2 Vectors and Scalars Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities, and give examples of each. method. A vector is represented in print by a bold italicized symbol, for example, F. A vector has magnitude as well as direction. Some vector quantities: displacement, velocity, force, momentum A scalar has only a magnitude. Some scalar quantities: mass, time, temperature
3 Difference between a vector and a scalar quantity N or 90 o W or 180 o E or 0 o S or 270 o
4 Difference between a vector and a scalar quantity Describe the direction of the following vector in three ways? 60 o Answer: at 60 o or 60 o North of East or 30 o East of North
5 Difference between a vector and a scalar quantity Describe the direction of the following vector in three ways? Answer: at 210 o 30 o or 30 o South of West or 60 o West of South
6 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Determine the sum or difference of two vectors by a graphical method. When two or more vectors (often called components) are combined by addition, or composition, the single vector obtained is called the resultant of the vectors The sum of any two vectors can be found graphically. There are two methods used to accomplish this: head to tail and parallelogram. Regardless of the method used or the order that the vectors are added, the sum is the same.
7 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Even if the vectors are not at right angles, they can be added graphically by using the tail-to-tip method.
8 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Head to tail method The tail of one vector is placed at the head on the other vector. Neither the direction or length of either vector is changed. A third vector is drawn connecting the tail of the first vector to the head of the second vector. This third vector is called the resultant vector. Measure its length to find the magnitude then measure its direction to fully describe the resultant
9 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Graphically find the sum of these two vectors using the head to tail method. A B
10 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods First, vector B must be moved so it s tail (the one without the arrow point) is at the head (the one with the arrow point) of vector A. All you do is slide vector B to that position without changing either its length (magnitude) or direction. The new position of vector B is labeled B in the diagram. A B B
11 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods The resultant vector is drawn from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B and is labeled R. A B R B
12 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods The magnitude of the resultant can then be measured with a ruler and the direction can be measured with a protractor. The zero of the protractor should be located at the point labeled zero on the diagram A B R B Zero
13 Simulation Addition of Vectors-Sample Problem
14 Addition of Vectors-Sample Problem A hiker walks 2 km to the North, 3 km to the West, 4 km to the South, 5 km to the East, 1 more km to the South, and finally 2 km to the West. How far did he end up from where he started? Hint: What is his resultant? Shown is his path, notice all of the vectors are head to tail The resultant is in Red. 3 km, South
15 Addition of Vectors-Sample Problem This diagram shows the same vectors being added but in a different order, notice that the resultant is still the same.
16 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods The parallelogram method may also be used; here again the vectors must be tail-to-tip.
17 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Parallelogram method: It is commonly used when you have concurrent vectors. The original vectors make the adjacent sides of a parallelogram. A diagonal drawn from their juncture is the resultant. Its magnitude and direction can be measured.
18 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Graphically find the sum of these two vectors using the head to tail method. A B
19 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods First, vector B must be moved so it s tail is at the head of vector A. All you do is slide vector B to that position without changing either its length (magnitude) or direction. The new position of vector B is labeled B in the diagram. A B B
20 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Next, vector A must be moved so it s tail is at the head of vector B. All you do is slide vector A to that position without changing either its length (magnitude) or direction. The new position of vector A is labeled A in the diagram. A B A B
21 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods The resultant vector is then drawn from the point where the two vectors were joined to the opposite corner of the parallelogram. This resultant is labeled R in the diagram. A B A R B
22 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods The magnitude of the resultant can then be measured with a ruler and the direction can be measured with a protractor. The zero of the protractor should be located at the point labeled zero on the diagram A B A R B Zero
23 Addition of Vectors-Sample Problems First you should have sketched the situation. 100 N 75 N 100 N 75 N Second you should have moved the vectors to either add them by the parallologram or head to tail method. Shown here is the head to tail method.
24 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar In order to subtract vectors, we define the negative of a vector, which has the same magnitude but points in the opposite direction. Then we add the negative vector:
25 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar A vector V can be multiplied by a scalar c; the result is a vector cv that has the same direction but a magnitude cv. If c is negative, the resultant vector points in the opposite direction. Multiplication and division of vectors by scalars is also required.
26 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar For vectors in one dimension, simple addition and subtraction are all that is needed. You need to be careful about the signs, as the figure indicates.
27 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar-Sample Problem Vector A has is 2 inches at 0o and Vector B is 1 inch at 180o, their resultant R is 1 inches (2 in. - 1 in.) at 0o (direction of the vector with the larger magnitude). R A B
28 Adding Vectors by Components Resolve vectors into perpendicular components along chosen axes. Any vector can be expressed as the sum of two other vectors, which are called its components. Usually the other vectors are chosen so that they are perpendicular to each other.
29 Adding Vectors by Components If the components are perpendicular, they can be found using trigonometric functions.
30 Adding Vectors by Components The components are effectively one-dimensional, so they can be added arithmetically:
31 Adding Vectors by Components Adding vectors: 1. Draw a diagram; add the vectors graphically. 2. Choose x and y axes. 3. Resolve each vector into x and y components. 4. Calculate each component using sines and cosines. 5. Add the components in each direction. 6. To find the length and direction of the vector, use:
32 Adding Vectors by Components-Sample Problem Two men are using ropes to pull on a tree stump. One man exerts a 100 N force to the North and his friend exerts a 75 N force to the West. What is the resultant force acting on the tree stump?
33 Adding Vectors by Components-Sample Problem Next you should have drawn the resultant. 75 N R 100 N R R R R 125N 75 2 Then you should have calculated the magnitude of the resultant.
34 Adding Vectors by Components-Sample Problem You should then find the direction of the resultant. 75 tan tan ( ) 100 o N R 100 N
35 Adding Vectors by Components-Sample Problem Answers: R = 125 N at 36.9 o West of North 125 N at o 75 N R 36.9 o 100 N 125 N at 53.1 o North of West
36 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles Vectors at any angles may be added by finding their components, adding all vertical and horizontal components separately, and then finding the resultant.
37 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles To calculate the magnitude of the resultant vector of A and B, the following equation can be used if Ax stands for the horizontal component of A, Bx is the horizontal component of B, Ay is the vertical component of A, and By is the vertical component of B. Keep in mind each of these is a vector and has direction R ( A B ) 2 ( A B x x y y ) 2
38 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles Add the following vectors B B A A
39 B Adding Vectors by Components with Angles The horizontal component of vector A would be AcosA A A A X B B The horizontal component of vector B would be BcosB
40 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles The vertical component of vector A would be AsinA A A Y A B Y B B The vertical component of vector B would be BsinB
41 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles Therefore, could be rewritten as 2 2 ) sin sin ( ) cos cos ( B A B A B A B A R 2 2 ) ( ) ( y y x x B A B A R
42 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles The following equation will give you the angle, however, your calculator cannot tell the difference between the first and third quadrant and between the second and fourth quadrant, so you must place it in the correct quadrant for each situation. resultant. tan 1 (( Acos A B cos B ) /( Asin A B sin B ))
43 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles F F sin W F F F F W cos W F
44 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles- Sample Problem A 500 N crate is sitting on a 10o incline. What amount of force must be exerted to keep this crate from sliding down the incline? HINT: This is an equilibrium problem. Since the crate is stationary, it is in equilibrium. That means you are looking for the equilibrant force, the force that puts it into equilibrium.
45 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles- Sample Problem You should sketch the problem first 10 o 500 N 10 o F F
46 Adding Vectors by Components with Angles- Sample Problem The portion of the weight that is causing the crate to try to move down the incline is F. 10 o 10 o 500 N F F
47 Sample Problem (cont d) F F 500sin N 10 o 10 o 500 N F F The force F is acting down the incline, so the equilibrant force is 86.8 N up the incline.
48 Relative Velocity We already considered relative speed in one dimension; it is similar in two dimensions except that we must add and subtract velocities as vectors. Each velocity is labeled first with the object, and second with the reference frame in which it has this velocity. Therefore, v WS is the velocity of the water in the shore frame, v BS is the velocity of the boat in the shore frame, and v BW is the velocity of the boat in the water frame.
49 Relative Velocity In this case, the relationship between the three velocities is: (3-6)
50 Relative Velocity
51 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem A boat is capable of traveling at 5 m/s in still water. The boat attempts to cross a river which runs at 3 m/s downstream. What is the boats velocity as it crosses the river? 5 m/s R 3 m/s
52 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem s m R s m R s m s m R s m s m R ) (3 ) ( o s m s m s m s m ) 5 3 ( tan 5 3 tan 1 Answer: 5.83 m/s at o downstream
53 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem If the river is 1 km wide, how long will it take the boat to cross the river? This problem turns into a simple linear motion problem. The boat has a velocity across the river of 5 m/s and the distance straight across the river is 1 km.
54 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem d v t 1000m 1km 5 m 1km s t t 1000m Answer: 200 seconds m 5 s
55 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem How far downstream does the boat end up? This also turns into a simple linear motion problem. Your boat is moving downstream at 3 m/s and it is in the water for 200 seconds.
56 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem v d t 3 d m s d 200sec m 3 200sec s Answer: 600 m
57 Relative Velocity-Sample Problem A railway car is moving at 2 m/s and a man starts to walk from the back of the car to the front at 1 m/s. What is his velocity relative to the ground? Answer: 3 m/s
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