Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F


 Hugo Greene
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 CHAPTER I VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities are anything which can be measured, and stated with number. Quantities in physics are divided into two types; scalar and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have only magnitude and completely specified by value and unit. Some examples for scalar quantities such as time, mass, speed, distance, work, power, energy, temperature, etc. For example time, time is specified by number and its unit, like 1 second, 1 hour, or 1 year. The operation of a scalar quantity is the same with algebraic operations such as addition, subtraction and multiplication. The second type of quantities is vector quantities, quantities which have magnitude and direction. Vector quantities are expressed by number, unit, and direction. Examples of vector quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, impulse, electric field, etc. For example, a car has velocity 70 km per hour eastward. The operations of vector quantities are different with scalar quantities. Vector addition and multiplication have their own rules, vector rules. A. Representation of Vector A vector quantity is symbolized with bold letters or regular letters marked with an arrow on it and the representation of a vector quantity is represented with an arrow. The direction of a vector is shown by direction of the arrow and its length of line represents the magnitude of the vector. For example, look at vector acceleration A and vector force F below. F A Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F Vector A has magnitude written as A or and its direction to the right while vector F has magnitude written as F or with direction upward of horizontal. In cartesian system of coordinates, vectors are shown as Figure 2.2. The vectors may be resolved into its component vectors. Vector S in cartesian coordinates two dimensions
2 may be resolved into two component vectors, and whereas in three dimensions, vector T may be resolved into three,, and. S T (a). Vector S in 2 dimensions (b). Vector T in 3 dimensions Figure 1.2 Vectors in cartesian coordinates. Vector S is formed by two component vectors and written as = + Where = component vector of S in x axis = component vector of S in y axis The magnitude of vector S is written as S and the magnitude of its component vectors are and. By using pythagorean theorem, it s found that = + Whereas vector T is formed by three component vectors and written as = + + where = component vector of T in x axis = component vector of T in y axis = component vector of T in z axis The magnitude of vector T, T may be stated in the form of its component vectors magnitude,, and. T is derived using Pythagorean Theorem = + +
3 B. Unit Vector A unit vector is a dimensionless vector having a magnitude of exactly one. The symbol for a unit vector is the same with common vector with a hat on it. In cartesian coordinates, it is defined unit vectors corresponding to each axis.,, and is a unit vector in positive x axis, positive y axis, and positive z axis, respectively, as shown in Figure 1.3. z y Figure 1.3 Unit vectors in cartesian coordinates Thus, by using unit vectors in cartesian coordinates, the unit vector notation for the vector S and vector T are = S " + S # = + + Generally, a unit vector of a particular vector is obtained by dividing the vector itself with its own magnitude. For example, a unit vector of T is symbolized with $ and obtained by dividing vector T with T $ = $ = C. Vector Addition Two vectors or more of the same kind can be added to form a resultant of vector. There are several methods to add vectors: parallelogram method, triangle method, and component method.
4 1. Parallelogram Method % ' ' (a) Figure 1.4 Addition of vector A and B with parallelogram method Vector A and B in Figure 1.4 (a) are the same vector so that can be added. To do parallelogram method, a parallelogram is made by lines A and B, and the diagonal line between vector A and B is the resultant vector R of A and B, (Figure b). % = + Since the angle between A and B is ', you can proof that the magnitude of R using cosines rule is ( = )* + +, + 2*, cos ' 2. Triangle and Polynomial Method (b) Two vectors and that is the same kind in Figure 1.5 (a) will be added. To add vector to vector using triangle method, first we draw vector and then draw vector with its tail starting from the tip of. The resultant vector R, where % = + is the vector drawn from the tail of to the tip of, as shown in Figure 1.5 (b). % % (a) (b) (c) Figure 1.5 Triangle method The order in which and are added is not significant, so that % = + = + (Figure c). Furthermore, to add more than two vectors, for example + + 1, polygon method is used to have resultant vector, % = + + 1, as shown in Figure 1.6.
5 1 % 1 Figure 1.6 Polygon method When three or more vectors are added, their sum is independent of the way in which the individual vectors are grouped together. This is called the associative law of addition + ( + 1) = ( + ) Component Method Now let us see how to use components to add vectors when the graphical method (parallelogram, triangle, and polygon methods) is not sufficiently accurate. Suppose we wish to add vector to vector. Both of them are vectors having two components in xy plane. Thus, the unit vector notation for the vector and are = * + * =, +, % = + % = 4* + * 5 + (, +, ) % = (* +, ) + (* +, ) % = (* +, ) + 4* +, 5 Since % in the unit vector notation is = ( + (, we can see that the components of the resultant vector are ( = * +, ( = * +, D. Vector Multiplication If vector is multiplied by a positive scalar quantity 6, then the product 6 is a vector that has the same direction as and magnitude 6*. If vector is multiplied by a negative scalar quantity 6, then the product 6 has opposite direction to and magnitude 6*. However, multiplying a vector to another vector is more complicated than multiplying a vector to a scalar. There are three kinds of vector multiplication, dot
6 product, cross product, and dyadic or tensor product. Each product has their own rules. In this case, we only study about the first two. 1. Dot Product Dot product of two vectors yields a scalar quantity. Dot product of vector and vector is defined as = *, 9:; ' where ' is an angle between the two vectors. It tells us that dot product of two perpendicular vectors is zero. Geometrical interpretation of dot product of vector and vector implies a scalar multiplication between magnitude of vector with the projection magnitude of vector on vector (Figure 1.7 a), or a scalar multiplication between the projection magnitude of vector on vector B with magnitude of vector (Figure 1.7 b). ' * E = * cos ', D =, cos ' ' Figure 1.7 Geometrical interpretation of dot product If vector and vector are expressed in unit vector notation, then the dot product is = 4* + * 5 (, +, ) = *, ( ) + *, ( ) + *, ( ) + *, ( ) = *, + *, Dot product can be used to find the angle between two vectors by using the equation cos ' = *, Some properties of the dot product : 1. = 2. = = = 1 ( since ' = 0 ) 3. = = = 0 ( since ' = 90 A ) 4. and perpendicular if = C and and are not zero
7 2. Cross Product Cross product of two vector quantities yields a vector quantity, and defined as = *, sin ' IJ and its magnitude = *, sin ' where ' is an angle between the two vectors and IJ is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane formed by vector and vector. The direction of IJ depends on the directions of vector and vector. There is a rule how to find direction of IJ, that is called right hand rule. For example, cross product of and, as shown in Figure 1.8. z y Figure 1.8 Cross product of and = 1 1 sin 90 A IJ = IJ If we rotate a screw from the tip of vector to the tip of vector, it will move upper in the same direction with vector. Since the magnitude of IJ = 1 then IJ = = Some properties of cross product : 1. =, =, = 2. =, =, = 3. = = = 0 ( since ' = 0 ) 4. = 5. Vector parallel to vector if = 0, and and are not zero Example Given vector K = and vector L = 2 2 +, a. draw vector K and L in cartesian coordinates b. find the magnitude of vector K and L c. find dot product of vector K and L d. find the product of K L e. find the angle between vector K and L f. find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane formed by vector K and L
8 Solution a. Vector K and L in cartesian coordinates L 2 2 z K 2 y b. Magnitude of vector K M = M + M + M M = M = 9 M = 3 b. Magnitude of vector L O = O + O + O M = )2 + ( 2) + 1 M = 9 M = 3 c. Dot product of vector K and L K L = K L = K L = 2 d. The product of K L K L = K L = 2 + ( 2 ) ( 2 ) + 2 K L = ( 2 ) + 2 K L = C C P + P + C K L = Q + R 6 e. The angle between the two vectors is K L sin ' = MO sin ' = ) ( 6) 3 3 sin ' = 81 9 sin ' = 1 then, ' = 90 A f. Suppose the unit vector is IJ, then IJ = K L K L
9 IJ = U IJ =
A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity.
Chapters and 6 Introduction to Vectors A vector quantity has direction and magnitude. There are many examples of vector quantities in the natural world, such as force, velocity, and acceleration. A vector
More informationELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA A.1. VECTORS AND SCALAR QUANTITIES We have now proposed sets of basic dimensions and secondary dimensions to describe certain aspects of nature, but more than just dimensions
More informationSolution: 2. Sketch the graph of 2 given the vectors and shown below.
7.4 Vectors, Operations, and the Dot Product Quantities such as area, volume, length, temperature, and speed have magnitude only and can be completely characterized by a single real number with a unit
More informationVectors are quantities that have both a direction and a magnitude (size).
Scalars & Vectors Vectors are quantities that have both a direction and a magnitude (size). Ex. km, 30 ο north of east Examples of Vectors used in Physics Displacement Velocity Acceleration Force Scalars
More informationVector has a magnitude and a direction. Scalar has a magnitude
Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude a brick on a table Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude
More informationREVIEW OVER VECTORS. A scalar is a quantity that is defined by its value only. This value can be positive, negative or zero Example.
REVIEW OVER VECTORS I. Scalars & Vectors: A scalar is a quantity that is defined by its value only. This value can be positive, negative or zero Example mass = 5 kg A vector is a quantity that can be described
More informationVector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products
Chapter 2 Vector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products We saw in the previous chapter how vector quantities may be added and subtracted. In this chapter we consider the products of vectors and define
More informationAnnouncements. 2D Vector Addition
Announcements 2D Vector Addition Today s Objectives Understand the difference between scalars and vectors Resolve a 2D vector into components Perform vector operations Class Activities Applications Scalar
More informationMATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product.
MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product. Vectors: geometric approach B A B A A vector is represented by a directed segment. Directed segment is drawn as an arrow. Different arrows represent
More informationUnified Lecture # 4 Vectors
Fall 2005 Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors These notes were written by J. Peraire as a review of vectors for Dynamics 16.07. They have been adapted for Unified Engineering by R. Radovitzky. References [1] Feynmann,
More informationSection 1.1. Introduction to R n
The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section. Introduction to R n Calculus is the study of functional relationships and how related quantities change with each other. In your first exposure to
More information1.3 Displacement in Two Dimensions
1.3 Displacement in Two Dimensions So far, you have learned about motion in one dimension. This is adequate for learning basic principles of kinematics, but it is not enough to describe the motions of
More informationDifference between a vector and a scalar quantity. N or 90 o. S or 270 o
Vectors Vectors and Scalars Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities, and give examples of each. method. A vector is represented in print by a bold italicized symbol, for example, F. A vector has
More informationOne advantage of this algebraic approach is that we can write down
. Vectors and the dot product A vector v in R 3 is an arrow. It has a direction and a length (aka the magnitude), but the position is not important. Given a coordinate axis, where the xaxis points out
More informationVectors SCALAR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the scalar product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial
Vectors SCALAR PRODUCT Graham S McDonald A Tutorial Module for learning about the scalar product of two vectors Table of contents Begin Tutorial c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk 1. Theory 2. Exercises
More informationPHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6
PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6 Vectors  A vector is basically an arrow. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude (value) and the arrow points in the direction. Many different quantities
More informationLecture PowerPoints. Chapter 3 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli
Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 3 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the
More informationChapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis
Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis 2. Polar coordinates A point P in a polar coordinate system is represented by an ordered pair of numbers (r, θ). If r >
More information9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product
Arkansas Tech University MATH 934: Calculus III Dr. Marcel B Finan 9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Up to this point we have defined what vectors are and discussed basic notation
More informationReview A: Vector Analysis
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Review A: Vector Analysis A... A0 A.1 Vectors A2 A.1.1 Introduction A2 A.1.2 Properties of a Vector A2 A.1.3 Application of Vectors
More informationLecture L3  Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations
S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Lecture notes based on J. Peraire Version 2.0 Lecture L3  Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations By using vectors and defining appropriate operations between
More informationVectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012
Vectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012 Vectors in the plane R 2. A vector v can be interpreted as an arro in the plane R 2 ith a certain length and a certain direction. The same vector can be
More informationLab 2: Vector Analysis
Lab 2: Vector Analysis Objectives: to practice using graphical and analytical methods to add vectors in two dimensions Equipment: Meter stick Ruler Protractor Force table Ring Pulleys with attachments
More informationVector Spaces; the Space R n
Vector Spaces; the Space R n Vector Spaces A vector space (over the real numbers) is a set V of mathematical entities, called vectors, U, V, W, etc, in which an addition operation + is defined and in which
More information3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS.
3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS. Key words: Motion in Two Dimensions, Scalars, Vectors, Addition of Vectors by Graphical Methods, Tail to Tip Method, Parallelogram Method, Negative Vector, Vector
More informationVector Definition. Chapter 1. Example 2 (Position) Example 1 (Position) Activity: What is the position of the center of your tabletop?
Vector Definition Chapter 1 Vectors A quantity that has two properties: magnitude and direction It is represented by an arrow; visually the length represents magnitude It is typically drawn on a coordinate
More information1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two nonzero vectors u and v,
1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19 1.3 Dot Product 1.3.1 Definitions and Properties The dot product is the first way to multiply two vectors. The definition we will give below may appear arbitrary. But it is not. It
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1  LOADING SYSTEMS
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1  LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 NONCONCURRENT COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS 1. Be able to determine the effects
More information11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space
11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of
More information13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT
710 Chapter Thirteen A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL: VECTORS 62. Use the following steps and the results of Problems 59 60 to show (without trigonometry) that the geometric and algebraic definitions of the dot product
More informationSection 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions
Section 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions Geometric Description of Vectors A vector in the plane is a line segment with an assigned direction. We sketch a vector as shown in the first Figure below with an
More information2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model
2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model The story of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intersystem crossing is essentially a choreography of the twisting motion which causes reorientation or rephasing
More informationChapter 3 Kinematics in Two or Three Dimensions; Vectors. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two or Three Dimensions; Vectors Vectors and Scalars Units of Chapter 3 Addition of Vectors Graphical Methods Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
More informationCartesian Coordinate System. Also called rectangular coordinate system x and y axes intersect at the origin Points are labeled (x,y)
Physics 1 Vectors Cartesian Coordinate System Also called rectangular coordinate system x and y axes intersect at the origin Points are labeled (x,y) Polar Coordinate System Origin and reference line
More information2 Session Two  Complex Numbers and Vectors
PH2011 Physics 2A Maths Revision  Session 2: Complex Numbers and Vectors 1 2 Session Two  Complex Numbers and Vectors 2.1 What is a Complex Number? The material on complex numbers should be familiar
More informationChapter 3 Vectors. m = m1 + m2 = 3 kg + 4 kg = 7 kg (3.1)
COROLLARY I. A body, acted on by two forces simultaneously, will describe the diagonal of a parallelogram in the same time as it would describe the sides by those forces separately. Isaac Newton  Principia
More informationSUMMING VECTOR QUANTITIES USING PARALELLOGRAM METHOD
EXPERIMENT 2 SUMMING VECTOR QUANTITIES USING PARALELLOGRAM METHOD Purpose : Summing the vector quantities using the parallelogram method Apparatus: Different masses between 11000 grams A flat wood, Two
More informationSolving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices
Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering
More informationEquilibrium of Concurrent Forces (Force Table)
Equilibrium of Concurrent Forces (Force Table) Objectives: Experimental objective Students will verify the conditions required (zero net force) for a system to be in equilibrium under the influence of
More informationVectors. Philippe B. Laval. Spring 2012 KSU. Philippe B. Laval (KSU) Vectors Spring /
Vectors Philippe B Laval KSU Spring 2012 Philippe B Laval (KSU) Vectors Spring 2012 1 / 18 Introduction  Definition Many quantities we use in the sciences such as mass, volume, distance, can be expressed
More informationThe Force Table Introduction: Theory:
1 The Force Table Introduction: "The Force Table" is a simple tool for demonstrating Newton s First Law and the vector nature of forces. This tool is based on the principle of equilibrium. An object is
More informationVectors VECTOR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial
Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT Graham S McDonald A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors Table of contents Begin Tutorial c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk 1. Theory 2. Exercises
More informationMechanics 1: Vectors
Mechanics 1: Vectors roadly speaking, mechanical systems will be described by a combination of scalar and vector quantities. scalar is just a (real) number. For example, mass or weight is characterized
More informationA Review of Vector Addition
Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Sec. 7.1 Forces in Two Dimensions 1. A Review of Vector Addition. Forces on an Inclined Plane 3. How to find an Equilibrant Vector 4. Projectile Motion Objectives Determine
More informationBasic Electrical Theory
Basic Electrical Theory Mathematics Review PJM State & Member Training Dept. Objectives By the end of this presentation the Learner should be able to: Use the basics of trigonometry to calculate the different
More informationRELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: VELOCITY
RELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: VELOCITY Today s Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Describe the velocity of a rigid body in terms of translation and rotation components. 2. Perform a relativemotion velocity
More information9.4. The Scalar Product. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Style. Learning Outcomes
The Scalar Product 9.4 Introduction There are two kinds of multiplication involving vectors. The first is known as the scalar product or dot product. This is socalled because when the scalar product of
More informationMath, Trigonometry and Vectors. Geometry. Trig Definitions. sin(θ) = opp hyp. cos(θ) = adj hyp. tan(θ) = opp adj. Here's a familiar image.
Math, Trigonometr and Vectors Geometr Trig Definitions Here's a familiar image. To make predictive models of the phsical world, we'll need to make visualizations, which we can then turn into analtical
More information0017 Understanding and Using Vector and Transformational Geometries
Tom Coleman INTD 301 Final Project Dr. Johannes Vector geometry: 0017 Understanding and Using Vector and Transformational Geometries 3D Cartesian coordinate representation:  A vector v is written as
More informationExamples of Scalar and Vector Quantities 1. Candidates should be able to : QUANTITY VECTOR SCALAR
Candidates should be able to : Examples of Scalar and Vector Quantities 1 QUANTITY VECTOR SCALAR Define scalar and vector quantities and give examples. Draw and use a vector triangle to determine the resultant
More informationVectors What are Vectors? which measures how far the vector reaches in each direction, i.e. (x, y, z).
1 1. What are Vectors? A vector is a directed line segment. A vector can be described in two ways: Component form Magnitude and Direction which measures how far the vector reaches in each direction, i.e.
More informationsin(θ) = opp hyp cos(θ) = adj hyp tan(θ) = opp adj
Math, Trigonometr and Vectors Geometr 33º What is the angle equal to? a) α = 7 b) α = 57 c) α = 33 d) α = 90 e) α cannot be determined α Trig Definitions Here's a familiar image. To make predictive models
More informationThe Dot and Cross Products
The Dot and Cross Products Two common operations involving vectors are the dot product and the cross product. Let two vectors =,, and =,, be given. The Dot Product The dot product of and is written and
More informationIntroduction to Vectors
Introduction to Vectors A vector is a physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction. An example is a plane flying NE at 200 km/hr. This vector is written as 200 Km/hr at 45. Another example is
More informationState of Stress at Point
State of Stress at Point Einstein Notation The basic idea of Einstein notation is that a covector and a vector can form a scalar: This is typically written as an explicit sum: According to this convention,
More informationSection 1.2. Angles and the Dot Product. The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables
The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section 1.2 Angles and the Dot Product Suppose x = (x 1, x 2 ) and y = (y 1, y 2 ) are two vectors in R 2, neither of which is the zero vector 0. Let α and
More information1.4 Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions
Figure 1 An object s velocity changes whenever there is a change in the velocity s magnitude (speed) or direction, such as when these cars turn with the track. 1.4 Velocity and Acceleration in Two Dimensions
More informationAdding vectors We can do arithmetic with vectors. We ll start with vector addition and related operations. Suppose you have two vectors
1 Chapter 13. VECTORS IN THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE Let s begin with some names and notation for things: R is the set (collection) of real numbers. We write x R to mean that x is a real number. A real number
More information6. Vectors. 1 20092016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu)
6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot,
More informationectors and Application P(x, y, z)! $ ! $ & " 11,750 12,750 13,750
thstrack MathsTrack (NOTE Feb 2013: This is the old version of MathsTrack. New books will be created during 2013 and 2014) odule 3 Topic 3 Module 9 Introduction Vectors and Applications to Matrices ectors
More informationIn order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties.
Chapter 2 One Dimensional Kinematics How would you describe the following motion? Ex: random 1D path speeding up and slowing down In order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties.
More informationGeometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi
Geometry of Vectors Carlo Tomasi This note explores the geometric meaning of norm, inner product, orthogonality, and projection for vectors. For vectors in threedimensional space, we also examine the
More informationMAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK
MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK 1. Projections and Cross Product 1.1. Projections. Definition 1.1. Given a vector u, the rectangular (or perpendicular or orthogonal) components are two vectors u 1 and
More information28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE. v x. u y v z u z v y u y u z. v y v z
28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.4 Cross Product 1.4.1 Definitions The cross product is the second multiplication operation between vectors we will study. The goal behind the definition
More informationPhysics 235 Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus
Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus In this chapter, we will focus on the mathematical tools required for the course. The main concepts that will be covered are: Coordinate transformations
More informationVectors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl.
Vectors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl. 1 Introduction A vector is determined by its length and direction. They are usually denoted with letters with arrows on the top a or in bold letter a. We will use
More informationv 1 v 3 u v = (( 1)4 (3)2, [1(4) ( 2)2], 1(3) ( 2)( 1)) = ( 10, 8, 1) (d) u (v w) = (u w)v (u v)w (Relationship between dot and cross product)
0.1 Cross Product The dot product of two vectors is a scalar, a number in R. Next we will define the cross product of two vectors in 3space. This time the outcome will be a vector in 3space. Definition
More informationTHEORETICAL MECHANICS
PROF. DR. ING. VASILE SZOLGA THEORETICAL MECHANICS LECTURE NOTES AND SAMPLE PROBLEMS PART ONE STATICS OF THE PARTICLE, OF THE RIGID BODY AND OF THE SYSTEMS OF BODIES KINEMATICS OF THE PARTICLE 2010 0 Contents
More informationVector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson
Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson 1 Dot Product The notation v w means the dot product or scalar product or inner product of two vectors, v and w. In abstract mathematics, we can talk about
More informationAddition and Resolution of Vectors Equilibrium of a Particle
Overview Addition and Resolution of Vectors Equilibrium of a Particle When a set of forces act on an object in such a way that the lines of action of the forces pass through a common point, the forces
More informationLecture 4. Vectors. Motion and acceleration in two dimensions. Cutnell+Johnson: chapter ,
Lecture 4 Vectors Motion and acceleration in two dimensions Cutnell+Johnson: chapter 1.51.8, 3.13.3 We ve done motion in one dimension. Since the world usually has three dimensions, we re going to do
More information1. Units and Prefixes
1. Units and Prefixes SI units Units must accompany quantities at all times, otherwise the quantities are meaningless. If a person writes mass = 1, do they mean 1 gram, 1 kilogram or 1 tonne? The Système
More informationTrigonometry Notes Sarah Brewer Alabama School of Math and Science. Last Updated: 25 November 2011
Trigonometry Notes Sarah Brewer Alabama School of Math and Science Last Updated: 25 November 2011 6 Basic Trig Functions Defined as ratios of sides of a right triangle in relation to one of the acute angles
More informationVectors and Scalars. AP Physics B
Vectors and Scalars P Physics Scalar SCLR is NY quantity in physics that has MGNITUDE, but NOT a direction associated with it. Magnitude numerical value with units. Scalar Example Speed Distance ge Magnitude
More informationUnit 4: Science and Materials in Construction and the Built Environment. Chapter 14. Understand how Forces act on Structures
Chapter 14 Understand how Forces act on Structures 14.1 Introduction The analysis of structures considered here will be based on a number of fundamental concepts which follow from simple Newtonian mechanics;
More informationFirst Semester Learning Targets
First Semester Learning Targets 1.1.Can define major components of the scientific method 1.2.Can accurately carry out conversions using dimensional analysis 1.3.Can utilize and convert metric prefixes
More information5.3 The Cross Product in R 3
53 The Cross Product in R 3 Definition 531 Let u = [u 1, u 2, u 3 ] and v = [v 1, v 2, v 3 ] Then the vector given by [u 2 v 3 u 3 v 2, u 3 v 1 u 1 v 3, u 1 v 2 u 2 v 1 ] is called the cross product (or
More informationChapter 3. Technical Measurement and Vectors
Chapter 3. Technical Measurement and Vectors Unit Conversions 31. soccer field is 100 m long and 60 m across. What are the length and width of the field in feet? 100 cm 1 in. 1 ft (100 m) 328 ft 1 m 2.54
More informationNumber Sense and Operations
Number Sense and Operations representing as they: 6.N.1 6.N.2 6.N.3 6.N.4 6.N.5 6.N.6 6.N.7 6.N.8 6.N.9 6.N.10 6.N.11 6.N.12 6.N.13. 6.N.14 6.N.15 Demonstrate an understanding of positive integer exponents
More informationMechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body
G.1 EE1.el3 (EEE1023): Electronics III Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body Dr Philip Jackson http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/teaching/courses/ee1.el3/ G.2 Moments, torque and
More informationExample SECTION 131. XAXIS  the horizontal number line. YAXIS  the vertical number line ORIGIN  the point where the xaxis and yaxis cross
CHAPTER 13 SECTION 131 Geometry and Algebra The Distance Formula COORDINATE PLANE consists of two perpendicular number lines, dividing the plane into four regions called quadrants XAXIS  the horizontal
More information81 Introduction to Vectors
State whether each quantity described is a vector quantity or a scalar quantity. 1. a box being pushed at a force of 125 newtons This quantity has a magnitude of 125 newtons, but no direction is given.
More informationNEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS
NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS TEST DESIGN AND FRAMEWORK September 2014 Authorized for Distribution by the New York State Education Department This test design and framework document
More informationPhysics Midterm Review Packet January 2010
Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010 This Packet is a Study Guide, not a replacement for studying from your notes, tests, quizzes, and textbook. Midterm Date: Thursday, January 28 th 8:1510:15 Room:
More informationEssential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast
John Vince Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast Springer Contents 1. MATHEMATICS 1 Is mathematics difficult? 3 Who should read this book? 4 Aims and objectives of this book 4 Assumptions made
More informationVectors. Objectives. Assessment. Assessment. Equations. Physics terms 5/15/14. State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables.
Vectors Objectives State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables. Analyze and describe position and movement in two dimensions using graphs and Cartesian coordinates. Organize and
More informationVector Algebra. Addition: (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (associative) Subtraction: A B = A + (B)
Vector Algebra When dealing with scalars, the usual math operations (+, , ) are sufficient to obtain any information needed. When dealing with ectors, the magnitudes can be operated on as scalars, but
More informationDefinition: A vector is a directed line segment that has and. Each vector has an initial point and a terminal point.
6.1 Vectors in the Plane PreCalculus 6.1 VECTORS IN THE PLANE Learning Targets: 1. Find the component form and the magnitude of a vector.. Perform addition and scalar multiplication of two vectors. 3.
More information6. LECTURE 6. Objectives
6. LECTURE 6 Objectives I understand how to use vectors to understand displacement. I can find the magnitude of a vector. I can sketch a vector. I can add and subtract vector. I can multiply a vector by
More informationMatrices in Statics and Mechanics
Matrices in Statics and Mechanics Casey Pearson 3/19/2012 Abstract The goal of this project is to show how linear algebra can be used to solve complex, multivariable statics problems as well as illustrate
More informationAddition and Subtraction of Vectors
ddition and Subtraction of Vectors 1 ppendi ddition and Subtraction of Vectors In this appendi the basic elements of vector algebra are eplored. Vectors are treated as geometric entities represented b
More informationAnswer: = π cm. Solution:
Round #1, Problem A: (4 points/10 minutes) The perimeter of a semicircular region in centimeters is numerically equal to its area in square centimeters. What is the radius of the semicircle in centimeters?
More informationTwo vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not
Vectors define vectors Some physical quantities, such as temperature, length, and mass, can be specified by a single number called a scalar. Other physical quantities, such as force and velocity, must
More informationVector algebra Christian Miller CS Fall 2011
Vector algebra Christian Miller CS 354  Fall 2011 Vector algebra A system commonly used to describe space Vectors, linear operators, tensors, etc. Used to build classical physics and the vast majority
More informationProblem set on Cross Product
1 Calculate the vector product of a and b given that a= 2i + j + k and b = i j k (Ans 3 j  3 k ) 2 Calculate the vector product of i  j and i + j (Ans ) 3 Find the unit vectors that are perpendicular
More informationSection V.3: Dot Product
Section V.3: Dot Product Introduction So far we have looked at operations on a single vector. There are a number of ways to combine two vectors. Vector addition and subtraction will not be covered here,
More informationSection V.4: Cross Product
Section V.4: Cross Product Definition The cross product of vectors A and B is written as A B. The result of the cross product A B is a third vector which is perpendicular to both A and B. (Because the
More informationPHYS 1111L LAB 2. The Force Table
In this laboratory we will investigate the vector nature of forces. Specifically, we need to answer this question: What happens when two or more forces are exerted on the same object? For instance, in
More informationClass Notes for MATH 2 Precalculus. Fall Prepared by. Stephanie Sorenson
Class Notes for MATH 2 Precalculus Fall 2012 Prepared by Stephanie Sorenson Table of Contents 1.2 Graphs of Equations... 1 1.4 Functions... 9 1.5 Analyzing Graphs of Functions... 14 1.6 A Library of Parent
More informationSouth Carolina College and CareerReady (SCCCR) PreCalculus
South Carolina College and CareerReady (SCCCR) PreCalculus Key Concepts Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions PC.AAPR.2 PC.AAPR.3 PC.AAPR.4 PC.AAPR.5 PC.AAPR.6 PC.AAPR.7 Standards Know
More information