# Geometry 1. Unit 3: Perpendicular and Parallel Lines

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1 Geometry 1 Unit 3: Perpendicular and Parallel Lines

2 Geometry 1 Unit Lines and Angles

3 Lines and Angles Parallel Lines Parallel lines are lines that are coplanar and do not intersect.

4 Some examples of parallel lines

5 Lines and Angles Skew Lines Lines that are not coplanar and do not intersect

6 Lines and Angles Parallel Planes Planes that do not intersect Parallel capacitors

7 Lines and Angles Example 1 B A C D Name two parallel lines Name two skew lines A G Name two perpendicular lines E F

8 Lines and Angles Example 2 Think of each segment in the diagram as part of a line. Which of the lines appear fit the description? a. Parallel to TW and contains V b. Perpendicular to TW and contains V c. Skew to TW and contains V d. Name the plane(s) that contain V and appear to be parallel to the plane TPQ Q R P T U S W V

9 Lines and Angles Parallel Postulate If there is a line and a point not on the line, then there is exactly one line through the point parallel to the given line. P l There is exactly one line through P parallel to l.

10 Lines and Angles Perpendicular Postulate If there is a line and a point not on the line, then there is exactly one line through the point perpendicular to the given line. P There is exactly one line through P perpendicular to l. l

11 Constructing Perpendicular Lines Step 1: Draw a line, and a point not on the line

12 Constructing Perpendicular Lines Step 2:

13 Constructing Perpendicular Lines Step 3:

14 Constructing Perpendicular Lines Step 4:

15 Constructing Perpendicular Lines Step 4 completed this is what your paper should look like

16 Constructing Perpendicular Lines Draw a line through The intersection and The point not on the line

17 Constructing Perpendicular Lines You now have two perpendicular lines they intersect at 90 o the line you constructed passes through the point that you drew at the beginning Way to Go!

18 Lines and Angles Transversal A line that intersects two or more coplanar lines at different points

19 Lines and Angles Corresponding Angles Two angles that occupy corresponding positions

20 Lines and Angles Alternate Exterior Angles Angles that lie outside two lines on the opposite sides of the transversal

21 Lines and Angles Alternate Interior Angles Angles that lie between the two lines on opposite sides of the transversal

22 Lines and Angles Consecutive Interior Angles Also called same side interior Angles that lie between two lines on the same side of a transversal

23 Lines and Angles Transversal A line that intersects two or more coplanar lines at different points

24 Lines and Angles Corresponding Angles Two angles that are formed by two lines and a transversal and occupy corresponding positions. E L V O M A H T

25 Lines and Angles Alternate Exterior Angles Two angles that are formed by two lines and a transversal and that lie between the two lines on opposite sides of the transversal E L V O M A H T

26 Lines and Angles Alternate Interior Angles Two angles that 1 are formed by two lines and a transversal and that lie outside the two lines on opposite sides of the transversal E L V O M A H T

27 Lines and Angles Consecutive Interior Angles Two angles that are formed by two lines and a transversal and that lie between the two lines on the same side of the transversal also called same side interior angles E L V O M A H T

28 Lines and Angles Example 3 Label your diagram. List all pairs of angles that fit the description. a. Transversal b. Corresponding c. Alternate exterior angles d. Alternate interior angles d. Consecutive interior angles

29 Geometry 1 Unit Proof and Perpendicular Lines

30 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Review of 2.5 A two-column proof has numbered on one side, and that show the logical order of an argument on the other. In the two-column proof, the reasons must use one of the following: ; a ; a ; a ; or a

31 Proof and Perpendicular Lines 3 types of Proofs Two- Column Proof The most formal type of proof. It lists numbered statements in the left-hand column and a reason for each in the right hand column Paragraph Proof Flow Proof

32 Proof and Perpendicular Lines 3 types of Proofs Two-Column Proof The most formal type of proof. It lists numbered statements in the left-hand column and a reason for each in the right hand column Paragraph Proof Describes the logical argument with sentences. It is more conversational than a two-column proof. Flow Proof

33 Proof and Perpendicular Lines 3 types of Proofs Two-Column Proof The most formal type of proof. It lists numbered statements in the left-hand column and a reason for each in the right hand column Paragraph Proof Describes the logical argument with sentences. It is more conversational than a two-column proof. Flow Proof Uses the same statements as a two column proof, but the logical flow connecting the statements are connected by arrows

34 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Theorem Explanation Sketch Congruent Linear Pair Theorem If two lines intersect to form a linear pair of congruent angles, then the lines are perpendicular Adjacent Complementary Angle Theorem Perpendicular Lines Intersection Theorem

35 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Theorem Explanation Sketch Congruent Linear Pair Theorem Adjacent Complementary Angle Theorem If two lines intersect to form a linear pair of congruent angles, then the lines are perpendicular If two sides of two adjacent acute angles are perpendicular then the angles are complementary Perpendicular Lines Intersection Theorem

36 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Theorem Explanation Sketch Congruent Linear Pair Theorem Adjacent Complementary Angle Theorem Perpendicular Lines Intersection Theorem If two lines intersect to form a linear pair of congruent angles, then the lines are perpendicular If two sides of two adjacent acute angles are perpendicular then the angles are complementary If two angles are perpendicular then they intersect to form four right angles

37 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 1-Method 1 Given: AB = CD Prove: AC = BD A B C D Statements Reasons

38 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 1- Method 2 Given: AB = CD Prove: AC = BD A B C D

39 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 2- Method 1 Given: BA perpendicular to BC Prove: 1 and 2 are complementary 2 1 Statements Reasons

40 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 2- Method 3 Given: BA perpendicular to BC Prove: 1 and 2 are complementary 2 1

41 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 3- Method 1 Two Column Proof Given: 5 and 6 are a linear pair 6 and 7 are a linear pair Prove: 5 z 7 Statements Reasons

42 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 3- Method 2 Paragraph Proof

43 Proof and Perpendicular Lines Example 3- Method 3 Flow Chart Proof

44 Geometry 1 Unit Parallel Lines and Transversals

45 Parallel Lines and Transversals Activity: Measuring angles of parallel lines and their transversals Objective: Discover the relationships between the angles of parallel lines and their transversals Question: What is the relationship between the angles and the lines? Step 1: Construct a segment Step 2: Construct 2 parallel lines crossing that segment Step 3: Number the angles 1 8 Step 4: Measure each angle with a protractor, write that measure on the figure Step 5: Write, in paragraph form, the relationships you see

46 Parallel Lines and Transversals Step 1: Construct a segment

47 Parallel Lines and Transversals Construct 2 parallel lines crossing that Segment

48 Parallel Lines and Transversals Step 3: Number the angles

49 Parallel Lines and Transversals Step 4: Measure each angle with a protractor, write that measure on the figure o o o o o o o o

50 Parallel Lines and Transversals Step 5: Write, in paragraph form, the relationships you see

51 Parallel Lines and Transversals Corresponding Angles Postulate If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of corresponding angles are congruent z 2

52 Parallel Lines and Transversals Alternate Interior Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of alternate interior angles are congruent z 4

53 Parallel Lines and Transversals Consecutive Interior Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of consecutive interior angles are supplementary. 6 5 m 5 + m 2 = 180

54 Parallel Lines and Transversals Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of alternate exterior angles are congruent z 8

55 Parallel Lines and Transversals Perpendicular Transversal Theorem If a transversal is perpendicular to one of two parallel lines, then it is perpendicular to the other. h k j is perpendicular to k

56 Parallel Lines and Transversals Example 1 Given: p q Prove: m 1 + m 2 = p 4 28 q Statements Reasons

57 Parallel Lines and Transversals Solve for x = x 2. 2x = x = x + 1 = 151

58 Parallel Lines and Transversals 5. (2x + 1) = (7x + 15) = 81

59 Parallel Lines and Transversals Answers 1. X = X = X = X = X = X = 8

60 Parallel Lines and Transversals Example 2 Given that m 5 = 65, find each measure. Tell which postulate or theorem you used to find each one. m 6 m 7 a. b. p q 9 8 m 8 m 9 c. d.

61 Parallel Lines and Transversals Example 3 How many other angles have a measure of 100? AB CD AC BD A B 100 D C

62 Parallel Lines and Transversals Example 4 Use properties of parallel lines to find the value of x. 72 (x 8)

63 Parallel Lines and Transversals Example 5 Find the value of x. x (x 20) 70

64 Geometry 1 Unit Proving Lines are Parallel

65 Proving Lines are Parallel Corresponding Angle Converse Postulate If two lines are cut by a transversal so that corresponding angles are congruent, then the lines are parallel j k j k

66 Proving Lines are Parallel Alternate Interior Angles Converse If two lines are cut by a transversal so that alternate interior angles are congruent then the lines are parallel. 3 j 1 k If 1 z 3, then j k

67 Proving Lines are Parallel Consecutive Interior Angles Converse If two lines are cut by a transversal so that consecutive interior angles are supplementary, then the two lines are parallel 2 j 1 k If m 1 + m 2 = 180, then j k.

68 Proving Lines are Parallel Alternate Exterior Angles Converse If two lines are cut by a transversal so that alternate exterior angles are congruent, then the lines are parallel. 4 j k 5 If 1 z 3, then j k.

69 Proving Lines are Parallel Example 1 Given: m p, m q Prove: p q 1 m 2 p q Statements Reasons

70 Proving Lines are Parallel Example 2 Given: 5 z 6, 6 z 4 Prove: AD BC A 4 6 D B 5 C

71 Proving Lines are Parallel Example 3 Find the value of x that makes m n. m n (2x + 1) (3x 5)

72 Proving Lines are Parallel Example 4 Is AB DC? Is BC AD? 155 D C A 65 B

73 Proving Lines are Parallel Example 5 When the lines r and s are cut by a transversal, 1 and 2 are same side interior angles. If m 1 is three times m 2, can r be parallel to line s? Explain

74 Proving Lines are Parallel The sum of the interior degrees of a triangle is 180. The sum of the degrees of a pair of complementary angles is 90. The sum of the degrees of a pair of supplementary angles is 180. The sum of the degrees of consecutive interior angles if transversal crosses parallel lines is 180. Parallel lines have slopes that are congruent.

75 Geometry 1 Unit Using Properties of Parallel Lines

76 Using Properties of Parallel Lines Lines Parallel to a Third Line Theorem If two lines are parallel to the same line, then they are parallel to each other. p q r If p q and q r, then p r

77 Using Properties of Parallel Lines Lines Perpendicular to a Third Line Theorem In a plane, if two lines are perpendicular to the same line, then they are parallel to each other. m n If m p and n p, then m n p

78 Using Properties of Parallel Lines Example 1 Given: r s and s t r s Prove: r t 3 t Statements Reasons

79 Using Properties of Parallel Lines Example 2 The flag of the United States has 13 alternating red and white stripes. Each stripe is parallel to the stripe immediately below it. Explain why the top stripe is parallel to the bottom stripe. S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 S 5 S 6 S 7 S 8 S 9 S 10 S 11 S 12 S 13 Describe your thinking as you prove that S 1 and s 13 are parallel

80 Using Properties of Parallel Lines Example 3 You are building a CD rack. You cut the sides, bottom, and top so that each corner is composed of two 45 o angles. Prove that the top and bottom front edges of the CD rack are parallel. Given: m m m ABC m 1 m 2 Prove: 0 m 1 45 m Angle Addition Postulate Given Angle Addition Postulate Given Substitution Property Substitution Property Definition of a right angle Substitution Property Definition of perpendicular lines Definition of perpendicular lines In a plane, 2 lines to the same line are

81 Geometry 1 Unit Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane

82 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane slope slope y x rise run y x The slope of a line is usually represented by the variable m. Slope is the change in the rise, or vertical change, over the change in the run, or horizontal change. (x, y ) 2 2 ( x, y ) x run x y y 2 1 rise y y m x x

83 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 1 Cog railway A cog railway goes up the side of a Mount Washington, the tallest mountain in New England. At the steepest section, the train goes up about 4 feet for each 10 feet it goes forward. What is the slope of this section. rise = run = slope = =

84 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 2 The cog railway covers about 3.1 miles and gains about 3600 feet of altitude. What is the average slope of the track?

85 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 3 Find the slope of a line that passes through the points (0,6) and (5,2). x 1 = y 1 = x 2 = y 2 = slope = =

86 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Slopes of Parallel Lines Postulate In a coordinate plane, two non-vertical lines are parallel if and only if they have the same slope. Any two vertical lines are parallel.

87 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 4 Find the slope of each line.

88 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 5 Find the slope of each line. Which lines are parallel?

89 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane In algebra, you learned that you can use the slope m of a non-vertical line to write the equation of the line in slope intercept form. y = mx + b slope y-intercept

90 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 6 y = 2x + 5 y = -½x 3 What is the slope? What is the y-intercept? Do you have enough information to graph the line?

91 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 7 Write the equation of a line through the point (2,3) with a slope of 5. Step 1: x = Step 2: Substitute the values above into the equation y = mx + b. SOLVE FOR b. = ( ) ( ) + b y m x y = m = Step 3 Rewrite the equation of the line in slope-intercept form, using m and b from your solution to the equation above y = x + m b

92 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 8 Line k 1 has the equation y = 2/5 x + 3. Line k 2 is parallel to k 1 and passes through the point (-5, 0). Write the equation of k 2.

93 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 9 Write an equation parallel to the line y 1 3 x 16 What do you have to keep the same as the original equation? What did you change?

94 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 10 A zip line is a taut rope or a cable that you can ride down on a pulley. The zip line below goes from a 9 foot tall tower to a 6 foot tower 20 feet away. What is the slope of the zip line?

95 Geometry 1 Unit Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane

96 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Activity: Investigating Slope of Parallel Lines You will need: an index card, a pencil and the graph below. Place the index card at any angle except straight up and down on the coordinate plane below, with a corner of the card placed on an intersection. Use the edge of the card like a ruler, draw to lines, that will intersect at the corner of the card that lines up with the intersection on the coordinate plane. Name the lines o and p. Move the index card and select, then label, two points on line. These should be points where the line goes directly through an intersection on the coordinate plane. Using the equation for slope, find the slope of each line.

97 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 1 Label the point of intersection And the x-intercept of each line. Find the slope of each line. Multiply the slopes. Question: What do you notice? Look at the activity from the start of class. Multiply the slopes of those lines. Question: What do you notice? What is true about the product of the slopes of perpendicular lines?

98 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 2 Decide whether AC and DB A are perpendicular. C D B What is the product of the slopes of perpendicular lines? Are these lines perpendicular?

99 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 3 Decide whether AC and DB A B are perpendicular. C D What is the product of the slopes of perpendicular lines? Are these lines perpendicular?

100 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 4 Decide whether these lines are perpendicular. y x y x line h: line j: What is the product of the slopes of perpendicular lines? Are these lines perpendicular?

101 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 5 Decide whether these lines are perpendicular. 5x 4y 2 line r: line s: y x What is the product of the slopes of perpendicular lines? Are these lines perpendicular?

102 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Slope of a line Slope of the perpendicular line Product of the slopes

103 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 6 Line l 1 has equation y = -2x +1. Find an equation for the line, l 2 that passes through point (4, 0) and is perpendicular to l 1. What is the slope of l 1? What form is l 1 written in? What does the slope of l 2 need to be if they are perpendicular? With the point known (4, 0), (it is in the original question), and the slope known for l 2, Can you find the y-intercept, b, of the perpendicular line? x = y = What is the equation of the perpendicular line? m = b =

104 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 7 Line g has equation y = 3x - 2. Find an equation for the line h that passes through point (3, 4) and is perpendicular to g. What is the slope of g? What form is g written in? What does the slope of h need to be if they are perpendicular? With the point known (3, 4), (it is in the original question), and the slope known for h, Can you find the y-intercept, b, of the perpendicular line h? x = y = What is the equation of line h? m = b =

105 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 8 What is the equation of a line 3 a, which passes through point (-2, 0) that is perpendicular to line z, y x 3 2 What is the slope of z? What form is z written in? What does the slope of a need to be if they are perpendicular? With the point known (-2, 0), (it is in the original question), and the slope known for z, Can you find the y-intercept, b, of the perpendicular line? x = y = m = b = What is the equation of the perpendicular line?

106 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane Example 9 Line g has equation y through point (3, 1) and is perpendicular to g. 5 x 3. Find an equation for the line s that passes 3 What is the slope of g? What form is g written in? What does the slope of s need to be if they are perpendicular? With the point known (3, 1), what is the equation of the perpendicular line s? x = y = m = b =

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