Vector Algebra. Addition: (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (associative) Subtraction: A B = A + (B)


 Hugh Kelley
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Vector Algebra When dealing with scalars, the usual math operations (+, , ) are sufficient to obtain any information needed. When dealing with ectors, the magnitudes can be operated on as scalars, but we must account for doing operations on or between ector directions. Addition: A + B = B + A (commutatie) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (associatie) Subtraction: A B = A + (B) NOTE: When adding ectors, you can only combine components that are in the same direction! Ex. 3,2 + 4, 1 = (3 + 4) x + (2 1) y = 7x + 1y Visual Representation B B A A A A + B B + A A A  B A B < Tail to Tip Method Handout > Magnitude or length of a ector : Let = ax + by + cz The length or magnitude of is the distance from the origin 0,0,0 to point abc,,. Using the distance formula: = ( a 0) + ( b 0) + ( c 0) = a + b + c
2 Multiplication by a scalar: a(a + B) = aa + ab (distributie) A= ax + a y + a z, then If ka= kax + ka y + ka z NOTE: Multiplying a ector by a positie scalar does NOT effect its direction, only its magnitude. Multiplying by a negatie scalar reerses the ector s direction. Ex. 3(2x 4y + 1 z) = 6x 12y + 3z Visual Representation A 3A Dot Product: A B = ab + ab + ab where A= a 1x+ a2y+ a3z & B= b 1x+ b2y+ b3z I II A B = ABcos where is the angle formed between the 2 ectors. NOTE: This process is also referred to as the scalar product because the final result is a scalar, not a ector. In the second expression, A and B represent the magnitudes of the ectors A and B. This method is only used when you are looking for the angle between 2 ectors or when the angle between 2 ectors is known. < Visual Representation of the Dot Product > NOTE: The dot product is commutatie, meaning A B= B A. The dot product is distributie, meaning ( A+ B) C= A C+ B C Ex. (3x + 4 y) ( 1x + 2y + 5 z ) = (3 1) + (4 2) + (0 5) = 5 2
3 Ex. Gien A= 3x + 2 y and B= 4x 1y, find the angle between. cos = A B AB A B AB 1 = cos ( 1) = cos = cos = rad (47.7 o ) Ex. What happens when you take the dot product of a ector with unit ectors? = x + y + z Let x = 1, 2, 3 1,0,0 = 1 y = 1, 2, 3 0,1,0 = 2 z = 1, 2, 3 0,0,1 = 3 Ex. What happens when you take the dot product between unit ectors? x x = 1,0,0 1,0,0 = 1 Likewise y y = z z = 1 x y = 1, 0,0 0,1, 0 = 0 this means they are to each other likewise x z = y z = 0 NOTE: This property is the same for other coordinate systems. * The dot product for any set of orthogonal unit ectors can be summarized by using the Kronecker delta ( δ ij ): e e =δ i j ij 3
4 Multiplication by a ector: (Cross Product) Let A= a1e 1+ a2e2+ a3e 3 & B= b1e 1+ b2e2+ b3e 3 I A B= ( ab 2 3 ab 3 2) e1 ( ab 1 3 ab 3 1) e2+ ( ab 1 2 ab 2 1) e 3 II e1 e2 e3 A B = det a1 a2 a 3 or b1 b2 b 3 e e e a a a b b b III A B= ABsinn where n represents the direction perp. To both A & B (n = the normal unit ector, meaning perpendicular to) NOTE: This definition is also referred to as the ector product because the final result is a ector, not a scalar. * Important features of the cross product: 1) It is only defined for 3D (for a 2D ector, add a 0 for the missing dimension) 2) It yields a ector that is perpendicular to both original ectors (its direction is gien by the righthandrule) 3) The cross product obeys the following algebraic properties A B= ( B A ) (not commutatie) A ( B+ C) = A B+ A C (distributie) c( A B) = ( ca) B= A ( cb ) (distributie) ( A B) C= B( A C) A( B C ) (ector triple product) A ( B C) = B( A C) C( A B ) (ector triple product) A ( B C) = ( A B) C (scalar triple product) A A =0 A 0= 0 4
5 * Geometric features of the cross product: 1) u & u are orthogonal (perp.) to both u and u u ( u) = ( u ) The magnitude (length) of u x is a measure or reflection of how perpendicular u and are. Max length is when u is to 0 length when u & are or anti 2) u =usin 3) u = the area of a parallelogram haing u & for adjacent sides u u sin 4) 1 2 u = the area of a triangle haing u & for adjacent sides u u sin 5) u = 0 iff u & are scalar multiples of each other (parallel) 6) u ( w ) = the olume of a parallelepiped haing u, & w as adjacent edges The triple scalar product can be found using: u ( w ) = u u u w w w NOTE: This alue could be negatie! 5
6 APPLICATIONS: The primary applications in physics inoling cross products are: Torque Angular Momentum Magnetic Force Ex. Find the cross product A B for A= 1x + 3y + 2z & B= 3x + 4y z x y z A B= = ( 3 8) x + (6 ( 1)) y + (4 9) z = 11x + 7y 5z Ex. Find the cross product x y for unit ectors x = 1, 0,0 & y = 0,1,0 What do you expect the answer to be? ẑ ẑ x ŷ x y z x y = = (0 0) x + (0 0) y + (1 0) z = ẑ Ex. Find the cross product y x. x y z y x = = (0 0) x + (0 0) y + (0 1) z = z ** These last 2 examples illustrate the identity A B= ( B A ). 6
7 Ex. Find the area of a parallelogram haing u = 3,2, 1 & = 1,3,3 as adjacent sides. x y z u = = (6 ( 3)) x + (( 1) 9) y + (9 2) z = 9x 10y + 7z Area = u = 9 + ( 10) + 7 = 15.2 Ex. Find the area of the parallelogram in the preious example by finding the angle between the ectors and then using u = usin. To find the angle, we use the dot product: u u 1 = cos ( 1)3 = cos = cos = o or (.38π) Therefore: Area = o 266 sin(68.4 ) =
8 Applications of Dot and Crossproducts Work Work done by a constant force is defined as W = F d = Fdcos. In other words, how much work is done on an object is equal to the magnitude of the applied force in the direction of motion. The work done on an object is also a measure of the amount of energy the object has gained (W > 0) or lost (W < 0). Ex. How much work is required to moe a 200 kg crate 4 m if it is being dragged by a steel cord under a force F = (15x + 12 y ) N? F = (15x + 12 y ) N 200 kg 4 m Method I: (direct dot product) W = F d = ( 15x + 12y) 4x = ( 15x 4x) + ( 12y 4x ) = 60( ) + 48( ) = 60 J x x y x NOTE: x x = 1 & y x = 0 Method II: (using magnitudes and angles) W = Fdcos o = ( 369 )( 4) cos( ) = 60 J 2 2 F = = 369 d = = tan = o 8
9 Angular Momentum The angular momentum of a rotating object about a fixed point is gien by L = r p = r m, where r is the displacement from the fixed point to a point on the object and p is the linear momentum of the point located at r (or m is the mass and is the elocity of a point located at r). The physical interpretation of angular momentum is twofold: 1) L is an indicator of the direction an object is rotating. L > 0 CounterClockwise L < 0 Clockwise L r p  L r p 2) L is a measure of how hard it is to stop an object that is rotating. Special Case: Circular Motion Since the angular momentum is a crossproduct, the magnitude is gien by: L = rpsin = mrsin Since sin can range from 1 to 1, this means the alue of L can range from mr to mr. π π sin 1 mr L mr The maximum alues (1 or 1) occur when = 90 o or 90 o. These special angles refer to an object experiencing circular motion. 9
10 Ex. Diatomic Molecule m r r m = 90 o Find L L = L + L 1 2 L = L + L 1 2 L = mrsin + mrsin L = mr(1) + mr(1) L = 2mr 10
LINES AND PLANES IN R 3
LINES AND PLANES IN R 3 In this handout we will summarize the properties of the dot product and cross product and use them to present arious descriptions of lines and planes in three dimensional space.
More informationFigure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F
CHAPTER I VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities are anything which can be measured, and stated with number. Quantities in physics are divided into two types; scalar and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have
More informationVectors. Vector Multiplication
Vectors Directed Line Segments and Geometric Vectors A line segment to which a direction has been assigned is called a directed line segment. The figure below shows a directed line segment form P to Q.
More information13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT
710 Chapter Thirteen A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL: VECTORS 62. Use the following steps and the results of Problems 59 60 to show (without trigonometry) that the geometric and algebraic definitions of the dot product
More informationProblem set on Cross Product
1 Calculate the vector product of a and b given that a= 2i + j + k and b = i j k (Ans 3 j  3 k ) 2 Calculate the vector product of i  j and i + j (Ans ) 3 Find the unit vectors that are perpendicular
More informationGeometric description of the cross product of the vectors u and v. The cross product of two vectors is a vector! u x v is perpendicular to u and v
12.4 Cross Product Geometric description of the cross product of the vectors u and v The cross product of two vectors is a vector! u x v is perpendicular to u and v The length of u x v is uv u v sin The
More informationSolution: 2. Sketch the graph of 2 given the vectors and shown below.
7.4 Vectors, Operations, and the Dot Product Quantities such as area, volume, length, temperature, and speed have magnitude only and can be completely characterized by a single real number with a unit
More information9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product
Arkansas Tech University MATH 934: Calculus III Dr. Marcel B Finan 9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Up to this point we have defined what vectors are and discussed basic notation
More informationCross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product
Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product Geometrical definition Properties Expression in components. Definition in components Properties Geometrical expression.
More informationDot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) There are two main ways to introduce the dot product
Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) Two definitions for the dot product. Geometric definition of dot product. Orthogonal vectors. Dot product and orthogonal projections. Properties of the dot
More informationAnnouncements. 2D Vector Addition
Announcements 2D Vector Addition Today s Objectives Understand the difference between scalars and vectors Resolve a 2D vector into components Perform vector operations Class Activities Applications Scalar
More informationReview A: Vector Analysis
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Review A: Vector Analysis A... A0 A.1 Vectors A2 A.1.1 Introduction A2 A.1.2 Properties of a Vector A2 A.1.3 Application of Vectors
More informationex) What is the component form of the vector shown in the picture above?
Vectors A ector is a directed line segment, which has both a magnitude (length) and direction. A ector can be created using any two points in the plane, the direction of the ector is usually denoted by
More informationMathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 10. Vector Algebra
1 P a g e Mathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 10. Vector Algebra A vector has direction and magnitude both but scalar has only magnitude. Magnitude of a vector a is denoted by a or a. It is nonnegative
More informationBasic Linear Algebra
Basic Linear Algebra by: Dan Sunday, softsurfer.com Table of Contents Coordinate Systems 1 Points and Vectors Basic Definitions Vector Addition Scalar Multiplication 3 Affine Addition 3 Vector Length 4
More informationMAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK
MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK 1. Projections and Cross Product 1.1. Projections. Definition 1.1. Given a vector u, the rectangular (or perpendicular or orthogonal) components are two vectors u 1 and
More informationVectorsAlgebra and Geometry
Chapter Two VectorsAlgebra and Geometry 21 Vectors A directed line segment in space is a line segment together with a direction Thus the directed line segment from the point P to the point Q is different
More informationVectors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl.
Vectors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl. 1 Introduction A vector is determined by its length and direction. They are usually denoted with letters with arrows on the top a or in bold letter a. We will use
More informationVector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products
Chapter 2 Vector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products We saw in the previous chapter how vector quantities may be added and subtracted. In this chapter we consider the products of vectors and define
More informationAdding vectors We can do arithmetic with vectors. We ll start with vector addition and related operations. Suppose you have two vectors
1 Chapter 13. VECTORS IN THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE Let s begin with some names and notation for things: R is the set (collection) of real numbers. We write x R to mean that x is a real number. A real number
More informationLecture L3  Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations
S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Lecture notes based on J. Peraire Version 2.0 Lecture L3  Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations By using vectors and defining appropriate operations between
More informationNotice that v v w (4)( 15) ( 3)( 20) (0)(2) ( 2)( 15) (2)( 20) (5)(2)
The Cross Product When discussing the dot product, we showed how two vectors can be combined to get a number. Here, we shall see another way of combining vectors, this time resulting in a vector. This
More informationSection 1.1. Introduction to R n
The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section. Introduction to R n Calculus is the study of functional relationships and how related quantities change with each other. In your first exposure to
More informationMath 241, Exam 1 Information.
Math 241, Exam 1 Information. 9/24/12, LC 310, 11:1512:05. Exam 1 will be based on: Sections 12.112.5, 14.114.3. The corresponding assigned homework problems (see http://www.math.sc.edu/ boylan/sccourses/241fa12/241.html)
More information11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space
11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of
More informationv 1 v 3 u v = (( 1)4 (3)2, [1(4) ( 2)2], 1(3) ( 2)( 1)) = ( 10, 8, 1) (d) u (v w) = (u w)v (u v)w (Relationship between dot and cross product)
0.1 Cross Product The dot product of two vectors is a scalar, a number in R. Next we will define the cross product of two vectors in 3space. This time the outcome will be a vector in 3space. Definition
More informationLectures notes on orthogonal matrices (with exercises) 92.222  Linear Algebra II  Spring 2004 by D. Klain
Lectures notes on orthogonal matrices (with exercises) 92.222  Linear Algebra II  Spring 2004 by D. Klain 1. Orthogonal matrices and orthonormal sets An n n realvalued matrix A is said to be an orthogonal
More informationUsing determinants, it is possible to express the solution to a system of equations whose coefficient matrix is invertible:
Cramer s Rule and the Adjugate Using determinants, it is possible to express the solution to a system of equations whose coefficient matrix is invertible: Theorem [Cramer s Rule] If A is an invertible
More informationOne advantage of this algebraic approach is that we can write down
. Vectors and the dot product A vector v in R 3 is an arrow. It has a direction and a length (aka the magnitude), but the position is not important. Given a coordinate axis, where the xaxis points out
More informationUnified Lecture # 4 Vectors
Fall 2005 Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors These notes were written by J. Peraire as a review of vectors for Dynamics 16.07. They have been adapted for Unified Engineering by R. Radovitzky. References [1] Feynmann,
More informationL 2 : x = s + 1, y = s, z = 4s + 4. 3. Suppose that C has coordinates (x, y, z). Then from the vector equality AC = BD, one has
The line L through the points A and B is parallel to the vector AB = 3, 2, and has parametric equations x = 3t + 2, y = 2t +, z = t Therefore, the intersection point of the line with the plane should satisfy:
More information1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two nonzero vectors u and v,
1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19 1.3 Dot Product 1.3.1 Definitions and Properties The dot product is the first way to multiply two vectors. The definition we will give below may appear arbitrary. But it is not. It
More informationTwo vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not
Vectors define vectors Some physical quantities, such as temperature, length, and mass, can be specified by a single number called a scalar. Other physical quantities, such as force and velocity, must
More informationELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA A.1. VECTORS AND SCALAR QUANTITIES We have now proposed sets of basic dimensions and secondary dimensions to describe certain aspects of nature, but more than just dimensions
More information5.3 The Cross Product in R 3
53 The Cross Product in R 3 Definition 531 Let u = [u 1, u 2, u 3 ] and v = [v 1, v 2, v 3 ] Then the vector given by [u 2 v 3 u 3 v 2, u 3 v 1 u 1 v 3, u 1 v 2 u 2 v 1 ] is called the cross product (or
More informationChapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis
Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis 2. Polar coordinates A point P in a polar coordinate system is represented by an ordered pair of numbers (r, θ). If r >
More informationREVIEW OVER VECTORS. A scalar is a quantity that is defined by its value only. This value can be positive, negative or zero Example.
REVIEW OVER VECTORS I. Scalars & Vectors: A scalar is a quantity that is defined by its value only. This value can be positive, negative or zero Example mass = 5 kg A vector is a quantity that can be described
More informationVectors VECTOR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial
Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT Graham S McDonald A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors Table of contents Begin Tutorial c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk 1. Theory 2. Exercises
More informationVectors What are Vectors? which measures how far the vector reaches in each direction, i.e. (x, y, z).
1 1. What are Vectors? A vector is a directed line segment. A vector can be described in two ways: Component form Magnitude and Direction which measures how far the vector reaches in each direction, i.e.
More informationSolutions to old Exam 1 problems
Solutions to old Exam 1 problems Hi students! I am putting this old version of my review for the first midterm review, place and time to be announced. Check for updates on the web site as to which sections
More information13 MATH FACTS 101. 2 a = 1. 7. The elements of a vector have a graphical interpretation, which is particularly easy to see in two or three dimensions.
3 MATH FACTS 0 3 MATH FACTS 3. Vectors 3.. Definition We use the overhead arrow to denote a column vector, i.e., a linear segment with a direction. For example, in threespace, we write a vector in terms
More information28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE. v x. u y v z u z v y u y u z. v y v z
28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.4 Cross Product 1.4.1 Definitions The cross product is the second multiplication operation between vectors we will study. The goal behind the definition
More informationMATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product.
MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product. Vectors: geometric approach B A B A A vector is represented by a directed segment. Directed segment is drawn as an arrow. Different arrows represent
More information2 Session Two  Complex Numbers and Vectors
PH2011 Physics 2A Maths Revision  Session 2: Complex Numbers and Vectors 1 2 Session Two  Complex Numbers and Vectors 2.1 What is a Complex Number? The material on complex numbers should be familiar
More information1 Vectors: Geometric Approach
c F. Waleffe, 2008/09/01 Vectors These are compact lecture notes for Math 321 at UWMadison. Read them carefully, ideally before the lecture, and complete with your own class notes and pictures. Skipping
More informationTHREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Chapter 8 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 8.1 Introduction In this chapter we present a vector algebra approach to three dimensional geometry. The aim is to present standard properties of lines and planes,
More informationa a. θ = cos 1 a b ) b For nonzero vectors a and b, then the component of b along a is given as comp
Textbook Assignment 4 Your Name: LAST NAME, FIRST NAME (YOUR STUDENT ID: XXXX) Your Instructors Name: Prof. FIRST NAME LAST NAME YOUR SECTION: MATH 0300 XX Due Date: NAME OF DAY, MONTH DAY, YEAR. SECTION
More informationChapter 3 Vectors. m = m1 + m2 = 3 kg + 4 kg = 7 kg (3.1)
COROLLARY I. A body, acted on by two forces simultaneously, will describe the diagonal of a parallelogram in the same time as it would describe the sides by those forces separately. Isaac Newton  Principia
More informationLINEAR ALGEBRA W W L CHEN
LINEAR ALGEBRA W W L CHEN c W W L Chen, 1982, 2008. This chapter originates from material used by author at Imperial College, University of London, between 1981 and 1990. It is available free to all individuals,
More informationChapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Angles
6.1 Angle Measure Chapter 6 Trigonometric Functions of Angles In Chapter 5, we looked at trig functions in terms of real numbers t, as determined by the coordinates of the terminal point on the unit circle.
More information1 Introduction to Matrices
1 Introduction to Matrices In this section, important definitions and results from matrix algebra that are useful in regression analysis are introduced. While all statements below regarding the columns
More informationThe Dot and Cross Products
The Dot and Cross Products Two common operations involving vectors are the dot product and the cross product. Let two vectors =,, and =,, be given. The Dot Product The dot product of and is written and
More informationMatrix Algebra LECTURE 1. Simultaneous Equations Consider a system of m linear equations in n unknowns: y 1 = a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + +a 1n x n,
LECTURE 1 Matrix Algebra Simultaneous Equations Consider a system of m linear equations in n unknowns: y 1 a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + +a 1n x n, (1) y 2 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + +a 2n x n, y m a m1 x 1 +a m2 x
More information1. Velocity and Acceleration
1. Velocity and Acceleration [This material relates predominantly to modules ELP034, ELP035] 1.1 Linear Motion 1. Angular Motion 1.3 Relationship between linear and angular motion 1.4 Uniform circular
More informationDescription of the motion of rigid bodies is important for two reasons:
KINEMATICS OF RIGID ODIES Introduction In rigid body kinematics, we use the relationships goerning the displacement, elocity and acceleration, but must also account for the rotational motion of the body.
More informationv w is orthogonal to both v and w. the three vectors v, w and v w form a righthanded set of vectors.
3. Cross product Definition 3.1. Let v and w be two vectors in R 3. The cross product of v and w, denoted v w, is the vector defined as follows: the length of v w is the area of the parallelogram with
More informationDifference between a vector and a scalar quantity. N or 90 o. S or 270 o
Vectors Vectors and Scalars Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities, and give examples of each. method. A vector is represented in print by a bold italicized symbol, for example, F. A vector has
More informationLinear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus
Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus ndimensional Euclidean Space and Matrices Definition of n space As was learned in Math b, a point in Euclidean three space can be thought of
More information1 Scalars, Vectors and Tensors
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MADRAS PH350 Classical Physics Handout 1 8.8.2009 1 Scalars, Vectors and Tensors In physics, we are interested in obtaining laws (in the form of mathematical
More informationa.) Write the line 2x  4y = 9 into slope intercept form b.) Find the slope of the line parallel to part a
Bellwork a.) Write the line 2x  4y = 9 into slope intercept form b.) Find the slope of the line parallel to part a c.) Find the slope of the line perpendicular to part b or a May 8 7:30 AM 1 Day 1 I.
More informationSection 9.5: Equations of Lines and Planes
Lines in 3D Space Section 9.5: Equations of Lines and Planes Practice HW from Stewart Textbook (not to hand in) p. 673 # 35 odd, 237 odd, 4, 47 Consider the line L through the point P = ( x, y, ) that
More informationProperties of Vectors 1. Two vectors are equal =, if they have the same magnitude and direction.
13.1 Vectors: Displacement Vectors Review of vectors: Some physical quantities can be completely defined by magnitudes (speed, mass, length, time, etc.) These are called scalars. Other quantities need
More informationVectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012
Vectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012 Vectors in the plane R 2. A vector v can be interpreted as an arro in the plane R 2 ith a certain length and a certain direction. The same vector can be
More informationVECTOR ALGEBRA. 10.1.1 A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction is called a vector. is given by a and is represented by a.
VECTOR ALGEBRA Chapter 10 101 Overview 1011 A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction is called a vector 101 The unit vector in the direction of a a is given y a and is represented y a 101 Position
More informationRELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: VELOCITY
RELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: VELOCITY Today s Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Describe the velocity of a rigid body in terms of translation and rotation components. 2. Perform a relativemotion velocity
More informationSection 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions
Section 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions Geometric Description of Vectors A vector in the plane is a line segment with an assigned direction. We sketch a vector as shown in the first Figure below with an
More informationPHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6
PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6 Vectors  A vector is basically an arrow. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude (value) and the arrow points in the direction. Many different quantities
More informationRecall the basic property of the transpose (for any A): v A t Aw = v w, v, w R n.
ORTHOGONAL MATRICES Informally, an orthogonal n n matrix is the ndimensional analogue of the rotation matrices R θ in R 2. When does a linear transformation of R 3 (or R n ) deserve to be called a rotation?
More informationGeometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi
Geometry of Vectors Carlo Tomasi This note explores the geometric meaning of norm, inner product, orthogonality, and projection for vectors. For vectors in threedimensional space, we also examine the
More informationSection 1.4. Lines, Planes, and Hyperplanes. The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables
The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section 1.4 Lines, Planes, Hyperplanes In this section we will add to our basic geometric understing of R n by studying lines planes. If we do this carefully,
More informationENGR1100 Introduction to Engineering Analysis. Lecture 3
ENGR1100 Introduction to Engineering Analysis Lecture 3 POSITION VECTORS & FORCE VECTORS Today s Objectives: Students will be able to : a) Represent a position vector in Cartesian coordinate form, from
More information6.6 Vectors. Section 6.6 Notes Page 1
66 Vectors Section 66 Notes Page Vectors are needed in physics and engineering courses A ector is a quantity that has magnitude (size) in a certain direction You indicate a ector by a ray The length of
More informationVectors. Philippe B. Laval. Spring 2012 KSU. Philippe B. Laval (KSU) Vectors Spring /
Vectors Philippe B Laval KSU Spring 2012 Philippe B Laval (KSU) Vectors Spring 2012 1 / 18 Introduction  Definition Many quantities we use in the sciences such as mass, volume, distance, can be expressed
More informationVector Algebra CHAPTER 13. Ü13.1. Basic Concepts
CHAPTER 13 ector Algebra Ü13.1. Basic Concepts A vector in the plane or in space is an arrow: it is determined by its length, denoted and its direction. Two arrows represent the same vector if they have
More informationRotated Ellipses. And Their Intersections With Lines. Mark C. Hendricks, Ph.D. Copyright March 8, 2012
Rotated Ellipses And Their Intersections With Lines b Mark C. Hendricks, Ph.D. Copright March 8, 0 Abstract: This paper addresses the mathematical equations for ellipses rotated at an angle and how to
More informationMath, Trigonometry and Vectors. Geometry. Trig Definitions. sin(θ) = opp hyp. cos(θ) = adj hyp. tan(θ) = opp adj. Here's a familiar image.
Math, Trigonometr and Vectors Geometr Trig Definitions Here's a familiar image. To make predictive models of the phsical world, we'll need to make visualizations, which we can then turn into analtical
More informationAP Physics  Vector Algrebra Tutorial
AP Physics  Vector Algrebra Tutorial Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology AP Physics Team Summer 2013 1 CONTENTS CONTENTS Contents 1 Scalars and Vectors 3 2 Rectangular and Polar Form
More informationDecember 4, 2013 MATH 171 BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA B. KITCHENS
December 4, 2013 MATH 171 BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA B KITCHENS The equation 1 Lines in twodimensional space (1) 2x y = 3 describes a line in twodimensional space The coefficients of x and y in the equation
More informationLinear Algebra Test 2 Review by JC McNamara
Linear Algebra Test 2 Review by JC McNamara 2.3 Properties of determinants: det(a T ) = det(a) det(ka) = k n det(a) det(a + B) det(a) + det(b) (In some cases this is true but not always) A is invertible
More informationDr. Fritz Wilhelm, DVC,8/30/2004;4:25 PM E:\Excel files\ch 03 Vector calculations.doc Last printed 8/30/2004 4:25:00 PM
E:\Ecel files\ch 03 Vector calculations.doc Last printed 8/30/2004 4:25:00 PM Vector calculations 1 of 6 Vectors are ordered sequences of numbers. In three dimensions we write vectors in an of the following
More information6. Vectors. 1 20092016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu)
6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot,
More informationectors and Application P(x, y, z)! $ ! $ & " 11,750 12,750 13,750
thstrack MathsTrack (NOTE Feb 2013: This is the old version of MathsTrack. New books will be created during 2013 and 2014) odule 3 Topic 3 Module 9 Introduction Vectors and Applications to Matrices ectors
More informationThe Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited
Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited 1. Introduction In a class handout entitled, ThreeDimensional Proper and Improper Rotation Matrices, I provided a derivation
More informationMechanics Cycle 2 Chapter 13+ Chapter 13+ Revisit Torque. Revisit Statics
Chapter 13+ Revisit Torque Revisit: Statics (equilibrium) Torque formula ToDo: Torque due to weight is simple Different forms of the torque formula Cross product Revisit Statics Recall that when nothing
More informationVector algebra Christian Miller CS Fall 2011
Vector algebra Christian Miller CS 354  Fall 2011 Vector algebra A system commonly used to describe space Vectors, linear operators, tensors, etc. Used to build classical physics and the vast majority
More informationChapter 17. Orthogonal Matrices and Symmetries of Space
Chapter 17. Orthogonal Matrices and Symmetries of Space Take a random matrix, say 1 3 A = 4 5 6, 7 8 9 and compare the lengths of e 1 and Ae 1. The vector e 1 has length 1, while Ae 1 = (1, 4, 7) has length
More informationdiscuss how to describe points, lines and planes in 3 space.
Chapter 2 3 Space: lines and planes In this chapter we discuss how to describe points, lines and planes in 3 space. introduce the language of vectors. discuss various matters concerning the relative position
More informationSection V.3: Dot Product
Section V.3: Dot Product Introduction So far we have looked at operations on a single vector. There are a number of ways to combine two vectors. Vector addition and subtraction will not be covered here,
More information3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS.
3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS. Key words: Motion in Two Dimensions, Scalars, Vectors, Addition of Vectors by Graphical Methods, Tail to Tip Method, Parallelogram Method, Negative Vector, Vector
More informationMATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 4: Matrix multiplication. Diagonal matrices. Inverse matrix.
MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 4: Matrix multiplication. Diagonal matrices. Inverse matrix. Matrices Definition. An mbyn matrix is a rectangular array of numbers that has m rows and n columns: a 11
More informationA vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity.
Chapters and 6 Introduction to Vectors A vector quantity has direction and magnitude. There are many examples of vector quantities in the natural world, such as force, velocity, and acceleration. A vector
More informationTorque and Rotation. Physics
Torque and Rotation Physics Torque Force is the action that creates changes in linear motion. For rotational motion, the same force can cause very different results. A torque is an action that causes objects
More informationPES 1110 Fall 2013, Spendier Lecture 27/Page 1
PES 1110 Fall 2013, Spendier Lecture 27/Page 1 Today:  The Cross Product (3.8 Vector product)  Relating Linear and Angular variables continued (10.5)  Angular velocity and acceleration vectors (not
More informationProblem Set 5 Due: In class Thursday, Oct. 18 Late papers will be accepted until 1:00 PM Friday.
Math 312, Fall 2012 Jerry L. Kazdan Problem Set 5 Due: In class Thursday, Oct. 18 Late papers will be accepted until 1:00 PM Friday. In addition to the problems below, you should also know how to solve
More informationVector has a magnitude and a direction. Scalar has a magnitude
Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude a brick on a table Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude
More informationPhysics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
1 P a g e Motion Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE If an object changes its position with respect to its surroundings with time, then it is called in motion. Rest If an object
More informationy = a sin ωt or y = a cos ωt then the object is said to be in simple harmonic motion. In this case, Amplitude = a (maximum displacement)
5.5 Modelling Harmonic Motion Periodic behaviour happens a lot in nature. Examples of things that oscillate periodically are daytime temperature, the position of a weight on a spring, and tide level. If
More informationMAT188H1S Lec0101 Burbulla
Winter 206 Linear Transformations A linear transformation T : R m R n is a function that takes vectors in R m to vectors in R n such that and T (u + v) T (u) + T (v) T (k v) k T (v), for all vectors u
More informationWe know a formula for and some properties of the determinant. Now we see how the determinant can be used.
Cramer s rule, inverse matrix, and volume We know a formula for and some properties of the determinant. Now we see how the determinant can be used. Formula for A We know: a b d b =. c d ad bc c a Can we
More informationHW 7 Q 14,20,20,23 P 3,4,8,6,8. Chapter 7. Rotational Motion of the Object. Dr. Armen Kocharian
HW 7 Q 14,20,20,23 P 3,4,8,6,8 Chapter 7 Rotational Motion of the Object Dr. Armen Kocharian Axis of Rotation The radian is a unit of angular measure The radian can be defined as the arc length s along
More information