# 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections

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3 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 15t = 17u = Find the angle θ between u and v to the nearest tenth of a degree 16u = 18u = 17u = Page 3 19u = 2i + 3j, v = 4i 2j

4 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 18u = 19u = 2i + 3j, v = 4i 2j Write u and v in component form as 19u = 2i + 3j, v = 4i 2j Write u and v in component form as 20u = 20u = 21u = i 3j, v = 7i 3j Page 4

5 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 20u = 22u = 21u = i 3j, v = 7i 3j Write u and v in component form as 23u = 10i + j, v = 10i 5j Write u and v in component form as 22u = Page 5 24CAMPINGReginaandLuissetofffromtheir

6 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 23u = 10i + j, v = 10i 5j Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v Then write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, one of which is the projection of u onto v 25u = 3i + 6j, v = 5i + 2j Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and 24CAMPINGReginaandLuissetofffromtheir campsite to search for firewood The path that Regina takes can be represented by u = The path that Luis takes can be represented by v = Find the angle between the pair of vectors w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for w2 Use the formula for finding the angle between two vectors Thus, 26u = Find the projection of u onto v Then write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, one of which is the projection of u onto v 25u = 3i + 6j, v = 5i + 2j Find the projection of u onto v Page 6

7 Thus, 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 26u = Thus, 27u = Find the projection of u onto v Find the projection of u onto v To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for w2 w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the w2 Thus, 27u = Find the projection of u onto v Thus, 28u = 6i + j, v = 3i + 9j Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v Page 7

8 8-3 Thus, Dot Products and Vector Projections 28u = 6i + j, v = 3i + 9j Thus, 29u = Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v Find the projection of u onto v To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and w2 w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for w2 Thus, 30u = Find the projection of u onto v Thus, 29u = Find the projection of u onto v Page 8

9 8-3 Thus, Dot Products and Vector Projections 30u = Thus, 31u = 5i 8j, v = 6i 4j Find the projection of u onto v Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for w2 To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for w2 Thus, Thus, 31u = 5i 8j, v = 6i 4j Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v 32u = 2i 5j, v = 9i + 7j Write u and v in component form as Find the projection of u onto v Page 9

10 8-3 Thus, Dot Products and Vector Projections 32u = 2i 5j, v = 9i + 7j Thus, 33WAGON Malcolm is pulling his sister in a wagon up Write u and v in component form as asmallslopeataninclineof15 Ifthecombined weight of Malcolm s sister and the wagon is 78 pounds, what force is required to keep her from rolling down the slope? Find the projection of u onto v The combined weight of Malcolm s sister and the wagon is the force exerted due to gravity, To find the force w1 required to keep her from sliding down the slope, project F onto a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the hill To write u as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, start by writing u as the sum of two vectors w1 and Find a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the hill w2, or u = w1 + w2 one of the vectors is the projection of u onto v, let w1 = projvu and solve for w2 Find w1, the projection of F onto the unit vector v, projvf Thus, w1 points down the hill, the force required is 33WAGON Malcolm is pulling his sister in a wagon up w1 = ( 202v ) or 202v v is a unit vector, asmallslopeataninclineof15 Ifthecombined weight of Malcolm s sister and the wagon is 78 pounds, what force is required to keep her from rolling down the slope? 202 pounds represents the magnitude of the force required to keep Malcolm s sister from sliding down the hill The combined weight of Malcolm s sister and the wagon is the force exerted due to gravity, To find the force w1 required to keep her from sliding down the slope, project F onto a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the hill 34SLIDEIsabelisgoingdownaslidebutstops herself when she notices that another student is lying hurt at the bottom of the slide What force is required to keep her from sliding down the slide if theinclineis53 andsheweighs62pounds? Page 10 Isabel s weight is the force exerted due to gravity, To find the force w1 required to keep

11 1 w1 = ( 202v ) or 202v v is a unit vector, pounds represents the magnitude of the force required to keep Malcolm s sister from sliding down Dot Products and Vector Projections the hill 34SLIDEIsabelisgoingdownaslidebutstops herself when she notices that another student is lying hurt at the bottom of the slide What force is required to keep her from sliding down the slide if theinclineis53 andsheweighs62pounds? w1 points down the hill, the force required is w1 = ( 495v ) or 495v v is a unit vector, 495 pounds represents the magnitude of the force required to keep Isabel from sliding down the slide 35PHYSICS Alexa is pushing a construction barrel up a ramp 15 meters long into the back of a truck She isusingaforceof534newtonsandtherampis25 from the horizontal How much work in joules is Alexa doing? Isabel s weight is the force exerted due to gravity, To find the force w1 required to keep her from sliding down the slope, project F onto a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the hill Use the projection formula for work the force vector F that represents Alexa pushing the construction barrel up the ramp is parallel to,f does not need to be projected on So, The magnitude of the directed distance is15 Find a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the hill Find w1, the projection of F onto the unit vector v, projvf Verify the result using the dot product formula for work The component form of the force vector F in terms of magnitude and direction angle given is The component form of the directed distance the barrel is moved in terms of magnitude and direction angle given is w1 points down the hill, the force required is The work that Alexa is doing is 801 joules w1 = ( 495v ) or 495v v is a unit vector, 495 pounds represents the magnitude of the force required to keep Isabel from sliding down the slide 35PHYSICS Alexa is pushing a construction barrel up a ramp 15 meters long into the back of a truck She isusingaforceof534newtonsandtherampis25 from the horizontal How much work in joules is Alexa doing? 36SHOPPING Sophia is pushing a shopping cart with a force of 125 newtons at a downward angle, or angleofdepression,of52 Howmuchworkin joules would Sophia do if she pushed the shopping cart 200 meters? Diagram the situation Page 11

12 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections Therefore, Sophia does about 15,3915 joules of work pushing the shopping cart The work that Alexa is doing is 801 joules Find a vector orthogonal to each vector 36SHOPPING Sophia is pushing a shopping cart with a force of 125 newtons at a downward angle, or angleofdepression,of52 Howmuchworkin joules would Sophia do if she pushed the shopping cart 200 meters? 37 Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b Diagram the situation If a and b are orthogonal, then 2x 8y = 0 Solve for y Use the projection formula for work The magnitude of the projection of F onto is Themagnitudeofthedirected distance Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that is divisible by 4 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 12 is200 Therefore, Sophia does about 15,3915 joules of work pushing the shopping cart Find a vector orthogonal to each vector 37 A vector orthogonal to is Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b If a and b are orthogonal, then 2x 8y = 0 Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that is divisible by 4 will produce an integer value for y Let x = Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b If a and b are orthogonal, then 3x + 5y = 0 Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for 3x that is divisible by 5Page will12 produce an integer value for y Let x = 10

13 A vector orthogonal to vector orthogonaland to Vector is Projections 8-3 A Dot Products 38 is 39 Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b If a and b are orthogonal, then 3x + 5y = 0 Solve for y If a and b are orthogonal, then 7x 4y = 0 Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for 3x that is divisible by 5 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 10 A vector orthogonal to is Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for 7x that is divisible by 4 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 8 A vector orthogonal to is 39 Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b If a and b are orthogonal, then 7x 4y = 0 Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that Manual results- Powered in a value for 7x that is divisible by 4 will esolutions by Cognero produce an integer value for y Let x = 8 40 Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b If a and b are orthogonal, then x + 6y = 0 Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A valuepage of x13 that is divisible by 6 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 6

14 8-3 A Dot Products and Vector Projections vector orthogonal to is 40 the component forms of the position vector r and the tangent velocity vector v when r is at a directed angleof35 bwhatmethodcanbeusedtoprovethatthe position vector and the velocity vector that you developed in part a are perpendicular? Show that the two vectors are perpendicular Sample answer: Two vectors are orthogonal if and only if their dot product is equal to 0 Let and Find the dot product of a and b a Diagram the situation If a and b are orthogonal, then x + 6y = 0 Solve for y Drawing is not to scale Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that is divisible by 6 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 6 A vector orthogonal to is 41RIDESForacircularamusementparkride,the position vector r is perpendicular to the tangent velocity vector v at any point on the circle, as shown below aiftheradiusoftherideis20feetandthespeed of the ride is constant at 40 feet per second, write the component forms of the position vector r and the tangent velocity vector v when r is at a directed angleof35 bwhatmethodcanbeusedtoprovethatthe position vector and the velocity vector that you developed in part a are perpendicular? Show that the two vectors are perpendicular The component form of r can be found using its magnitude and directed angle The component form of v can be found using its magnitudeandthe55 anglethedirectionof the vector is pointing down, the vertical component will be negative and So, b If the dot product of the two vectors is equal to 1, then the two vectors are orthogonal or perpendicular To avoid rounding error, use the exact expression for the components of the vectors found in part a Givenvandu v,findu, u v = 33 42v = Sample answer: Let Substitute u, v, and intotheequationforadotproduct Solve for y a Diagram the situation Page 14

15 To avoid rounding error, use the exact expression for the components of the vectors found in part a 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections Therefore, 43v = Givenvandu v,findu, u v = 33 42v =, u v = 38 Substitute u, v, and Sample answer: Let Substitute u, v, and Sample answer: Let intotheequationforadotproduct intotheequationforadotproduct Solve for y Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for 11 x that is divisible by 2 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 5 Therefore, 43v = Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for 19 2x that is divisible by 3 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 1, u v = 38 Therefore, Sample answer: Let Substitute u, v, and intotheequationforadotproduct 44v =, u v = 8 Sample answer: Let Substitute u, v, and intotheequationforadotproduct Solve for y Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for 19 2x that is divisible by 3 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 1 Substitute a value for x and solve for y Let x = 1 Page 15

16 8-3 Therefore, Dot Products and Vector Projections 44v = Therefore, 45v =, u v = 8, u v = 43 Substitute u, v, and Sample answer: Let intotheequationforadotproduct Solve for y Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y Let x = 1 45v = Substitute u, v, and Sample answer: Let intotheequationforadotproduct Therefore, Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for x that is divisible by 7 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 4, u v = 43 Substitute u, v, and Sample answer: Let intotheequationforadotproduct Therefore, 46SCHOOLAstudentrollsherbackpackfromher Chemistry classroom to her English classroom using a force of 175 newtons Solve for y Substitute a value for x and solve for y A value of x that results in a value for x that is divisible by 7 will produce an integer value for y Let x = 4 a If she exerts 3060 joules to pull her backpack 31 meters, what is the angle of her force? b Ifsheexerts1315joulesatanangleof60,how far did she pull her backpack? a Use the projection formula for work The magnitude of the projection of F onto is Themagnitudeofthedirected Page 16 distance is31andtheworkexertedis3060 joules Solve for θ Therefore,

17 8-3 Therefore, Dot Products and Vector Projections 46SCHOOLAstudentrollsherbackpackfromher Chemistry classroom to her English classroom using a force of 175 newtons Therefore, the student pulled her backpack about 15 meters Determine whether each pair of vectors are parallel, perpendicular, or neither Explain your reasoning 47u = Find the angle between u and v a If she exerts 3060 joules to pull her backpack 31 meters, what is the angle of her force? b Ifsheexerts1315joulesatanangleof60,how far did she pull her backpack? a Use the projection formula for work The magnitude of the projection of F onto is Themagnitudeofthedirected distance is31andtheworkexertedis3060 joules Solve for θ u v = 0, the two vectors are orthogonal (perpendicular) The equation can be further worked out to verify this conclusion Therefore, the angle of the student s force is about 557 b Use the projection formula for work The magnitude of the projection of F onto is Theworkexertedis1315 joules Solve for Perpendicular; sample answer: u v = 0, the vectors are perpendicular 48u = Find the angle between u and v Therefore, the student pulled her backpack about 15 meters Determine whether each pair of vectors are parallel, perpendicular, or neither Explain your reasoning 47u = Manual - Powered esolutions, v = by Cognero Page 17 The pair of vectors are neither parallel nor

18 8-3 Perpendicular; sample answer: u v = 0, the Dot Products and Vector Projections vectors are perpendicular 48u = The vectors are parallel The angle between the two vectorsis180 Theyareheadedinopposite directions 50u = Find the angle between u and v Find the angle between u and v The pair of vectors are neither parallel nor perpendicular Using the formula for the angle between two vectors, θ u = u v = 0, the two vectors are orthogonal (perpendicular) The equation can be further worked out to verify this conclusion Find the angle between u and v Perpendicular; sample answer: u v = 0, the vectors are perpendicular Find the angle between the two vectors in radians 51, Simplify each vector The vectors are parallel The angle between the two vectorsis180 Theyareheadedinopposite directions 50u = Find the angle between u and v Find the angle between u and v Page 18

19 Thus, the angle between the two vectors is u v = 0, the sample answer: Projections 8-3 Perpendicular; Dot Products and Vector = vectors are perpendicular Find the angle between the two vectors in radians 51 52,, Simplify each vector Simplify each vector Find the angle between u and v Find the angle between u and v Thus, the angle between the two vectors is = Thus, the angle between the two vectors is = 52, 53, Simplify each vector Simplify each vector Page 19 u v

20 Thus, the angle between the two vectors is = 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 53 54, Thus, the angle between the two vectors is, Simplify each vector Simplify each vector Find the angle between u and v Find the angle between u and v u v = 0, the two vectors are orthogonal (perpendicular) The equation can be further worked out to verify this conclusion Thus, the angle between the two vectors is = 55WORKTommyliftshisnephew,whoweighs16 Thus, the angle between the two vectors is 54, kilograms, a distance of 09 meter The force of weight in newtons can be calculated using F = mg, where m is the mass in kilograms and g is 98 meters per second squared How much work did Tommy do to lift his nephew? The force that Tommy is using to lift his nephew is F =16 98or1568newtons Diagram the situation Simplify each vector Page 20

21 Thus, the angle between the two vectors is 8-3 Dot Products = and Vector Projections The vectors can go in either direction, so find the vectors in component form for each initial point 55WORKTommyliftshisnephew,whoweighs16 kilograms, a distance of 09 meter The force of weight in newtons can be calculated using F = mg, where m is the mass in kilograms and g is 98 meters per second squared How much work did Tommy do to lift his nephew? or or or Find the angle between u and v The vertex (4, 7) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and The force that Tommy is using to lift his nephew is F =16 98or1568newtons Diagram the situation Use the projection formula for work the force vector F that represents Tommy lifting his nephew is parallel to, F does not need to be projected on So, The magnitude of the directed distance is09 Find the angle between v and w The vertex (8, 1) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and The work that Tommy did to lift his nephew was about 1411 joules The vertices of a triangle on the coordinate plane are given Find the measures of the angles of each triangle using vectors Round to the nearest tenth of a degree 56(2, 3), (4, 7), (8, 1) Graph the triangle Label u, v, and w 180 ( ) = 818 The vectors can go in either direction, so find the vectors in component form for each initial point Page 21 Thethreeanglesareabout379,603,and818 or 57

22 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 180 ( ) = 818 Find the angle between v and w The vertex ( 3, 7) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and Thethreeanglesareabout379,603,and818 57( 3, 2), ( 3, 7), (3, 7) Graph the triangle Label u, v, and w v w = 0, the two vectors are perpendicular The equation can be further worked out to verify this conclusion The vectors can go either directions, so find the vectorsincomponentformforeachinitialpoint or or or Find the angle between u and v The vertex (3, 7) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and Find the angle between u and w The vertex ( 3, 2) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and 180 ( ) = 398 Thethreeanglesareabout398,502,and90 58( 4, 3), ( 8, 2), (2, 1) Graph the triangle Label u, v, and w Find the angle between v and w The vertex ( 3, 7) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and The vectors can go in either direction, so find the vectorsincomponentformforeachinitialpoint or or or Find the angle between u and v The vertex (2, 1) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and Page 22

23 or or 8-3 Dot Products andu Vector Projections v Find the angle between and The vertex (2, 1) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and 59(1, 5), (4, 3), ( 4, 0) Graph the triangle Label u, v, and w The vectors can go in either direction, so find the vectorsincomponentformforeachinitialpoint or or or Find the angle between v and w The vertex ( 4, 3) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and Find the angle between u and v The vertex ( 4, 0) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and Find the angle between v and w The vertex (4, 3) must be the initial point of both vectors Thus, use and 180 ( )=307 Thus,thethreeanglesareabout170,307,and (1, 5), (4, 3), ( 4, 0) Graph the triangle Label u, v, and w Page 23

24 Find the angle between v and w The vertex (4, 3) 8-3 must Dot be Products andofvector Projections the initial point both vectors Thus, use and Solve 10 = 4x 2y for y 2 2,x + y = 100 Substitute y = 5 + 2x into this equation and solve for x 180 ( ) = 656 Thethreeanglesareabout489,656,and656 Given u, v, and θ, the angle between u and v, find possible values of v Round to the nearest hundredth 60u =, v =10,45 Use the Pythagorean Theorem Let Substitute the given values into the equation for the angle between to vectors Find y when x = 949 Find y when x = 316 Solve 10 or = 4x 2y for y 61u =, v =,121 Let Substitute the given values into the equation for the angle between to vectors Page 24

25 61 u =, v =, Dot Products and Vector Projections Let Substitute the given values into the equation for the angle between to vectors or 62 u =, v = 7, 96 Let Substitute the given values into the equation for the angle between to vectors, x 2 + y 2 = 29 Substitute into this equation and solve for x, x 2 + y 2 = 49 Substitute into this equation and solve for x Use the Pythagorean Theorem Find y when x = 203 Use the Pythagorean Theorem Find y when x = 536 Find y when x = u =, v = 7, 96 Find y when x = 675 or Page 25

26 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections Find y when x = 675 Find y when x = 109 or Find y when x = u =, v =12, 27 Let Substitute the given values into the equation for the angle between to vectors or 64 CARS A car is stationary on a 9 incline Assuming that the only forces acting on the car are gravity and the 275 Newton force applied by the brakes, about how much does the car weigh?, x 2 + y 2 = 144 Substitute into this equation and solve for x The car s weight is the force exerted due to gravity and can be represented by the force vector The force required to keep the car from rolling is 275 newtons Project F onto a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the incline to solve for the weight of the car Find a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the incline Use the Pythagorean Theorem Find the projection of F onto the unit vector v, proj v F Find y when x = 109 Page 26 The force required is (y sin 9 )v v is a unit vector, the magnitude of the force required to keep

27 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections or 64 CARS A car is stationary on a 9 incline Assuming that the only forces acting on the car are gravity and the 275 Newton force applied by the brakes, about how much does the car weigh? The car s weight is the force exerted due to gravity and can be represented by the force vector The force required to keep the car from rolling is 275 newtons Project F onto a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the incline to solve for the weight of the car the force is given in units, the car s weight will be given in kilograms Thus, the car weighs about kilograms 65 REASONING Determine whether the statement below is true or false Explain If d, e, and f form a Pythagorean triple, and the angles between d and e and between e and f are acute, then the angle between d and f must be a right angle Explain your reasoning The statement is false All three vectors may originate at the same point and not form a triangle at all If so, the angle between d and f may be acute, right, or obtuse For example: Find a unit vector v in the direction of the side of the incline Drawing is not to scale Find the projection of F onto the unit vector v, proj v F The force required is (y sin 9 )v v is a unit vector, the magnitude of the force required to keep the car stationary is (y sin 9 ) Solve for y d, e, and f form a Pythagorean triple, and the angles between d and e and between e and f are acute, but the angle between d and f is obtuse 66 ERROR ANALYSIS Beng and Ethan are studying the properties of the dot product Beng concludes that the dot product is associative because it is commutative; that is Ethan disagrees Is either of them correct? Explain your reasoning Ethan is correct The dot product of will result in some value x x is a scalar and not a vector, is undefined So, is undefined the force is given in units, the car s weight will be given in kilograms Thus, the car weighs about kilograms 65 REASONING Determine whether the statement below is true or false Explain If d, e, and f form a Pythagorean triple, and the angles between d and e and between e and f are acute, then the angle between d and f must be a right angle Explain your reasoning 67 REASONING Determine whether the statement below is true or false If a and b are both orthogonal to v in the plane, then a and b are parallel Explain your reasoning The statement is false If either a or b is a zero vector, it would be orthogonal to v, but could not be parallel to the other vector Recall that the terms perpendicular and orthogonal have essentially the same meaning, except when a or b is the zero vector The zero vector is orthogonal to any vector, but since it has no magnitude or direction, it cannot be perpendicular to a vector Page 27

28 Ethan is correct The dot product of will result in some value x x is a scalar and not a vector, is undefined So, is undefined 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 67 REASONING Determine whether the statement below is true or false If a and b are both orthogonal to v in the plane, then a and b are parallel Explain your reasoning The statement is false If either a or b is a zero vector, it would be orthogonal to v, but could not be parallel to the other vector Recall that the terms perpendicular and orthogonal have essentially the same meaning, except when a or b is the zero vector The zero vector is orthogonal to any vector, but since it has no magnitude or direction, it cannot be perpendicular to a vector 68 CHALLENGE If u and v are perpendicular, what is the projection of u onto v? The equation for the projection of u onto v is If u and v are perpendicular, PROOF Prove each dot product property Let u =, v =, and w = then they are orthogonal So, Substitute into the equation for the projection of u onto v So, the projection of u onto v is 0 69 PROOF Show that if the angle between vectors u and v is 90, using the formula for the angle between two nonzero vectors 73 Writing in Math Explain how to find the dot product of two nonzero vectors Sample answer: For two nonzero vectors and, the dot product is the sum of the products of the x-coordinates and the y-coordinates, or ac + bd Find each of the following for, 74 b a + 4c, and PROOF Prove each dot product property Let u =, v =, and w = 70 Page c 3a + b

31 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections 80 The equation is in standard form, where h = 0, k = 0, a = 6, b = 2, and c = or about 632 In the standard form of the equation, the x-term is being subtracted Therefore, the orientation of the hyperbola is vertical center: (h, k) = (0, 0) vertices: (h, k ± a) = (0, 6) and (0, 6) foci: (h, k ± c) = (0, 632) and (0, 632) asymptotes: 81 Find the exact value of each expression, if it exists First, find sin On the unit circle, corresponds to So, sin = Next, find arcsin The inverse property applies, because is on the interval [ 1, 1] Therefore, arcsin =, and = Use a table of values to sketch the hyperbola 82 The inverse property applies, because lies on the interval Therefore, arctan = 81 Find the exact value of each expression, if it exists First, find sin On the unit circle, corresponds to So, sin = Next, find arcsin The inverse property applies, because is on the interval [ 1, 1] Therefore, arcsin =, and = 83 To simplify the expression, let so Because the cosine function is positive in Quadrants I and IV, and the domain of the inverse cosine function is restricted to Quadrants I and II, must lie in Quadrant I Using the Pythagorean Theorem, you can find that the length of the opposite side is So, Solve each equation 84 log 12 (x 3 + 2) = log Page 31

32 side is So, 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections Solve each equation 84 log 12 (x 3 + 2) = log ELECTRICITY A simple electric circuit contains only a power supply and a resistor When the power supply is off, there is no current in the circuit When the power supply is turned on, the current almost instantly becomes a constant value This situation can be modeled by a graph like the one shown I represents current in amps, and t represents time in seconds 85 log 2 x = log log 2 (x 5) 86 e 5x 4 = 70 a At what t-value is this function discontinuous? b When was the power supply turned on? c If the person who turned on the power supply left and came back hours later, what would he or she measure the current in the circuit to be? a There appears to be a jump discontinuity at t = 4 Therefore, the graph is discontinuous at t = 4 b The current is 0 amps for 0 t < 4 and 10 amps for 4 t Therefore, it appears that the power supply was turned on at t = 4 87 ELECTRICITY A simple electric circuit contains only a power supply and a resistor When the power supply is off, there is no current in the circuit When the power supply is turned on, the current almost instantly becomes a constant value This situation can be modeled by a graph like the one shown I represents current in amps, and t represents time in seconds c From the graph, it appears Therefore, the current in the circuit would be 10 amps 88 SAT/ACT In the figure below, PQR ~ TRS What is the value of x? Page 32 a At what t-value is this function discontinuous? b When was the power supply turned on? A B C 3 D 3 E 6

33 c From the graph, it appears 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections Therefore, the current in the circuit would be 10 amps 88 SAT/ACT In the figure below, PQR ~ TRS What is the value of x? A B C 3 D 3 E 6 PQR ~ TRS, then = Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for QR So, x = 3 The correct answer is C 89 REVIEW Consider C( 9, 2) and D( 4, 3) Which of the following is the component form and magnitude of? F, 5 G, 6 H, 5 J, 6 First, find the component form Next, find the magnitude Substitute x 2 x 1 = 5 and y 2 y 1 = 5 into the formula for the magnitude of a vector in the coordinate plane Substitute PQ, TR, and QR into = and solve for RS The correct answer is F 90 A snow sled is pulled by exerting a force of 25 pounds on a rope that makes a 20 angle with the horizontal, as shown in the figure What is the approximate work done in pulling the sled 50 feet? So, x = 3 The correct answer is C 89 REVIEW Consider C( 9, 2) and D( 4, 3) Which of the following is the component form and magnitude of? F, 5 G, 6 H, 5 J, 6 First, find the component form A 428 foot-pounds B 1093 foot-pounds C 1175 foot-pounds D 1250 foot-pounds Use the projection formula for work The magnitude of the projection of F onto is The magnitude of the directed distance is 50 Page 33

34 8-3 Dot Products and Vector Projections The correct answer is F 90 A snow sled is pulled by exerting a force of 25 pounds on a rope that makes a 20 angle with the horizontal, as shown in the figure What is the approximate work done in pulling the sled 50 feet? A 428 foot-pounds B 1093 foot-pounds C 1175 foot-pounds D 1250 foot-pounds Use the projection formula for work The magnitude of the projection of F onto is The magnitude of the directed distance is 50 Therefore, the approximate work done in pulling the sled is about foot-pounds The correct answer is C 91 REVIEW If s =, t =, which of the following represents t 2s? F G H J The correct answer is H Page 34

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