of tunnel longitudinal structure are calculated and analyzed. By calculating that, the model can make full consideration of all factors which affect the uneven settlement of the tunnel, and are suit for the calculations of the settlement of tunnel in complex conditions. The conclusions recommended reasonable data about the arrangement of settlement joint of the tunnel under the effect of uneven settlement of weak layer. Keywords: Tunnel Longitudinal Structure, Uneven Settlement, Weak Layer 1. Introduction For the large diameter weak layer tunnel, the affect of vertical uneven settlement can not be ignored, especially in the area where the soil characteristics mutations and the thickness of covered soil layer changes sharply. The schematic diagram of the different strata along the tunnel longitudinal structure is shown below in Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the different strata along the tunnel longitudinal At present, the theory models to analyze the tunnel structure generally assume the cross-section is like a quality circle, and use a spring to imitate the interaction between tunnel and soil. Tunnel is equivalent to a homogeneous beam rooted in the foundation. By calculating the elastic foundation beam, we can get some data of differential settlement and force distribution of tunnel vertical structure. Researchers has done many researches by site tests [1], theoretical analysis[2][3][4], numerical imitation[5][6]and other tools[7], to solve those problems such as why and how to eliminate the vertical differential settlement of tunnel[8], tunnel longitudinal stiffness, the model of interaction between tunnel and soil[9], and so on. Yu [10] proposed a reasonable method of dual elastic foundation beam and then deduced the internal force, deformation and ground reaction due to a concentrated force, concentrated couple, local uniformly distributed load, the local linear distribution load on elastic foundation beams. It is a more reasonable and comprehension analytical model which take the Advances in information Sciences and Service Sciences(AISS) Volume4, Number10, June 2012 doi: /AISS.vol4.issue

2 interaction of soil and earth into consideration. Though, there are still some differences between the theory model and the actual project. Therefore, considering the influence of tunnel uneven subsidence of various factors, and using the finite element method, based on the model of elastic foundation beam, the model is set up that can use to solve the calculation of the force and deformation of tunnel longitudinal structure in order to provide a exact theoretical basis for the longitudinal design and construction of weak layer tunnel. 2. Theory Model 2.1. Basic Assumptions (1) The soil and materials of lining structure are in elastic state, and double-sided spring is a non-linear model. (2) Interaction areas between the soil and tunnel do not occur sliding along the vertical beam. (3) Do not take the changes of the underground water and water pressure into consideration for the setting of the settlement joins. (4) Didn t consider soil arching unloading effect along the buried depth of the tunnel, and use the theory of soil column to calculate the earth pressure of the shield tunnel vault, and carries on some corresponding reduction Plane Calculaion Model The schematic diagram of plane FEM calculation model is shown below in Figure 2. FEM transition zone FEM transition zone Soil Equivalent continuous beam of tunnel structure Spring Soil Figure 2. Schematic diagram of FEM calculation model In Figure 2, the external loads mainly include water pressure and the change of the loads worked upon the tunnel at high tide and low tide. For boundary conditions, the displacement of the right side, left side and bottom of the model is limited to zero. The area of the 20 m range on both sides of the model is treated as a transitional zone to consider the boundary effect on the calculation results. The middle area is taken as the effective zone of calculating and analyzing. The spring of the model choose nonlinear spring. For the uneven subsidence of soil layer, it will be achieved by control calculation parameters and local boundary displacement Stiffness Calculation of Elastic Foundation Beam The actual structure of the tunnel is simplified to the elastic beam. Firstly, it is necessary to calculate the inertia and stiffness according to the cross-section and material of tunnel, and take into account the interaction between the tunnel and soil. When the tunnel is simplified to an elastic beam, its stiffness is a reduction. The calculation of the cross-section effective stiffness is shown below by formula (1). EI ηei' ηe π [D4 (D t)4] πηe[d4 (D t)4] The meaning of symbols: D diameter of tunnel; t the sickness of tunnel segment; E the elasticity modulus of concrete; η effective stiffness; I cross-section inertia. 85

3 3. Modeling and Computations 3.1. Load and Conditions Consider all the factors that affect the vertical deformation of tunnel, the main loads in the calculation of the tunnel includes: (1) Its gravity. (2) The water pressure upon overlying soil. For the conditions of calculation, the uneven settlement at the connection area of work well and tunnel structure is mainly considered Model Parameters According to the geological data and structure design parameters, the parameters of structure material and spring stiffness of the tunnel is shown below in Table 1. Table 1. The design parameters of tunnel structure and spring stiffness Design parameters of tunnel structure Material Parameters E(Pa) Parameters of Tunnel Cross Section μ Outer Diameter(m) In Diameter(m) 3.8e Bending Spring Horizontal Spring Vertical Nonlinear Spring Parameters of Spring Stiffness 2.2e e+12 Spring stiffness (Pa) 5.00E E E E E E Displacement (m) 3.3 Build Model The model is build and shown in the figure3. Figure 3. Calculation model of tunnel longitudinal structure under effect of uneven settlement In the calculation model, the initial vertical displacement is 0.05m; the external load act upon the surface is set to 50KN/m. 86

4 Considering the uneven settlement of weak layer at the bottom of tunnel, the force and displacement of the tunnel is calculated on the differential conditions according to the spacing of settlement joint from 20m to 60m. By calculation, when the spacing of the settlement joint is 20m, the main results were as shown in figure4, figure 5, and figure 6. Figure 4. The contour image of displacement when the spacing of settlement joint is 20 m Figure 5. The bending moment diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 20 m Figure 6. The shear diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 20 m By calculation, when the spacing of the settlement joint is 30m, the main results were as shown in figure 7, figure 8, and figure 9. Figure 7. The contour image of displacement when the spacing of settlement joint is 30 m 87

5 Figure 8. The bending moment diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 30 m Figure 9. The shear diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 30 m By calculation, when the spacing of the settlement joint is 40m, the main results were as shown in figure 10, figure 11, and figure 12. Figure 10. The contour image of displacement when the spacing of settlement joint is 40 m Figure 11. The bending moment diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 40 m Figure 12. The shear diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 40 m By calculation, when the spacing of the settlement joint is 50m, the main results were as shown in figure13, figure 14, and figure15. 88

6 Figure 13. The contour image of displacement when the spacing of settlement joint is 50 m Figure 14. The bending moment diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 50 m Figure 15. The shear diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 50 m By calculation, when the spacing of the settlement joint is 60m, the main results were as shown in figure 16, figure 17, and figure 18. Figure 16. The contour image of displacement when the spacing of settlement joint is 60 m Figure 17. The bending moment diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 60 m 89

7 Figure 18. The shear diagram when the spacing of settlement joint is 60 m 4. Calculation Results 4.1. Bending Moment of Tunnel Structure The comparison on variation curve of longitudinal bending moment of the tunnel structure for the different spacing of settlement joint is show in figure 19. The Value of bending moment ( N.m) Spacing 20m Spacing 30m Spacing 40m Spacing 50m Spacing 60m No spacing The range of 0~300m along the tunnel longitudinal Figure 19. The contrast diagram of bending moment of the tunnel longitudinal structure for the different spacing of settlement joint Bending moment (N.m) As show in the Figure 19, along with the increasing of the spacing of settlement joint, the longitudinal bending moment of tunnel structure has a significant reduction when the spacing of the settlement joint is 20 m. The variation curve of maximum longitudinal bending moment of tunnel structure in different spacing of settlement joint is shown in figure 20. Spacing of Settlement Joint Figure 20. The variation curve of maximum bending moment of tunnel longitudinal for the different spacing of settlement joint In figure 20, the maximum longitudinal bending moment of the tunnel structure grow quickly when the spacing of settlement joint is in 20m to 40m section. And when the spacing of settlement joint is in 40m~60m, the growth of maximum longitudinal bending moment is not big. 90

8 4.2. Shear Force of Tunnel Structure The comparison on variation curves of shear force of tunnel longitudinal structure under various condition of the spacing of settlement joint is shown in figure 21. As show in the figure 21, The curve of shear force fluctuates along longitudinal direction where setting settlement joint. It is mainly caused by shear mutations in the settlement joints. When the spacing of settlement joint is 20m, tunnel structure longitudinal shear changes is the most significant, and maximum shear makes larger reductions relative to there is no settlement joint. The variation curve of maximum longitudinal shear force is shown in figure 22 with the various spacing of settlement joint. In figure 22, from the trend of the curve, when the spacing of settlement joint is more than 40m, maximum longitudinal shear force of the tunnel structure growing quickly. And when the spacing of settlement joint in 40m~60m section of tunnel structure, the growth of maximum longitudinal shear force is not big and the gap of maximum longitudinal shear force is relatively small when there is no settlement joint. The value of Shear( N) Spacing 20m Spacing 30m Spacing 40m Spacing 50m Spacing 60m No spacing The range of 0~300m along the tunnel longitudinal Figure 21. The shear contrast diagram for the different spacing of settlement joint Shear (N) S pacing of settlem ent joint (m ) Figure 22. The variation curve of maximumshear of tunnel longitudinal for the different spacing of settlement joint 4.3. Longitudinal Deformation of Tunnel Structure The vertical displacement diagram of tunnel structure for the different spacing of settlement joint is shown in figure

9 Vertical displacement( m) Spacing 20m Spacing 30m Spacing 40m Spacing 50m Spacing 60m No Spacing The range of 0~300m along the tunnel longitudinal Figure 23. The vertical displacement contrast diagram for the different spacing of settlement joint As the figure 23 shows, the structure vertical displacement will slightly larger than that there is no settlement joint. The vertical displacement of the tunnel structure is close to that there is no settlement joint. From the whole structure, the vertical displacement diagrams of longitudinal tunnel structure are similar no matter setting settlement joint or not. That s to say, it has little effect on vertical deformation if setting the settlement joint. 5. Conclusions (1) Based on elastic foundation beam, Numerical computation model of tunnel longitudinal structure is suitable for vertical settlement calculation of the tunnel. The calculation results are showed to be correct and reasonable. (2) For the arrangement of longitudinal settlement joint of tunnel longitudinal structure, It is recommended that according the geological survey data to choose uneven spacing of settlement joint in the whole longitudinal tunnel. In order to eliminate the uneven settlement, it is the best choice when the spacing of settlement joint is 20m, but if the spacing of settlement joint is bigger than 60m, it is unnecessary to set settlement joints. (3) If the interaction between structure and soil and the properties of soft soil are considered at the same time, the obtained results will be more accurate. Deeper research will be needed to do in the future. 6. Acknowledgment This work was financially supported by the Gansu Natural Science Foundation (1107RJYA276); Lan Zhou University of Technology Doctor Foundation (No: ). 7. References [1] Dong-Mei Zhang, Hong-Wei Huang and Jian-Ming Wang, Numerical Study on the Effect of Grouting on Long-Term Settlement of Tunnels in Clay, Computational Science ICCS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4489/2007, , [2] WU Mengjun, ZHANG Yongxing, LIU Xinrong, "Routing Selection Method for Tunnel Design Using Dynamic Search", JCIT: Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Vol. 6, No. 7, pp. 179 ~ 184, [3] Hehua Zhu, Qianwei Xu, Qizhen Zheng and Shaoming Liao, Experimental study on working parameters of earth pressure balance shield machine tunneling in soft ground Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China, Volume 2, Number 4, Pages , [4] Jun-sheng Chen and Hai-hong Mo, Mechanical behavior of segment rebar of shield tunnel in construction stage, Journal of Zhejiang University - Science A, Volume 9, Number 7, Pages , [5] Cheng Liu. "Study on Percolation Mechanism and Water Curtain Control of Underground Water Seal Oil Cavern". Computational Structural Engineering, Part 10, ,

10 [6] Yingbo Ji, "Analysis and Optimization Schedule for Tunnel Engineering Based on Information Management and Visual Simulation", JCIT, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 175 ~ 182, [7] Zichang Shangguan, Shouju Li, Wei Sun, Maotian Luan, "Model Reference Control for Bulkhead Pressure of EPB Shield in Tunneling", JCIT, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 111 ~ 115, [8] Huaina Wu, Yeshuang Xu, Shui-long Shen and Jin-chun Chai, Long-term settlement behavior of ground around shield tunnel due to leakage of water in soft deposit of Shanghai, Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China,Volume 5, Number 2, Pages , [9] WU Mengjun, ZHANG Yongxing, LIU Xinrong, LI Xintong, "Forecasting Algorithm for Cracked Surrounding Rock Stability in Large Span Multi-arch Tunnel", JDCTA, Vol. 5, No. 12, pp. 104 ~ 110, [10] Yu Zhankui Huang Hongwei LiuYu, Structural Analysis of Shield Tunnel in Soft Soil Under Locally Even Load, Special Structures,vol.23,No4:75-77,

Estimation of Adjacent Building Settlement During Drilling of Urban Tunnels

Estimation of Adjacent Building During Drilling of Urban Tunnels Shahram Pourakbar 1, Mohammad Azadi 2, Bujang B. K. Huat 1, Afshin Asadi 1 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University Putra Malaysia

Open Access Numerical Analysis on Mutual Influences in Urban Subway Double-Hole Parallel Tunneling

Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal, 2014, 8, 455-462 455 Open Access Numerical Analysis on Mutual Influences in Urban Subway Double-Hole

METHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 45-66, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

Numerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction of a Curved Continuous Box Girder Bridge with Variable Width

Modern Applied Science; Vol. 9, No. 6; 2015 ISSN 1913-1844 E-ISSN 1913-1852 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Numerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction

Experimental Research of Centrifuge Model of Soil Pressure on Positive-buried Box Culvert on Soft Foundation

31 7 2014 7 Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development Vol. 31 No. 7 Jul. 2014 doi 10. 3969 /j. issn. 1002-0268. 2014. 07. 009 410004 U416. 1 + 3 A 1002-0268 2014 07-0053 - 07 Experimental

Modeling Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Plate Elements in Finite Element Method

Modeling Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Plate Elements in Finite Element Method Yun-gang Zhan School of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang,

Mechanical Analysis of Crossbeam in a Gantry Machine Tool and its Deformation Compensation

Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, 2015, 9, 213-218 213 Open Access Mechanical Analysis of Crossbeam in a Gantry Machine Tool and its Deformation

Effects of Groundwater Exploitation on Embankment for High-speed Railway Lines

Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 2015, 9, 417-422 417 Open Access Effects of Groundwater Exploitation on Embankment for High-speed Railway Lines

Numerical analysis to determine the impact of land subsidence on high-speed railway routes in Beijing, China

Proc. IAHS, 372, 493 497, 215 proc-iahs.net/372/493/215/ doi:1.5194/piahs-372-493-215 Author(s) 215. CC Attribution 3. License. Numerical analysis to determine the impact of land subsidence on high-speed

COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 30 52, Article ID: IJARET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?jtype=ijaret&vtype=7&itype=2

Ultrasonic Detection Algorithm Research on the Damage Depth of Concrete after Fire Jiangtao Yu 1,a, Yuan Liu 1,b, Zhoudao Lu 1,c, Peng Zhao 2,d

Advanced Materials Research Vols. 368-373 (2012) pp 2229-2234 Online available since 2011/Oct/24 at www.scientific.net (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.368-373.2229

A study on the causes of troubles in shield tunneling site with numerical analysis

A study on the causes of troubles in shield tunneling site with numerical analysis 1 B.K. Rho, 2 S.Y. Choo, 2 M.K. Song Korea Rail Network Authority, Daejeon, Korea 1 ; Danwoo E&C Co., Ltd., Sungnam, Korea

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Doug Jenkins 1, Chris Lawson 2 1 Interactive Design Services, 2 Reinforced

Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods

Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods Steve Macklin Principal Engineering Geologist GHD Melbourne 1. Introduction, scope of Part 1 2. Terminology

Neural network for constitutive modelling in finite element analysis

Neural network for constitutive modelling in finite element analysis A. A. Javadi, T. P. Tan Department of Engineering, School of Engineering and Computer Science University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, EX4

SEISMIC MODEL TEST AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TOWER HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

SEISMIC MODEL TEST AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TOWER HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS Wensheng LU 1 And Xilin LU 2 SUMMARY This paper summarizes tests of several scaled multi-tower high-rise building models on the shaking

Laterally Loaded Piles 1 Soil Response Modelled by p-y Curves In order to properly analyze a laterally loaded pile foundation in soil/rock, a nonlinear relationship needs to be applied that provides soil

Aluminium systems profile selection

Aluminium systems profile selection The purpose of this document is to summarise the way that aluminium profile selection should be made, based on the strength requirements for each application. Curtain

Full Professor, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Tongji University

TC304: Engineering Practice of risk assesment and management Prof. Hongwei Huang, Department of Geotechniacl Engineering Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092,P.R. China Tel:86-21-65982986(O)

Influence Analysis on Prestressed Reinforcement Tensioning Modes of Cast-in-place Box Beam

0 1 Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development Vol. 0 No. Mar. 1 doi 10. 969 /j. issn. 1002-0268. 1. 0. 014 1 2 1 1 1 1. 710064 2. 450011 1 m MIDAS /CIVIL 5 1 2 1 2 46. 71 m 1 1. 71

Universal Format of Shape Function for Numerical Analysis using Multiple Element Forms

, pp.63-67 http://dx.doi.org/0.4257/astl.206. Universal Format of Shape Function for Numerical Analysis using Multiple Element Forms Yuting Zhang, Yujie Li, Xiuli Ding Yangtze River Scientific Research

DESIGN AND NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A PARABOLIC LEAF SPRING

47 DESIGN AND NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A PARABOLIC LEAF SPRING Muhammad Ashiqur Rahman*, Muhammad Tareq Siddiqui and Muhammad Arefin Kowser Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of

Use of arched cables for fixation of empty underground tanks against underground-waterinduced

Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 36 () (008) 79-86 Use of arched cables for fixation of empty underground tanks against underground-waterinduced floatation Ala a M. Darwish Department of Building &

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

Program COLANY Stone Columns Settlement Analysis. User Manual

User Manual 1 CONTENTS SYNOPSIS 3 1. INTRODUCTION 4 2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 4 2.1 Material Properties 2.2 Dimensions 2.3 Units 6 7 7 3. EXAMPLE PROBLEM 8 3.1 Description 3.2 Hand Calculation 8 8 4. COLANY

Numerical Model Research of Super Deep Shaft Sidewall Destruction

6 5 Vol. 6 2010 10 Chinese Journal of Underground Space and Engineering Oct. 2010 * 1 2 1 3 4 1. 200092 2 100037 3 250031 4. 361009 ANSYS TU93 A 1673-0836 2010 05-0926 - 06 Numerical Model Research of

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design Part 1: 3D model based analysis using general beam-column FEM Ferenc Papp* and József Szalai ** * Associate Professor, Department of Structural

Reinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS

CHAPTER Reinforced Concrete Design Fifth Edition SHEAR IN BEAMS A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part I Concrete Design and Analysis 4a FALL 2002 By Dr.

The Basics of FEA Procedure

CHAPTER 2 The Basics of FEA Procedure 2.1 Introduction This chapter discusses the spring element, especially for the purpose of introducing various concepts involved in use of the FEA technique. A spring

Appendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file

Appendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file Notation B1 = lowest level of basement slab c = cohesion E = drained Young s Modulus Eu = undrained Young s Modulus

2011 International Conference on Intelligent Building and Management Proc.of CSIT vol.5 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Dead Load Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge Tao Zhang 1,2 +, ZhiMin Wu 1 1 Department

New building plans on the surface above the existing underground Willemspoortunnel in Rotterdam

New building plans on the surface above the existing underground Willemspoortunnel in Rotterdam Ragavan Appiah, Aronsohn raadgevende ingenieurs bv, Rotterdam, The Netherlands The development of new projects

Finite Element Simulation of Simple Bending Problem and Code Development in C++

EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH, VOL. I, ISSUE 6/ SEPEMBER 013 ISSN 86-48, www.euacademic.org IMPACT FACTOR: 0.485 (GIF) Finite Element Simulation of Simple Bending Problem and Code Development in C++ ABDUL

1. a) Discuss how finite element is evolved in engineering field. (8) b) Explain the finite element idealization of structures with examples.

M.TECH. DEGREE EXAMINATION Branch: Civil Engineering Specialization Geomechanics and structures Model Question Paper - I MCEGS 106-2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Time: 3 hours Maximum: 100 Marks Answer ALL

Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams

111 Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams ABSTRACT P. Fanning Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email:

Thin-walled parts CNC Milling Process Analysis and Parameter Optimization

International Conference on Mechatronics, Electronic, Industrial and Control Engineering (MEIC 2015) Thin-walled parts CNC Milling Process Analysis and Parameter Optimization Zhu xiurong College of Mechanical

Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures

Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures Every successful structure must be capable of reaching stable equilibrium under its applied loads, regardless of structural behavior. Exact analysis

Settlement of Shallow Foundations Placed on Limestone Rock Formations with Open or Closed Cavities

Settlement of Shallow Foundations Placed on Limestone Rock Formations with Open or Closed Cavities Ahmed T. M. Farid Geotechnical Institute Housing and Building National Research Center (HBRC) Cairo, Egypt

Miss S. S. Nibhorkar 1 1 M. E (Structure) Scholar,

Volume, Special Issue, ICSTSD Behaviour of Steel Bracing as a Global Retrofitting Technique Miss S. S. Nibhorkar M. E (Structure) Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering

FOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 14-1 Load Path and Transfer to

Testing Anchors in Cracked Concrete

Testing Anchors in Cracked Concrete Guidance for testing laboratories: how to generate cracks BY ROLF ELIGEHAUSEN, LEE MATTIS, RICHARD WOLLMERSHAUSER, AND MATTHEW S. HOEHLER ACI Committee 355, Anchorage

EFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES

EFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES Yang-Cheng Wang Associate Professor & Chairman Department of Civil Engineering Chinese Military Academy Feng-Shan 83000,Taiwan Republic

Type of Force 1 Axial (tension / compression) Shear. 3 Bending 4 Torsion 5 Images 6 Symbol (+ -)

Cause: external force P Force vs. Stress Effect: internal stress f 05 Force vs. Stress Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-05 press Esc to end, for next, for previous slide 1 Type of Force 1 Axial (tension /

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP

13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver

ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P

ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P This material is duplicated in the Mechanical Principles module H2 and those

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits John Coonrod Rogers Corporation Introduction: In the printed circuit board industry there are generally two main types of circuit boards; there are rigid printed

8.2 Elastic Strain Energy

Section 8. 8. Elastic Strain Energy The strain energy stored in an elastic material upon deformation is calculated below for a number of different geometries and loading conditions. These expressions for

Seismic Design of Shallow Foundations

Shallow Foundations Page 1 Seismic Design of Shallow Foundations Reading Assignment Lecture Notes Other Materials Ch. 9 FHWA manual Foundations_vibrations.pdf Homework Assignment 10 1. The factored forces

Finite Element Formulation for Beams - Handout 2 -

Finite Element Formulation for Beams - Handout 2 - Dr Fehmi Cirak (fc286@) Completed Version Review of Euler-Bernoulli Beam Physical beam model midline Beam domain in three-dimensions Midline, also called

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORTED WATER TANK WITH DIFFERENT ASPECT RATIOS

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORTED WATER TANK WITH DIFFERENT ASPECT RATIOS Kalyani Vanjari 1, Dr.Prof.R.S.Talikoti 2 1 PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Late G.N.Sapkal College of Engineering,

MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING

HAPTER Reinforced oncrete Design Fifth Edition MATERIALS AND MEHANIS OF BENDING A. J. lark School of Engineering Department of ivil and Environmental Engineering Part I oncrete Design and Analysis b FALL

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the research Beam is a main element in structural system. It is horizontal member that carries load through bending (flexure) action. Therefore, beam will deflect

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques W.J. Gold 1 and A. Nanni 2 1 Assistant Research Engineer, Univ. of Missouri Rolla, Dept. of Civil Engineering 2 V&M Jones Professor, Univ. of Missouri

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTOIAL 1 STESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING This is the first tutorial on bending of beams designed for anyone wishing to study it at a fairly advanced level. You should judge

IS THAT LINER THICK ENOUGH?

IS THAT LINER THICK ENOUGH? Philip McFarlane, Opus International Consultants Ltd ABSTRACT The amount of pipeline rehabilitation being undertaken in New Zealand is increasing each year. Larger diameter

Seismic Analysis and Design of Steel Liquid Storage Tanks

Vol. 1, 005 CSA Academic Perspective 0 Seismic Analysis and Design of Steel Liquid Storage Tanks Lisa Yunxia Wang California State Polytechnic University Pomona ABSTRACT Practicing engineers face many

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS This is the second tutorial on bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.

Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck

7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 10-13, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres

ESTIMATION OF UNDRAINED SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON LONDON CLAY

International Conference on Structural and Foundation Failures August 2-4, 2004, Singapore ESTIMATION OF UNDRAINED SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON LONDON CLAY A. S. Osman, H.C. Yeow and M.D. Bolton

Investigation of strip footings under column loads

Investigation of strip footings under column loads Group: Greg Deacon, John Brogan, David McDonnell and Richard Delaney Course: Structural Engineering (Dt024/4) Lecturers: Dr. Colin Caprani, Lacour Ayompe

The Laboratory Test for Estimate Freezing Effect of Backfill Material on a Buried Pipe

, pp.18-22 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2015.99.05 The Laboratory Test for Estimate Freezing Effect of Backfill Material on a Buried Pipe Jaemo Kang 1,1, Du-Hee Park 2,2, Jangguen Lee 1,3,Pill-Jae Kwak

Application Research of Ground Pressure Coupling Monitoring Network for Deep Mining in Sanshandao Gold Mine

Application Research of Ground Pressure Coupling Monitoring Network for Deep Mining in Sanshandao Gold Mine, Dong JI,, Chao PENG,, Liang ZHAO,, Jiaxuan HUANG,, *Corresponding Author Fenhua REN School of

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402-92) and Specifications

Module 7 (Lecture 24 to 28) RETAINING WALLS

Module 7 (Lecture 24 to 28) RETAINING WALLS Topics 24.1 INTRODUCTION 24.2 GRAVITY AND CANTILEVER WALLS 24.3 PROPORTIONING RETAINING WALLS 24.4 APPLICATION OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES TO DESIGN 24.5

8.2 Continuous Beams (Part I)

8.2 Continuous Beams (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Analysis Incorporation of Moment due to Reactions Pressure Line due to Prestressing Force Introduction Beams are made continuous

Computational Analysis of Stress-strain State, Dynamics, Strength and Stability of Load-bearing Concrete Structures of NPP Evaporative Cooling Towers

Prof. Alexandr Belostotskiy, Assoc. Prof. Sergey Dubinsky, PhD student Sergey Petryashev, PhD student Nicolay Petryashev Computational Analysis of Stress-strain State, Dynamics, Strength and Stability

Lymon C. Reese & Associates LCR&A Consulting Services Tests of Piles Under Axial Load

Lymon C. Reese & Associates LCR&A Consulting Services Tests of Piles Under Axial Load Nature of Services The company has a long history of performance of tests of piles and pile groups under a variety

Numerical Simulation of CPT Tip Resistance in Layered Soil

Numerical Simulation of CPT Tip Resistance in Layered Soil M.M. Ahmadi, Assistant Professor, mmahmadi@sharif.edu Dept. of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran Abstract The paper

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

37 Module 6: Lecture -2: Buried Structures Content in this module: Load on Pipes, Marston s load theory for rigid and flexible pipes, Trench and Projection conditions, minimum cover, Pipe floatation and

Optimal Structure Design of Multi-functional Folding Drawing Board based on TRIZ Theory

, pp.397-408 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijhit.2015.8.2.37 Optimal Structure Design of Multi-functional Folding Drawing Board based on TRIZ Theory Jiang Jin-gang 1, 2*, Xu Xiao-lei 2, Wang Zhao 1, 2, Liu

Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during injection molding of microstructure medical components

Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):112-117 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during

ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SPRING BACK EFFECTS IN A TYPICAL COLD ROLLED SHEET

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 119-130, Article ID: IJMET_07_01_013 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=1

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 3 THE DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL THE DEECTION OF BEAMS This is the third tutorial on the bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises. On completion

Advanced Natural Gas Storage (ANGAS) Project and Verification Tests of Experimental Lined Rock Cavern in Japan

Advanced Natural Gas Storage (ANGAS) Project and Verification Tests of Experimental Lined Rock Cavern in Japan Toru Komatsubara THE JAPAN GAS ASSOCIATION Taku Watanabe TOKYO GAS CO.,LTD. Satoshi Murase

JOURNAL OF GEOMECHANICS

16 1 2 0 1 0 3 JOURNAL OF GEOMECHANICS Vol. 16 No. 1 Mar. 2 0 1 0 1006-6616 2010 01-0108-07 1 2 1 2 1. 610031 2. 610059 P642 A 0 Ⅰ 1 426 m 238 m 2 2009-12-19 2008G027-E 1972- E-mail 200751947 @ qq. com

Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors

Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors *Xiao-Qing Xu 1) and Yu-Qing Liu 2) 1), 2) Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Design and Structural Assessment

1 Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Design and Structural Assessment Jan Cervenka Červenka Consulting, Prague, Czech Republic Outline: Červenka Consulting - Computer simulation (virtual

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t

Stress and Deformation Analysis Material in this lecture was taken from chapter 3 of Representing Stresses on a Stress Element One main goals of stress analysis is to determine the point within a load-carrying

Behaviour of buildings due to tunnel induced subsidence

Behaviour of buildings due to tunnel induced subsidence A thesis submitted to the University of London for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and for the Diploma of the Imperial College of Science, Technology

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

GUIDANCE NOTE LECTURE 12 THERMAL EXPANSION ANALYSIS OVERVIEW The calculation procedure for determining the longitudinal pipeline response can be formulated on the basis of strain. The longitudinal strain

Tests and Analyses on Shear Strength Increment of Soft Soil under Embankment Fill

Tests and Analyses on Shear Strength Increment of Soft Soil under Embankment Fill Guanbao Ye Professor Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering,Tongji University, Ministry of Education,

Distribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems

Distribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems Part 2. Horizontal Distribution and Torsion IITGN Short Course Gregory MacRae Many slides from 2009 Myanmar Slides of Profs Jain and Rai 1 Reinforced

Monitoring of Vertical Deflection and Moisture Contents in Korean Traditional Timber Houses

Civil Engineering and Architecture 3(5): 107-120, 2015 DOI: 10.13189/cea.2015.030503 http://www.hrpub.org Monitoring of Vertical Deflection and Moisture Contents in Korean Traditional Timber Houses Yeong-Min

Structural Performance of Highway Bridges under Given Foundation Settlements

ASEE 2014 Zone I Conference, April 3-5, 2014, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT, USA. Structural Performance of Highway Bridges under Given Foundation Settlements Zhan Su*; Qian Wang, PhD, PE, Assistant

TUTORIAL FOR RISA EDUCATIONAL

1. INTRODUCTION TUTORIAL FOR RISA EDUCATIONAL C.M. Uang and K.M. Leet The educational version of the software RISA-2D, developed by RISA Technologies for the textbook Fundamentals of Structural Analysis,

Statics of Structural Supports

Statics of Structural Supports TYPES OF FORCES External Forces actions of other bodies on the structure under consideration. Internal Forces forces and couples exerted on a member or portion of the structure

Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls. D-Sheet Piling. Verification Report

Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls DR AF T D-Sheet Piling Verification Report D-SHEET PILING Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls Verification Report Version: 16.1 Revision: 00 16 September

Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables

Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Yogesh Ghodke, G. R. Gandhe Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management

Course in. Nonlinear FEM

Course in Introduction Outline Lecture 1 Introduction Lecture 2 Geometric nonlinearity Lecture 3 Material nonlinearity Lecture 4 Material nonlinearity continued Lecture 5 Geometric nonlinearity revisited

Structural Design Criteria & Design Loads on Delhi Metro Rail and Checking of Safety of Radial Joints in Tunnel Lining Segments

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 7, July 2015 1 Structural Design Criteria & Design Loads on Delhi Metro Rail and Checking of Safety of Radial Joints in Tunnel

ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design

This image cannot currently be displayed. ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations Total and Differential Settlement Schmertmann s Method This image cannot currently be displayed. Strength

Analysis of Mobile Phone Reliability Based on Active Disassembly Using Smart Materials *

Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, 2011, 1, 80-87 doi:10.4236/jsemat.2011.12012 Published Online July 2011 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jsemat) Analysis of Mobile Phone Reliability

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Rakesh Sidharthan 1 Gnanavel B K 2 Assistant professor Mechanical, Department Professor, Mechanical Department, Gojan engineering college,

CHAPTER 4 4 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

41 CHAPTER 4 4 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS Simulation is a powerful tool that engineers use to predict the result of a phenomenon or to simulate the working situation in which a part or machine will perform in

Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

Chin. Phys. B Vol. 21, No. 9 (212) 9892 Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic Ling Xiang( 凌 翔 ) a), Hu Mao-Bin( 胡 茂 彬 ) b), and Ding Jian-Xun( 丁 建 勋 ) a) a) School of Transportation Engineering,

Examples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5

Examples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5 Copyright RUNET Software www.runet-software.com 1 1. Examples 1.1

Simulation for the Collapse of WTC after Aeroplane Impact

Simulation for the Collapse of WTC after Aeroplane Impact LU Xinzheng & JIANG Jianjing Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 Abstract: Mechanical simulation and parameter

A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads

1 A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads By Dr. Siriwut Sasibut (Application Engineer) S-FRAME Software Inc. #1158 13351 Commerce Parkway