Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge design charts for Eurocodes

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge design charts for Eurocodes"

Transcription

1 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 Rachel Jones Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David A Smith Regional Head of Bridge Engineering Highways & Transportation Atkins Abstract The switch to Eurocodes from April 2010 required the development and updating of many existing design tools. For many years Corus, and British Steel before them, have published preliminary design charts for steel-concrete composite highway bridges as part of their suite of design guidance for bridge engineers. These charts were originally developed using BS 5400 and the Highways Agency s Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB). This paper describes the development of a new set of charts based on the structural Eurocodes. The new charts take advantage of benefits in efficiency permitted by the Eurocodes and also extend the scope of the original charts. The process adopted to generate the data for the charts is described and the key differences between the BS 5400 design approach and the Eurocode approach are discussed. Chris Dolling Technical Development Manager The British Constructional Steelwork Association Project background Scope of the design charts The structural Eurocode program started in 1975 with the aim of removing technical barriers to trade in the European Union. The Eurocode parts and UK National Annexes required for bridge design have now all been published. Projects tendered after March 2010 under the EU Public Procurement Directive are required to use the Structural Eurocodes. A consequence of the change is that a large proportion of guidance and software currently available needs to be revised. This provides an opportunity to improve on existing design tools and enable more efficient designs. As part of the transition to the Eurocodes, Corus, the British Constructional Steelwork Association (BCSA) and the Steel Construction Institute (SCI) have revised the guidance they publish for bridge designers. This guidance includes a set of charts that can be used to establish the plate girder sizes for steel-concrete composite bridges 7. These can be used at the preliminary design stage to establish approximate steel quantities and to obtain initial sizing for design iteration. The original charts allow the user to obtain top and bottom flange areas and the web thickness for steel-concrete composite bridges designed to BS 5400 Part 5 1 using highways loading to the DMRB standard BD37/01 8. This paper describes the commission to revise these charts for design to the Eurocodes. The new charts are intended to complement the new versions of the SCI composite highway bridge design guides and it was ensured that the design practice used for the charts aligned with that given in the SCI publications. The updating of the charts provided an opportunity to extend their scope and accuracy and enhance their presentation with an electronic format which allows instant interpolation. The new charts allow for the preliminary design of multi girder bridges with any number of main beams (Figure 1) and ladder deck bridges with two main beams and regularly spaced cross girders (Figure 2). The scope of the new charts was established so that they cover most standard UK highway bridges. Table 1 summarises the scope of the charts. Both simply-supported and continuous spans are included in the charts. For continuous spans a separate girder section is given at the support and at midspan. A difference from the original charts, for multi girder bridges is that separate designs have been established for the outer girder supporting the parapet outstand and for the inner girders. The designer can select from two different highway live loading types. Load Model 1 in BS EN roughly corresponds with the HA only loading from BD37/01 and Load Model 3 is similar to HA and HB loading combined. 75

2 90 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge Figure 1 - Multi girder bridge - typical cross section Figure 2 - Ladder deck bridge - typical cross section The charts give both elastic (noncompact) and plastic (compact) designs for all situations. For each individual bridge either an elastic or plastic design will be more efficient, this choice is left to the designer s discretion. An advantage of including both designs for all situations is that it allows interpolation between discrete values on the charts, which would be prevented by having a discontinuity at the point where either the elastic or plastic design becomes more efficient. Generating the charts - analysis Grillage models The original charts were derived using line beam analysis. To more accurately include the benefits of transverse distribution, the new charts are based on the results of a series of grillage analyses. The data for the charts was generated from a large number of grillage models. Figure 3 shows a typical model. Setting these up manually would have been extremely time consuming and so the process was automated. The grillages were generated using the finite element package LUSAS 9 which allows the use of visual basic scripting. A script was written which extracted the key dimensions and section properties of each grillage from a defining Excel spreadsheet and used these dimensions to create an appropriate grillage. This is worked in a similar manner to LUSAS s built in grillage wizard. The bespoke script then applied the loading, ran the analysis of the model and extracted the analysis results back into a spreadsheet. This process allowed a large number of similar grillages to be set up and analysed in turn with minimal user intervention. There were a number of assumptions about typical designs that needed to be made for all the grillage models. Typical dimensions for the slab concrete and reinforcement, surfacing and parapet edge beam were selected with reference to the SCI design examples. For the ladder deck bridges appropriate sizing for the crossbeam was established for different cross girder and main girder spacing ranges and these typical values were used in the grillage models. The details of these assumptions are provided with the final charts and summarised in Table 2. For the multi girder bridges the charts cover bridges with any number of multi girders. The results for the charts were extracted for one of the outer girders and the adjacent girder (see Figure 4). The grillage models were all set up with six main girders. This provided sufficient deck width for the effects of the parapet edge beam on the remote inner girders to be small. Figure 3 - Typical grillage model Figure 4 - Girders used for generating charts 76

3 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 Table 1 - Scope of charts Multi Girder Ladder deck Main girder spacing 2.5m 4m 5m 20m Span 15m 60m 15m 60m Span to Depth Ratio Cross girder spacing N/A 3m 4m Live loading Live loading was applied in accordance with BS EN and BS EN and the corresponding UK National Annexes. It was assumed that traffic loading would control the design and so this was factored as the leading variable action with other variable actions factored as combination effects in accordance with BS EN Combination factors and partial factors for each action were taken from Annex A2 of BS EN The two live loading cases provided in the charts are Load Model 1 and Load Model 3 (see Figure 5). Load Model 1 includes a uniformly distributed load (UDL) across the whole carriageway and tandem systems (TS) of different magnitudes applied to three lanes. The UK National Annex values calibrate the UDL to correspond approximately to BD37/01 HA loading. Load Model 3 includes, in addition to the UDL and tandem systems, a Special Vehicle (SV) and so is similar to HA with HB loading in BD 37/01. There is a variety of special vehicles detailed in the UK National Annex to EN SV196 (shown in Figure 6) was used for generating the charts as this most closely corresponds to the magnitude of HB loading to BD37/01 used for trunk roads. At the time the charts were produced a suitable commercial automatic load generation tool for Eurocode live loading was not yet available. The most adverse live loading arrangement is most efficiently established using influence surfaces. However, this method would have required a complex automation process to be developed. Instead, the live loading was generated by applying loading at all possible positions and enveloping the results to obtain the worst effects at specific locations. This increased the computational time and file sizes, but was considerably simpler to automate. If the UK National Annex is followed the magnitude of the Eurocode UDL is independent of loaded length and constant for all lanes and so this simplified approach was easier to adopt than it would have been with BD37/01 loading. The Eurocode does give scope for different UDLs in different lanes but this was avoided in the calibration of the UK National Annex. Continuous spans In order to obtain designs for hogging and sagging regions of continuous spans a basic span layout needed to be assumed. The arrangement used was a three span structure with end spans 70% the length of the central span. The section design at the pier support location was based on the load effects over the pier and the sagging spans section design was based on the load effects at midspan of the central span and the splice location between the two section types (see Figure 7). This arrangement gave reliable results for continuous bridges where the span Table 2 - Key assumptions for producing charts Key assumptions used to produce charts Slab/surfacing Steelwork Live loading General Deck slab: 250mm average thickness. Longitudinal deck reinforcement: 150mm centres top and bottom. Deck slab; C40/50 concrete No haunches on deck slab Parapet edge beam; 500mm x 500mm Cantilever; 1600mm wide 120mm thick surfacing Deck slab cast in one stage Steel grade S355 Minimum top flange width 350mm Transverse stiffeners; provided at lesser of 8m centres or 1/3 span length Torsional bracing; provided at transverse stiffeners locations Ladder decks cross girder dimensions based on assumed approximate sizes Footway: 2m wide Special Vehicle SV196 used in Load Model 3 Traffic loading is always the leading effect Single span designs are based on a single girder size throughout its length. Continuous span designs are based on 3 span models with side spans 70% the length of the central span. For continuous bridges splices located 0.2 x main span, either side of pier. The steelwork is unpropped during construction. The steel and deck act compositely for all superimposed loads. For lateral torsional buckling during the casting of the deck slab. It is assumed that the bracing at 8 m centres provides full torsional restraint. 77

4 90 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge lengths are all roughly similar. In the grillages cracked section properties were used for a length of 0.15 x span either side of the internal supports. For the continuous spans the secondary effects of temperature and shrinkage were determined by the application of relaxation moments to the grillage models. Generating the charts section design The visual basic script file generated the grillage models, applied the loading, analysed the model and extracted the moments and shear forces to a spreadsheet. The plate girder sizes were then obtained using a design spreadsheet for each section. The various design checks: ULS shear; ULS moment; ULS shear moment interaction; SLS stresses; lateral torsional buckling. were programmed into the spreadsheets, so that a usage factor was returned for each check. The sections sizes were then obtained using a bespoke macro. The plate girder dimensions were gradually incremented from a minimum size, checking the usage factors at each stage until an optimised section was arrived at. The top flange was kept to a minimum practical width of 350 mm to allow sufficient space for the shear connectors to the concrete slab. Section classification BS 5400 divided plate girder sections into compact and non-compact classes. Compact sections can accommodate plastic compressive strains without local buckling whereas non-compact maximum moments of resistance are limited by first yield. The original plate girder design charts to BS 5400 were based on noncompact section designs. The new charts provide both compact and non-compact designs, although the terminology and treatment of section type in the Eurocodes is different. Sections are divided into four classes. Class 1 and 2 sections can reach their full plastic resistances and are equivalent to compact sections. Class 3 and 4 sections buckle before they Figure 5 - Arrangement of traffic live loading Figure 6 - Details of Special Vehicle 196 Figure 7 - Continuous span arrangement 78

5 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 reach their plastic resistances and their section design is limited to the material yield strength. The difference between Class 3 and 4 sections is that Class 3 sections reach their full elastic resistances, whilst Class 4 sections are so slender they buckle before their elastic resistances are reached. BS 5400 dealt with Class 4 sections by using a reduced plate thickness to obtain a reduced resistance. The Eurocodes use a reduced width or depth (introducing hypothetical holes into the cross section) to obtain the reduced strength. To obtain plastic designs for the charts the web was kept in Class 1 or 2 by maintaining a minimum web thickness. The flanges were kept within the Class 2 limits by keeping a constant outstand ratio. For the elastic designs the flanges were kept within the Class 3 limits for simplicity. Figure 8 - Typical chart for plate girder sizing Figure 9 - Typical chart for total steel girder area 79

6 90 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge Class 4 webs were included where they give a smaller total steel area. Although the data for the charts were produced with an assumed flange width and thickness, the final charts only present a flange area and it is left to the designer to ensure the plate dimensions they choose for the flanges are within the section class limits. Shear lag The effective widths of the concrete flanges were reduced for shear lag to determine section properties for the grillage models and to calculate the section resistances. BS EN gives an effective width that varies linearly along the length of a bridge span. To simplify the modelling this linear variation was ignored and uniform effective widths were used for pier girder sections and span girder sections. In individual bridge designs shell elements can be used to model the deck slab eliminating the need to make reductions in section properties. This method requires more post processing to extract the moments and shears at a section and as the process was automated the simpler shear lag reduction approach was used. ULS shear check For stocky webs the shear resistance is independent of the web panel length. For more slender webs, where shear buckling can occur the shear resistance is dependent on the spacing of transverse stiffeners. To produce the girder designs an assumption on the spacing of transverse stiffeners was required. Based on typical standard practice in the UK, it was assumed that they would either be provided at one third points of the span, or at 8m intervals, whichever was smaller. The Eurocodes allow an increase in shear resistance based on the resistance of the flanges as well as the web. This was taken into account when determining the girder size, although it is generally a small benefit. ULS moment check The ULS moment resistance was calculated based on plastic section properties for the Class 1 and 2 sections and elastic section properties with any reduction required for local buckling for Class 3 and 4 sections. Figure 10 - Inputs for preliminary design spreadsheet Figure 11 - Elastic design outputs for preliminary design spreadsheet 80

7 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 ULS shear-moment interaction The approach for considering shearmoment interaction in the Eurocodes is different and less conservative than the equivalent method prescribed in BS For elastic section design the Eurocodes allow shear-moment interaction resistance checks to be based on the plastic moment resistance of the section, whilst in BS 5400 the interaction is based on the elastic resistance. This less conservative approach has been shown to be adequate in other studies 10. In this area the Eurocodes give a more efficient elastic girder design which helps to give more economic girder sizes in the charts. SLS stress checks The section sizes determined based on ULS checks were checked for SLS stress limits in the plate girder and slab. The primary stresses due to temperature, creep and shrinkage were added to stresses from the global effects determined from the grillage models. Lateral torsional buckling The Eurocode rules governing lateral torsional buckling (LTB) are based on first principles and are less prescriptive than the rules set out in BS The Eurocode approach encourages designers to use finite element models to determine elastic critical buckling resistance rather than empirical rules. The girder sizing established for the charts needed to be checked for LTB as this can often control plate sizes if excessive bracing is to be avoided. Due to the large number of cases investigated the most rigorous approach of using shell Finite Element (FE) models was not practical. Additionally, such an approach would also require extra parameters related to bracing spacing and stiffness to be assumed and the improved accuracy would be of limited general benefit. Instead, the empirical rules of BS 5400 were used to check the sections. This approach is described in the Published Document PD which accompanies BS EN It was assumed the bracing would be co-located with the transverse stiffeners and be fully rigid. This method provided a feasible, but not overly conservative, design. It has been shown 11 that the BS 5400 rules give more conservative results than can be obtained from using an FE model and EN In the detailed design stage the bracing spacing could be increased or less rigid bracing provided and the plate sizes given by the charts could still be valid. Iteration The section properties entered into the grillage models clearly have an influence on the design action effects extracted from them. The design process is thus iterative and the development of the preliminary design charts needed to account for this to obtain sufficient accuracy. As a starting point, a first set of grillages was created using section properties based on the original charts to BS The section designs obtained with the load effects from the first set of grillages were then used to create a second set of grillages and the sections re-designed using the updated forces from the subsequent models. No further iteration was deemed necessary within the accuracy of the preliminary design charts, although further economy may be possible for individual cases. Checking A number of checks were carried out to verify the sizing obtained for the charts. For a number of specific bridge layouts an independent team carried out a check of the dimensions obtained. This involved setting up separate models and carrying out independent section resistance checks. At a higher level the curves produced were checked against the existing curves to ensure the results were similar. Presentation of the charts The original BS 5400 charts consisted of a set of basic charts, from which the results needed to be multiplied by factors, obtained from another chart, to allow for girder spacing. As the new charts take into account transverse distribution more accurately, a similar girder spacing factor would be dependent on both girder spacing and the span. Without losing accuracy, or increasing the complexity of use, it was not possible to recreate this approach for the new charts. The charts are thus presented as a larger number of separate charts for each girder spacing. It is intended that interpolation between charts be undertaken for the design of non-standard girder spacings. Charts giving the required flange areas and web dimensions (Figure 8) are provided alongside charts giving the total section area (Figure 9) for each case considered. The total area charts can be used first to establish total steel quantities and whether the elastic or plastic design is more efficient. Following this, the other charts provide more detail on the girder sizing. In addition to the standard charts a software design tool was developed. Created as a simple spreadsheet, the designer inputs the arrangement of their bridge in the input cells as shown in Figure 10. The elastic and plastic designs are then provided in the format shown in Figure 11. The spreadsheet generates the design by automatically interpolating between the data that are presented in the charts. Using the charts Total steel areas For a given girder spacing, girder type, load model, span to depth ratio and span the total girder areas for an elastic and plastic design can be determined. Based on these the designer then chooses whether to use an elastic or plastic section. It should be noted that EN clause (2) limits the plastic bending resistance in a span girder to 0.9M pl,rd when elastic and plastic sections are mixed if the ratio of lengths of the spans adjacent to that support is less than 0.6. If this applies the size of the span girder would need to be increased slightly, as this has not been accounted for in the charts. If span to depth ratios or girder spacings are required which do not match the discrete values in the charts the elastic design or plastic design areas can be obtained by interpolating between charts. (The spreadsheet does this automatically.) The span to depth ratio given in the charts and spreadsheet tool is based on the total depth of the girder and slab, see Figure 12. For some of the shorter span arrangements the higher span to depth ratio of 30 did not give a viable design as the area 81

8 90 Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge Figure 12 - Depth used for span to depth ratio of steel required was very high. In these cases the charts have been curtailed and the uneconomically high steel areas are not shown. Plate girder sizes The individual flange areas and web thickness can be obtained from the plate size charts. The web depth is not given directly as it is a function of the span to depth ratio and span. When selecting the flange width and depth based on areas from the charts, the limits on flange outstands for elastic and plastic section given in Table 5.2 of EN should be taken into account. (The spreadsheet indicates compliance with this automatically.) Continuous spans Pier girder and internal span girder charts are provided for continuous spans. For end span girders (see Figure 7), suitable plate sizes can be obtained by looking up values for a span 25% greater than the actual end span and using the continuous span girder charts. Skew, Curved and Integral Bridges The charts are based on the grillage models of bridge decks with no skew or curvature and integral bridge effects have not been considered. The literature distributed with the charts gives some discussion on how these differences can be allowed for. It is important to note that little conservatism other than that required by the codes has been built into the charts, beyond general smoothing of the design curves. It has been left up to the chart user to add this at their discretion for cases outside the standard assumptions. In the case of bridge with a minor skew or curvature the charts could be used for initial sizing. Where these factors are more significant the charts still provide an order of magnitude or sanity check on any sizing determined by the designer. Conclusions The structural Eurocodes for steelconcrete composite bridge design differ from BS 5400 in a number of ways. In general these differences are based on advances in engineering understanding and adopting European best practice to allow more efficient designs to be prepared. In order to take benefit from these advances, and to assist in the change to Eurocodes, a new set of preliminary steel-concrete composite bridge design charts has been developed. By automating the processes required it was possible to carry out more refined analyses to obtain more realistic values for the charts. The results have been presented in a traditional chart format and have also been used to develop a spreadsheet design tool that gives preliminary sizing directly. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge funding for this project provided by Corus and the British Steel Construction Association. References 1. BSI (British Standards Institution) (1978) BS 5400 : Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges, Part 5 Code of Practice for Design of Composite Bridges. BSI, London. 2. BSI (British Standards Institution) (2002) BS EN 1990: Eurocode - Basis of structural design. BSI, London. 3. BSI (British Standards Institution) (2003) BS EN : Eurocode 1- Actions on Structures. Traffic loads on bridges. BSI, London. 4. BSI (British Standards Institution) (2005) BS EN : Eurocode 3- Design of steel structures. General rules and rules for buildings. BSI, London. 5. BSI (British Standards Institution) (2005) BS EN : Eurocode 4- Design of composite steel and concrete structures. General rules and rules for bridges. BSI, London. 6. BSI (British Standards Institution) (2008) PD Recommendations for the design of bridges to BS EN BSI, London 7. Corus Construction and Industrial (2005) Composite Steel Highway Bridges 8. Highways Agency, (2001) BD37/01 Loads for Highway Bridges, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Highways Agency, London 9. LUSAS Finite Element Analysis Software (2007) Finite Element Analysis Ltd, Kingston-upon-Thames. LUSAS Bridge Version Presta, F et al.: The Numerical validation of simplified theories for design rules of transversely stiffened plate girders, The Structural Engineer, Nov Hendy CR and Jones RP (2009) Lateral buckling of plate girders with flexible restraints. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Bridge Engineering 162(1):

Design of cross-girders and slabs in ladder deck bridges

Design of cross-girders and slabs in ladder deck bridges 130 Chris R Hendy Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Jessica Sandberg Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David Iles Steel Construction Institute Design

More information

Simplified Design to BS 5400

Simplified Design to BS 5400 Simplified Design to BS 5400 Bridge Design to the Eurocodes Simplified rules for use in student projects (Document RT1156) Version Date of Issue Purpose Author Technical Reviewer Approved 1 Distribution

More information

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

More information

Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment interaction for steel plate girder bridges

Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment interaction for steel plate girder bridges Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment 017 Chris R Hendy MA (Cantab) CEng FICE Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Epsom, UK Francesco Presta CEng, MIStructE Senior

More information

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab, DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared

More information

7.4 Loads and Load combinations

7.4 Loads and Load combinations 7.4 Loads and Load combinations 7.4.1 Loads on bridges The following are the various loads to be considered for the purpose of computing stresses, wherever they are applicable. Dead load Live load Impact

More information

Designing to Eurocode 2. Introduction. Design procedure. Fire resistance. How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 3.

Designing to Eurocode 2. Introduction. Design procedure. Fire resistance. How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 3. How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 3. Slabs R M Moss BSc, PhD, CEng, MICE, MIStructE O Brooker BEng, CEng, MICE, MIStructE Introduction The introduction of European standards to UK construction

More information

FEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-1

FEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-1 FEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-1 4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION The analysis of bridges and structures is a mixture of science and engineering judgment. In most cases, use simple models with

More information

Design rules for bridges in Eurocode 3

Design rules for bridges in Eurocode 3 Design rules for bridges in Eurocode 3 Gerhard Sedlacek Christian üller Survey of the Eurocodes EN 1991 EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of Design EN 1992 to EN 1996 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Eurocode 2:

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges 7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience

More information

Composite Floor Decks

Composite Floor Decks Precision Metal Forming Composite Floor Decks Steel Floor Decking Systems PMF Floor Decking The most comprehensive range of steel floor decking systems available anywhere in the world. Shallow Composite

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS

INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS Third Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis

More information

DESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

DESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements

More information

APPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 12-79 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS

APPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 12-79 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS APPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 12-79 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS This appendix summarizes the criteria applied for the design of new hypothetical bridges considered in NCHRP 12-79 s Task 7 parametric

More information

Optimising plate girder design

Optimising plate girder design Optimising plate girder design NSCC29 R. Abspoel 1 1 Division of structural engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: In the design of steel plate girders a high degree

More information

Fire resistance assessment of steel structures

Fire resistance assessment of steel structures Workshop Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 1 Fire resistance assessment of steel structures Basic design methods Worked examples ZHAO Bin CEN/TC250

More information

Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures

Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures Dr Stephen Hicks, Manager Structural Systems, Heavy Engineering Research Association, New Zealand Introduction BS EN 1994 (Eurocode 4) is the

More information

SHEAR IN SKEWED MULTI-BEAM BRIDGES

SHEAR IN SKEWED MULTI-BEAM BRIDGES 20-7/Task 107 COPY NO. SHEAR IN SKEWED MULTI-BEAM BRIDGES FINAL REPORT Prepared for National Cooperative Highway Research Program Transportation Research Board National Research Council Modjeski and Masters,

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar Problem 1 Design a hand operated overhead crane, which is provided in a shed, whose details are: Capacity of crane = 50 kn Longitudinal spacing of column = 6m Center to center distance of gantry girder

More information

EFFECT OF SKEW ANGLE ON STATIC BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGE DECKS

EFFECT OF SKEW ANGLE ON STATIC BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGE DECKS 239-63 pissn: 232-738 EFFECT OF SKEW ANGLE ON STATIC BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGE DECKS Sindhu B.V, Ashwin K.N 2, Dattatreya J.K. 3, S.V Dinesh 4 Post Graduate Student, 2 Assistant Professor,

More information

Numerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction of a Curved Continuous Box Girder Bridge with Variable Width

Numerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction of a Curved Continuous Box Girder Bridge with Variable Width Modern Applied Science; Vol. 9, No. 6; 2015 ISSN 1913-1844 E-ISSN 1913-1852 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Numerical Analysis of the Moving Formwork Bracket Stress during Construction

More information

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Tapani Halmea, Lauri Huusko b,a, Gary Marquis a, Timo Björk a a Lappeenranta University of Technology, Faculty of Technology Engineering, Lappeenranta,

More information

STEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE. Multi-Storey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams

STEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE. Multi-Storey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams STEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE Multi-Storey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of Multi-Storey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design

More information

End Restraint and Effective Lengths of Columns

End Restraint and Effective Lengths of Columns CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method Third Edition INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II

More information

16. Beam-and-Slab Design

16. Beam-and-Slab Design ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. Beam-and-Slab Design Beam-and-Slab System How does the slab work? L- beams and T- beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil

More information

Particular Design Features for a Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge over the Harbour of Port Louis, Mauritius

Particular Design Features for a Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge over the Harbour of Port Louis, Mauritius Particular Design Features for a Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge over the Harbour of Port Louis, Mauritius Dr. J. Jungwirth SSF Ingenieure AG, Munich, Germany Mr. J. Casper SSF Ingenieure AG, Munich, Germany

More information

Simple design method

Simple design method method Aim of the design method 2 3 Content of presentation in a fire situation method of reinforced concrete slabs at 20 C Floor slab model Failure modes method of at Extension to fire behaviour Membrane

More information

Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 Lesson 5

Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 Lesson 5 Lesson 5: Deflection in reinforced concrete beams Content 4.1 Introduction 4. Definitions 4..1 Tension 4.. Compression 4.3 Initial sizing 4.3.1 Worked example 4.4 Reinforcement details 4.5 Anchorage at

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General

More information

Eurocode 3 for Dummies The Opportunities and Traps

Eurocode 3 for Dummies The Opportunities and Traps Eurocode 3 for Dummies The Opportunities and Traps a brief guide on element design to EC3 Tim McCarthy Email tim.mccarthy@umist.ac.uk Slides available on the web http://www2.umist.ac.uk/construction/staff/

More information

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures David Brown, Associate Director, Steel Construction Institute Introduction Structural engineers should be encouraged that at least in steel, design conforming to

More information

SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:

SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems

More information

A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.

A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated. Design Step 4 Design Step 4.1 DECK SLAB DESIGN In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the AASHTO-LRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular

More information

A Beginner s Guide to Simple Plate Girder Design to EC3 Part 1-5

A Beginner s Guide to Simple Plate Girder Design to EC3 Part 1-5 Continental Steel Public Seminar on Impact of Structural Eurocodes on Steel and Concrete Structures A Beginner s Guide to Simple Plate Girder Design to EC3 Part 1-5 Associate Professor Lee Chi King School

More information

Spon Press PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN EUROCODES. University of Glasgow. Department of Civil Engineering. Prabhakara Bhatt LONDON AND NEW YORK

Spon Press PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN EUROCODES. University of Glasgow. Department of Civil Engineering. Prabhakara Bhatt LONDON AND NEW YORK PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN TO EUROCODES Prabhakara Bhatt Department of Civil Engineering University of Glasgow Spon Press an imprint of Taytor & Francfe LONDON AND NEW YORK CONTENTS Preface xix Basic

More information

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL S5-06/07 1604.11 (New), 1605 (New) Proposed Change as Submitted: Proponent: William M. Connolly, State of New Jersey, Department of Community Affairs, Division of

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar 6.3 Behaviour of steel beams Laterally stable steel beams can fail only by (a) Flexure (b) Shear or (c) Bearing, assuming the local buckling of slender components does not occur. These three conditions

More information

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow. 9.2 One-way Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase

More information

Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck

Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck 7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 10-13, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres

More information

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver

More information

SIMPLE DESIGN LOAD AND SPAN CHARTS FOR CORCON

SIMPLE DESIGN LOAD AND SPAN CHARTS FOR CORCON CORCON Design, Construction and Technical Information Manual SIMPLE DESIGN CHART & SAMPLE CALCULATIONS INDEX DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS SIMPLE DESIGN LOAD AND SPAN CHARTS FOR CORCON SAMPLE CALCULATION BEAM

More information

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Owen Brooker, The Concrete Centre Introduction The transition to using the Eurocodes is a daunting prospect for engineers, but this needn t be the case. Industry

More information

A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible

A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible Chapter. Design of Beams Flexure and Shear.1 Section force-deformation response & Plastic Moment (M p ) A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible axial

More information

A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads

A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads 1 A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads By Dr. Siriwut Sasibut (Application Engineer) S-FRAME Software Inc. #1158 13351 Commerce Parkway

More information

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities

Bridging Your Innovations to Realities Graphic User Interface Graphic User Interface Modeling Features Bridge Applications Segmental Bridges Cable Bridges Analysis Features Result Evaluation Design Features 02 07 13 17 28 34 43 48 2 User Interface

More information

Module 3. Limit State of Collapse - Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 3. Limit State of Collapse - Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur Module 3 Limit State of Collapse - Flexure (Theories and Examples) Lesson 4 Computation of Parameters of Governing Equations Instructional Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the student should be able

More information

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques W.J. Gold 1 and A. Nanni 2 1 Assistant Research Engineer, Univ. of Missouri Rolla, Dept. of Civil Engineering 2 V&M Jones Professor, Univ. of Missouri

More information

Interaction between plate and column buckling

Interaction between plate and column buckling Delft, University of Technology Engineering office of Public works Rotterdam Interaction between plate and column buckling Master Thesis Name: Alex van Ham Student number: 1306138 Email: vanham.alex@gmail.com

More information

ispan, A Light Steel Floor System

ispan, A Light Steel Floor System ispan, A Light Steel Floor System D.M. Fox 1, R.M. Schuster 2, and M.R. Strickland 3 Abstract Described in this paper is a cold-formed steel floor system called ispan. The system is comprised of multi-functional

More information

5 Steel elements. 5.1 Structural design At present there are two British Standards devoted to the design of strucof tural steel elements:

5 Steel elements. 5.1 Structural design At present there are two British Standards devoted to the design of strucof tural steel elements: 5 Steel elements 5.1 Structural design At present there are two British Standards devoted to the design of strucof steelwork tural steel elements: BS 449 The use of structural steel in building. BS 5950

More information

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains

Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Doug Jenkins 1, Chris Lawson 2 1 Interactive Design Services, 2 Reinforced

More information

Since the Steel Joist Institute

Since the Steel Joist Institute SELECTING and SPECIFYING Wesley B. Myers, P.E. An insider s guide to selecting and specifying K-series, LH, DLH-series joists and joist girders Since the Steel Joist Institute adopted the first standard

More information

9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I)

9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I) 9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to Strips 9.3.1 Introduction The slabs are

More information

8.2 Continuous Beams (Part I)

8.2 Continuous Beams (Part I) 8.2 Continuous Beams (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Analysis Incorporation of Moment due to Reactions Pressure Line due to Prestressing Force Introduction Beams are made continuous

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Volume 5, No 2, 2014

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Volume 5, No 2, 2014 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Volume 5, No 2, 2014 Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0 Research article ISSN 0976 4399 Strengthening

More information

Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method

Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method BridgeSight Solutions for the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications BridgeSight Software TM Creators of effective and reliable solutions for

More information

Steel and composite bridges in Germany State of the Art

Steel and composite bridges in Germany State of the Art Steel and composite bridges in Germany State of the Art Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. G. Hanswille Institute for Steel and Composite Structures University of Wuppertal Germany Univ.-Prof. em. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c.

More information

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO

More information

Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams

Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams 111 Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams ABSTRACT P. Fanning Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email:

More information

Dead Load Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge

Dead Load Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge 2011 International Conference on Intelligent Building and Management Proc.of CSIT vol.5 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Dead Load Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge Tao Zhang 1,2 +, ZhiMin Wu 1 1 Department

More information

Destructive Load Testing of Bridge No. 1049 Analyses, Predictions and Testing

Destructive Load Testing of Bridge No. 1049 Analyses, Predictions and Testing Destructive Load Testing of Bridge No. 1049 Analyses, Predictions and Testing Pressley JS, Associate Director Maunsell WA Candy CCE, Technical Director Structures Maunsell WA Walton BL, Structural Engineer

More information

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,

More information

Ce 479 Fall 05. Steel Deck and Concrete Slab Composite Construction. J. Ramirez 1

Ce 479 Fall 05. Steel Deck and Concrete Slab Composite Construction. J. Ramirez 1 Ce 479 Fall 05 Steel Deck and Concrete Slab Composite Construction J. Ramirez 1 Types of Floor Deck on Steel Joists/Girders Cast in Place Concrete on Steel Deck Composite Construction - Pages 42-49 SDI

More information

ETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Composite Floor Frame Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

ETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Composite Floor Frame Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA ETABS Integrated Building Design Software Composite Floor Frame Design Manual Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA Version 8 January 2002 Copyright The computer program ETABS and all

More information

The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs EGN-5439 The Design of Tall Buildings Lecture #14 The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Via the Direct Method as per ACI 318-05 L. A. Prieto-Portar - 2008 Reinforced concrete floor systems provide an

More information

Foreword. This manual provides technical information for designers and contractors to design and plan the construction operation.

Foreword. This manual provides technical information for designers and contractors to design and plan the construction operation. Foreword Foreword This manual provides technical information for designers and contractors to design and plan the construction operation. The body of the manual is split into eight distinct sections: 1.

More information

COVER SHEET. Kajewski, Stephen L. and Hampson, Keith D. (1997) Reengineering. Re-engineering (CPR-97), pages pp. 591-602, Gold Coast, Australia.

COVER SHEET. Kajewski, Stephen L. and Hampson, Keith D. (1997) Reengineering. Re-engineering (CPR-97), pages pp. 591-602, Gold Coast, Australia. COVER SHEET Kajewski, Stephen L. and Hampson, Keith D. (1997) Reengineering High-Rise Construction for Enhanced Cycle Times and Safety. In Mohamed, Sherif, Eds. Proceedings International Conference on

More information

Introduction. Eurocodes. Specification. Cost

Introduction. Eurocodes. Specification. Cost Introduction Eurocodes Specification Cost Structural Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): BS EN 1991 (EC1): Basis of structural design Actions on Structures BS EN 1992 (EC2): BS EN 1993 (EC3): BS EN 1994 (EC4):

More information

Precast concrete bridge elements produced with slipformer technology

Precast concrete bridge elements produced with slipformer technology Nordimpianti System Srl, 66100 Chieti (CH), Italy Precast concrete bridge elements produced with slipformer technology For over 40 years, Nordimpianti has designed and built equipment for the production

More information

NR/CIV/TUM/1500 Rev D May TECHNICAL USER MANUAL for STANDARD HALF THROUGH UNDERBRIDGES E TYPE. Standard Detail and Design Drawings

NR/CIV/TUM/1500 Rev D May TECHNICAL USER MANUAL for STANDARD HALF THROUGH UNDERBRIDGES E TYPE. Standard Detail and Design Drawings NR/CIV/TUM/1500 Rev D May 2010 TECHNICAL USER MANUAL for STANDARD HALF THROUGH UNDERBRIDGES E TYPE Standard Detail and Design Drawings NR/CIV/TUM/1500 Rev D May 2010 Summary This technical user manual

More information

Figure 5-11. Test set-up

Figure 5-11. Test set-up 5.5. Load Procedure A uniform load configuration was used for the load tests. An air bag, placed on the top surface of the slab, was used for this purpose, and the load was applied by gradually increasing

More information

Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods

Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods Impacts of Tunnelling on Ground and Groundwater and Control Measures Part 1: Estimation Methods Steve Macklin Principal Engineering Geologist GHD Melbourne 1. Introduction, scope of Part 1 2. Terminology

More information

Session 5D: Benefits of Live Load Testing and Finite Element Modeling in Rating Bridges

Session 5D: Benefits of Live Load Testing and Finite Element Modeling in Rating Bridges Session 5D: Benefits of Live Load Testing and Finite Element Modeling in Rating Bridges Douglas R. Heath P.E., Structural Engineer Corey Richard P.E., Project Manager AECOM Overview Bridge Testing/Rating

More information

US 51 Ohio River Bridge Engineering and Environmental Study

US 51 Ohio River Bridge Engineering and Environmental Study US 51 Ohio River Bridge Engineering and Environmental Study ITEM NOS. 1-100.00 & 1-1140.00 Prepared by: Michael Baker Jr., Inc. 9750 Ormsby Station Rd Louisville, KY 40223 August 16, 2013 Table of Contents

More information

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A CANTILEVERED BUILDING

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A CANTILEVERED BUILDING STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A CANTILEVERED BUILDING Presented by Karine Marielle Charlebois For the obtention of MSc in Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences (Specialisation Architectural Engineering)

More information

Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1

Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1 Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs Bridge Engineering 1 Basic types of bridge decks In-situ reinforced concrete deck- (most common type) Pre-cast concrete deck (minimize the use of local labor) Open steel grid

More information

Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures

Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures Buildings Department Practice Note for Authorized Persons, Registered Structural Engineers and Registered Geotechnical Engineers APP-68 Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures

More information

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,

More information

Recommendations for finite element analysis for the design of reinforced concrete slabs

Recommendations for finite element analysis for the design of reinforced concrete slabs 1400 Moment [knm/m] Moment peak over the columns not designed for 1200 Column width 1000 800 20 s120 20 s150 600 20 s180 20 s160 400 20 s230 16 s170 16 s240 16 s190 16 s260 200 12 s240 Lenght [m] 0 0 1

More information

Elevated Roads for Sri Lanka

Elevated Roads for Sri Lanka Elevated Roads for Sri Lanka M.T.R. Jayasinghe (Senior Professor, Structural Engineering, University of Moratuwa) Senior Professor M.T.R. Jayasinghe is a Professor of Structural Engineering, University

More information

The Passive Fire Protection Handbook. Chapter 3: Structural Steel

The Passive Fire Protection Handbook. Chapter 3: Structural Steel Chapter 3: Structural Steel 43 Chapter 3: Structural Steel - Introduction The amount of fire protection required to achieve this depends on the following: Duration of fire resistance specified Type of

More information

Bearing replacement and strengthening of Forth Road Bridge approach viaducts, UK

Bearing replacement and strengthening of Forth Road Bridge approach viaducts, UK 129 Barry Colford Chief Engineer Forth Road Bridge Bearing replacement and strengthening of Forth Road Bridge approach viaducts, UK Abstract Manuela Chiarello Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins

More information

Draft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14

Draft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318

More information

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design Part 1: 3D model based analysis using general beam-column FEM Ferenc Papp* and József Szalai ** * Associate Professor, Department of Structural

More information

Page 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SB-Produksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250

Page 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SB-Produksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250 Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..

More information

Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS

Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS For a surface blast, the most directly affected building elements are the façade and structural members on the lower four stories. Although the walls can be designed

More information

Overhang Bracket Loading. Deck Issues: Design Perspective

Overhang Bracket Loading. Deck Issues: Design Perspective Deck Issues: Design Perspective Overhang Bracket Loading Deck overhangs and screed rails are generally supported on cantilever brackets during the deck pour These brackets produce an overturning couple

More information

Figure 1. One-way slab design (dimensions are in mm) Figure 2. Two-way slab design (dimensions are in mm)

Figure 1. One-way slab design (dimensions are in mm) Figure 2. Two-way slab design (dimensions are in mm) BEHAVIOUR OF INNOVATIVE FIBRE COMPOSITE SANDWICH PANELS UNDER POINT LOADING M.M. Islam 1, T. Aravinthan 1 and G. Van Erp 2 1 Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composites, Faculty of Engineering

More information

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN METHODS FOR REINFORCED AND UNREINFORCED MASONRY BASEMENT WALLS J.J. ROBERTS Technical Innovation Consultancy Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering Kingston University, London.

More information

STRUCTURAL DESIGN 2 RIBBED (JOIST), HOLLOW POT & WAFFLE SLAB DESIGN TO BS 8110

STRUCTURAL DESIGN 2 RIBBED (JOIST), HOLLOW POT & WAFFLE SLAB DESIGN TO BS 8110 LECTURE 4: 1.0 RIBBED SLAB 1.0.1 INTRODUCTION 1.0.2 PRESENTATION OF RIBBED FLOOR PLAN 1.0.3 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF RIBBED SLAB 1.0.4 SIZING OF SLAB AND RIBS 1.0.5 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 1.0.6 SUMMARY

More information

Fire Engineering Research - Key Issues for the Future II Naples, Italy, 6 9 June Contents

Fire Engineering Research - Key Issues for the Future II Naples, Italy, 6 9 June Contents Fire Engineering Research - Key Issues for the Future II Naples, Italy, 6 9 June 013 Contents (State of the art) PhD planning PhD: BEHAVIOUR OF COLD-FORMED STEEL BEAM-COLUMNS IN CASE OF FIRE Motivation

More information

III. Compression Members. Design of Steel Structures. Introduction. Compression Members (cont.)

III. Compression Members. Design of Steel Structures. Introduction. Compression Members (cont.) ENCE 455 Design of Steel Structures III. Compression Members C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department University it of Maryland Compression Members Following subjects are covered:

More information

Replacement of the stay cables on Penang Bridge 021. Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Epsom, UK

Replacement of the stay cables on Penang Bridge 021. Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Epsom, UK Replacement of the stay cables on Penang Bridge 021 Chris R Hendy MA (Cantab) CEng FICE Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Epsom, UK Jessica Sandberg BE CEng MICE Project

More information

DESIGN OF SLENDER AESTHETICAL CONCRETE BRIDGES - CHALLENGES AND CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN OF SLENDER AESTHETICAL CONCRETE BRIDGES - CHALLENGES AND CONSIDERATIONS Title DESIGN OF SLENDER AESTHETICAL CONCR BRIDGES - CHALLENGES AND CONSIDERAT Author(s) U. G. JENSEN; T. S. HANSEN Citation Issue Date 2013-09-13 DOI Doc URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/2115/54420 Right Type

More information

This manual was produced using ComponentOne Doc-To-Help.

This manual was produced using ComponentOne Doc-To-Help. This manual was produced using ComponentOne Doc-To-Help. Contents MDX Documentation 2 Starting the Program... 2 List of Features... 3 New Features... 4 Fixed Problems... 4 Frequently Asked Questions...

More information

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the research Beam is a main element in structural system. It is horizontal member that carries load through bending (flexure) action. Therefore, beam will deflect

More information

The performance of conventional discrete torsional bracings in steel-concrete composite bridges: a survey of Swedish bridges

The performance of conventional discrete torsional bracings in steel-concrete composite bridges: a survey of Swedish bridges The performance of conventional discrete torsional bracings in steel-concrete composite bridges: a survey of Swedish bridges Oscar Carlson and Lukasz Jaskiewicz Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik Lunds

More information

Field Damage Inspection and Static Load Test Analysis of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China

Field Damage Inspection and Static Load Test Analysis of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China Advanced Materials Research Vols. 163-167 (2011) pp 1147-1156 Online available since 2010/Dec/06 at www.scientific.net (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.163-167.1147

More information

Loads Tools Checks Reports

Loads Tools Checks Reports Loads Tools Checks Reports SDC Verifier or the Structural Design Code Verifier is a powerful postprocessor program with an advanced calculation core which works seamlessly with Siemens multi-solver, FEA

More information

Improving FE models of a long-span flat concrete floor using natural frequency measurements

Improving FE models of a long-span flat concrete floor using natural frequency measurements Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 2145 2156 www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc Improving FE models of a long-span flat concrete floor using natural frequency measurements Emad El-Dardiry a, Endah Wahyuni

More information