Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F"

Transcription

1 CHAPTER I VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities are anything which can be measured, and stated with number. Quantities in physics are divided into two types; scalar and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have only magnitude and completely specified by value and unit. Some examples for scalar quantities such as time, mass, speed, distance, work, power, energy, temperature, etc. For example time, time is specified by number and its unit, like 1 second, 1 hour, or 1 year. The operation of a scalar quantity is the same with algebraic operations such as addition, subtraction and multiplication. The second type of quantities is vector quantities, quantities which have magnitude and direction. Vector quantities are expressed by number, unit, and direction. Examples of vector quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, impulse, electric field, etc. For example, a car has velocity 70 km per hour eastward. The operations of vector quantities are different with scalar quantities. Vector addition and multiplication have their own rules, vector rules. A. Representation of Vector A vector quantity is symbolized with bold letters or regular letters marked with an arrow on it and the representation of a vector quantity is represented with an arrow. The direction of a vector is shown by direction of the arrow and its length of line represents the magnitude of the vector. For example, look at vector acceleration A and vector force F below. F A Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F Vector A has magnitude written as A or and its direction to the right while vector F has magnitude written as F or with direction upward of horizontal. In cartesian system of coordinates, vectors are shown as Figure 2.2. The vectors may be resolved into its component vectors. Vector S in cartesian coordinates two dimensions

2 may be resolved into two component vectors, and whereas in three dimensions, vector T may be resolved into three,, and. S T (a). Vector S in 2 dimensions (b). Vector T in 3 dimensions Figure 1.2 Vectors in cartesian coordinates. Vector S is formed by two component vectors and written as = + Where = component vector of S in x axis = component vector of S in y axis The magnitude of vector S is written as S and the magnitude of its component vectors are and. By using pythagorean theorem, it s found that = + Whereas vector T is formed by three component vectors and written as = + + where = component vector of T in x axis = component vector of T in y axis = component vector of T in z axis The magnitude of vector T, T may be stated in the form of its component vectors magnitude,, and. T is derived using Pythagorean Theorem = + +

3 B. Unit Vector A unit vector is a dimensionless vector having a magnitude of exactly one. The symbol for a unit vector is the same with common vector with a hat on it. In cartesian coordinates, it is defined unit vectors corresponding to each axis.,, and is a unit vector in positive x axis, positive y axis, and positive z axis, respectively, as shown in Figure 1.3. z y Figure 1.3 Unit vectors in cartesian coordinates Thus, by using unit vectors in cartesian coordinates, the unit vector notation for the vector S and vector T are = S " + S # = + + Generally, a unit vector of a particular vector is obtained by dividing the vector itself with its own magnitude. For example, a unit vector of T is symbolized with $ and obtained by dividing vector T with T $ = $ = C. Vector Addition Two vectors or more of the same kind can be added to form a resultant of vector. There are several methods to add vectors: parallelogram method, triangle method, and component method.

4 1. Parallelogram Method % ' ' (a) Figure 1.4 Addition of vector A and B with parallelogram method Vector A and B in Figure 1.4 (a) are the same vector so that can be added. To do parallelogram method, a parallelogram is made by lines A and B, and the diagonal line between vector A and B is the resultant vector R of A and B, (Figure b). % = + Since the angle between A and B is ', you can proof that the magnitude of R using cosines rule is ( = )* + +, + 2*, cos ' 2. Triangle and Polynomial Method (b) Two vectors and that is the same kind in Figure 1.5 (a) will be added. To add vector to vector using triangle method, first we draw vector and then draw vector with its tail starting from the tip of. The resultant vector R, where % = + is the vector drawn from the tail of to the tip of, as shown in Figure 1.5 (b). % % (a) (b) (c) Figure 1.5 Triangle method The order in which and are added is not significant, so that % = + = + (Figure c). Furthermore, to add more than two vectors, for example + + 1, polygon method is used to have resultant vector, % = + + 1, as shown in Figure 1.6.

5 1 % 1 Figure 1.6 Polygon method When three or more vectors are added, their sum is independent of the way in which the individual vectors are grouped together. This is called the associative law of addition + ( + 1) = ( + ) Component Method Now let us see how to use components to add vectors when the graphical method (parallelogram, triangle, and polygon methods) is not sufficiently accurate. Suppose we wish to add vector to vector. Both of them are vectors having two components in xy plane. Thus, the unit vector notation for the vector and are = * + * =, +, % = + % = 4* + * 5 + (, +, ) % = (* +, ) + (* +, ) % = (* +, ) + 4* +, 5 Since % in the unit vector notation is = ( + (, we can see that the components of the resultant vector are ( = * +, ( = * +, D. Vector Multiplication If vector is multiplied by a positive scalar quantity 6, then the product 6 is a vector that has the same direction as and magnitude 6*. If vector is multiplied by a negative scalar quantity 6, then the product 6 has opposite direction to and magnitude 6*. However, multiplying a vector to another vector is more complicated than multiplying a vector to a scalar. There are three kinds of vector multiplication, dot

6 product, cross product, and dyadic or tensor product. Each product has their own rules. In this case, we only study about the first two. 1. Dot Product Dot product of two vectors yields a scalar quantity. Dot product of vector and vector is defined as = *, 9:; ' where ' is an angle between the two vectors. It tells us that dot product of two perpendicular vectors is zero. Geometrical interpretation of dot product of vector and vector implies a scalar multiplication between magnitude of vector with the projection magnitude of vector on vector (Figure 1.7 a), or a scalar multiplication between the projection magnitude of vector on vector B with magnitude of vector (Figure 1.7 b). ' * E = * cos ', D =, cos ' ' Figure 1.7 Geometrical interpretation of dot product If vector and vector are expressed in unit vector notation, then the dot product is = 4* + * 5 (, +, ) = *, ( ) + *, ( ) + *, ( ) + *, ( ) = *, + *, Dot product can be used to find the angle between two vectors by using the equation cos ' = *, Some properties of the dot product : 1. = 2. = = = 1 ( since ' = 0 ) 3. = = = 0 ( since ' = 90 A ) 4. and perpendicular if = C and and are not zero

7 2. Cross Product Cross product of two vector quantities yields a vector quantity, and defined as = *, sin ' IJ and its magnitude = *, sin ' where ' is an angle between the two vectors and IJ is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane formed by vector and vector. The direction of IJ depends on the directions of vector and vector. There is a rule how to find direction of IJ, that is called right hand rule. For example, cross product of and, as shown in Figure 1.8. z y Figure 1.8 Cross product of and = 1 1 sin 90 A IJ = IJ If we rotate a screw from the tip of vector to the tip of vector, it will move upper in the same direction with vector. Since the magnitude of IJ = 1 then IJ = = Some properties of cross product : 1. =, =, = 2. =, =, = 3. = = = 0 ( since ' = 0 ) 4. = 5. Vector parallel to vector if = 0, and and are not zero Example Given vector K = and vector L = 2 2 +, a. draw vector K and L in cartesian coordinates b. find the magnitude of vector K and L c. find dot product of vector K and L d. find the product of K L e. find the angle between vector K and L f. find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane formed by vector K and L

8 Solution a. Vector K and L in cartesian coordinates L 2 2 z K 2 y b. Magnitude of vector K M = M + M + M M = M = 9 M = 3 b. Magnitude of vector L O = O + O + O M = )2 + ( 2) + 1 M = 9 M = 3 c. Dot product of vector K and L K L = K L = K L = 2 d. The product of K L K L = K L = 2 + ( 2 ) ( 2 ) + 2 K L = ( 2 ) + 2 K L = C C P + P + C K L = Q + R 6 e. The angle between the two vectors is K L sin ' = MO sin ' = ) ( 6) 3 3 sin ' = 81 9 sin ' = 1 then, ' = 90 A f. Suppose the unit vector is IJ, then IJ = K L K L

9 IJ = U IJ =

A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity.

A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity. Chapters and 6 Introduction to Vectors A vector quantity has direction and magnitude. There are many examples of vector quantities in the natural world, such as force, velocity, and acceleration. A vector

More information

Vector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products

Vector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products Chapter 2 Vector Algebra II: Scalar and Vector Products We saw in the previous chapter how vector quantities may be added and subtracted. In this chapter we consider the products of vectors and define

More information

Vector has a magnitude and a direction. Scalar has a magnitude

Vector has a magnitude and a direction. Scalar has a magnitude Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude a brick on a table Vector has a magnitude and a direction Scalar has a magnitude

More information

Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors

Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors Fall 2005 Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors These notes were written by J. Peraire as a review of vectors for Dynamics 16.07. They have been adapted for Unified Engineering by R. Radovitzky. References [1] Feynmann,

More information

Difference between a vector and a scalar quantity. N or 90 o. S or 270 o

Difference between a vector and a scalar quantity. N or 90 o. S or 270 o Vectors Vectors and Scalars Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities, and give examples of each. method. A vector is represented in print by a bold italicized symbol, for example, F. A vector has

More information

Section 1.1. Introduction to R n

Section 1.1. Introduction to R n The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section. Introduction to R n Calculus is the study of functional relationships and how related quantities change with each other. In your first exposure to

More information

One advantage of this algebraic approach is that we can write down

One advantage of this algebraic approach is that we can write down . Vectors and the dot product A vector v in R 3 is an arrow. It has a direction and a length (aka the magnitude), but the position is not important. Given a coordinate axis, where the x-axis points out

More information

Review A: Vector Analysis

Review A: Vector Analysis MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Review A: Vector Analysis A... A-0 A.1 Vectors A-2 A.1.1 Introduction A-2 A.1.2 Properties of a Vector A-2 A.1.3 Application of Vectors

More information

9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product

9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Arkansas Tech University MATH 934: Calculus III Dr. Marcel B Finan 9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Up to this point we have defined what vectors are and discussed basic notation

More information

Vectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012

Vectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012 Vectors Math 122 Calculus III D Joyce, Fall 2012 Vectors in the plane R 2. A vector v can be interpreted as an arro in the plane R 2 ith a certain length and a certain direction. The same vector can be

More information

PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6

PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6 PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6 Vectors - A vector is basically an arrow. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude (value) and the arrow points in the direction. Many different quantities

More information

Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations

Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Lecture notes based on J. Peraire Version 2.0 Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations By using vectors and defining appropriate operations between

More information

13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT

13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT 710 Chapter Thirteen A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL: VECTORS 62. Use the following steps and the results of Problems 59 60 to show (without trigonometry) that the geometric and algebraic definitions of the dot product

More information

Lab 2: Vector Analysis

Lab 2: Vector Analysis Lab 2: Vector Analysis Objectives: to practice using graphical and analytical methods to add vectors in two dimensions Equipment: Meter stick Ruler Protractor Force table Ring Pulleys with attachments

More information

11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space

11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of

More information

2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model

2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model 2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model The story of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intersystem crossing is essentially a choreography of the twisting motion which causes reorientation or rephasing

More information

Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial

Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT Graham S McDonald A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors Table of contents Begin Tutorial c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk 1. Theory 2. Exercises

More information

Section 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions

Section 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions Section 9.1 Vectors in Two Dimensions Geometric Description of Vectors A vector in the plane is a line segment with an assigned direction. We sketch a vector as shown in the first Figure below with an

More information

Vector Spaces; the Space R n

Vector Spaces; the Space R n Vector Spaces; the Space R n Vector Spaces A vector space (over the real numbers) is a set V of mathematical entities, called vectors, U, V, W, etc, in which an addition operation + is defined and in which

More information

2 Session Two - Complex Numbers and Vectors

2 Session Two - Complex Numbers and Vectors PH2011 Physics 2A Maths Revision - Session 2: Complex Numbers and Vectors 1 2 Session Two - Complex Numbers and Vectors 2.1 What is a Complex Number? The material on complex numbers should be familiar

More information

3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS.

3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS. 3. KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS; VECTORS. Key words: Motion in Two Dimensions, Scalars, Vectors, Addition of Vectors by Graphical Methods, Tail to Tip Method, Parallelogram Method, Negative Vector, Vector

More information

9.4. The Scalar Product. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Style. Learning Outcomes

9.4. The Scalar Product. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Style. Learning Outcomes The Scalar Product 9.4 Introduction There are two kinds of multiplication involving vectors. The first is known as the scalar product or dot product. This is so-called because when the scalar product of

More information

The Force Table Introduction: Theory:

The Force Table Introduction: Theory: 1 The Force Table Introduction: "The Force Table" is a simple tool for demonstrating Newton s First Law and the vector nature of forces. This tool is based on the principle of equilibrium. An object is

More information

1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two non-zero vectors u and v,

1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two non-zero vectors u and v, 1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19 1.3 Dot Product 1.3.1 Definitions and Properties The dot product is the first way to multiply two vectors. The definition we will give below may appear arbitrary. But it is not. It

More information

The Dot and Cross Products

The Dot and Cross Products The Dot and Cross Products Two common operations involving vectors are the dot product and the cross product. Let two vectors =,, and =,, be given. The Dot Product The dot product of and is written and

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 NON-CONCURRENT COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS 1. Be able to determine the effects

More information

Chapter 3 Vectors. m = m1 + m2 = 3 kg + 4 kg = 7 kg (3.1)

Chapter 3 Vectors. m = m1 + m2 = 3 kg + 4 kg = 7 kg (3.1) COROLLARY I. A body, acted on by two forces simultaneously, will describe the diagonal of a parallelogram in the same time as it would describe the sides by those forces separately. Isaac Newton - Principia

More information

Mechanics 1: Vectors

Mechanics 1: Vectors Mechanics 1: Vectors roadly speaking, mechanical systems will be described by a combination of scalar and vector quantities. scalar is just a (real) number. For example, mass or weight is characterized

More information

Math, Trigonometry and Vectors. Geometry. Trig Definitions. sin(θ) = opp hyp. cos(θ) = adj hyp. tan(θ) = opp adj. Here's a familiar image.

Math, Trigonometry and Vectors. Geometry. Trig Definitions. sin(θ) = opp hyp. cos(θ) = adj hyp. tan(θ) = opp adj. Here's a familiar image. Math, Trigonometr and Vectors Geometr Trig Definitions Here's a familiar image. To make predictive models of the phsical world, we'll need to make visualizations, which we can then turn into analtical

More information

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering

More information

28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE. v x. u y v z u z v y u y u z. v y v z

28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE. v x. u y v z u z v y u y u z. v y v z 28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.4 Cross Product 1.4.1 Definitions The cross product is the second multiplication operation between vectors we will study. The goal behind the definition

More information

MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK

MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK 1. Projections and Cross Product 1.1. Projections. Definition 1.1. Given a vector u, the rectangular (or perpendicular or orthogonal) components are two vectors u 1 and

More information

v 1 v 3 u v = (( 1)4 (3)2, [1(4) ( 2)2], 1(3) ( 2)( 1)) = ( 10, 8, 1) (d) u (v w) = (u w)v (u v)w (Relationship between dot and cross product)

v 1 v 3 u v = (( 1)4 (3)2, [1(4) ( 2)2], 1(3) ( 2)( 1)) = ( 10, 8, 1) (d) u (v w) = (u w)v (u v)w (Relationship between dot and cross product) 0.1 Cross Product The dot product of two vectors is a scalar, a number in R. Next we will define the cross product of two vectors in 3-space. This time the outcome will be a vector in 3-space. Definition

More information

Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson

Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson 1 Dot Product The notation v w means the dot product or scalar product or inner product of two vectors, v and w. In abstract mathematics, we can talk about

More information

sin(θ) = opp hyp cos(θ) = adj hyp tan(θ) = opp adj

sin(θ) = opp hyp cos(θ) = adj hyp tan(θ) = opp adj Math, Trigonometr and Vectors Geometr 33º What is the angle equal to? a) α = 7 b) α = 57 c) α = 33 d) α = 90 e) α cannot be determined α Trig Definitions Here's a familiar image. To make predictive models

More information

Vectors and Scalars. AP Physics B

Vectors and Scalars. AP Physics B Vectors and Scalars P Physics Scalar SCLR is NY quantity in physics that has MGNITUDE, but NOT a direction associated with it. Magnitude numerical value with units. Scalar Example Speed Distance ge Magnitude

More information

5.3 The Cross Product in R 3

5.3 The Cross Product in R 3 53 The Cross Product in R 3 Definition 531 Let u = [u 1, u 2, u 3 ] and v = [v 1, v 2, v 3 ] Then the vector given by [u 2 v 3 u 3 v 2, u 3 v 1 u 1 v 3, u 1 v 2 u 2 v 1 ] is called the cross product (or

More information

In order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties.

In order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties. Chapter 2 One Dimensional Kinematics How would you describe the following motion? Ex: random 1-D path speeding up and slowing down In order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties.

More information

Adding vectors We can do arithmetic with vectors. We ll start with vector addition and related operations. Suppose you have two vectors

Adding vectors We can do arithmetic with vectors. We ll start with vector addition and related operations. Suppose you have two vectors 1 Chapter 13. VECTORS IN THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE Let s begin with some names and notation for things: R is the set (collection) of real numbers. We write x R to mean that x is a real number. A real number

More information

Physics 235 Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus

Physics 235 Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus In this chapter, we will focus on the mathematical tools required for the course. The main concepts that will be covered are: Coordinate transformations

More information

State of Stress at Point

State of Stress at Point State of Stress at Point Einstein Notation The basic idea of Einstein notation is that a covector and a vector can form a scalar: This is typically written as an explicit sum: According to this convention,

More information

Examples of Scalar and Vector Quantities 1. Candidates should be able to : QUANTITY VECTOR SCALAR

Examples of Scalar and Vector Quantities 1. Candidates should be able to : QUANTITY VECTOR SCALAR Candidates should be able to : Examples of Scalar and Vector Quantities 1 QUANTITY VECTOR SCALAR Define scalar and vector quantities and give examples. Draw and use a vector triangle to determine the resultant

More information

Geometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi

Geometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi Geometry of Vectors Carlo Tomasi This note explores the geometric meaning of norm, inner product, orthogonality, and projection for vectors. For vectors in three-dimensional space, we also examine the

More information

6. Vectors. 1 2009-2016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu)

6. Vectors. 1 2009-2016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu) 6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot,

More information

6. LECTURE 6. Objectives

6. LECTURE 6. Objectives 6. LECTURE 6 Objectives I understand how to use vectors to understand displacement. I can find the magnitude of a vector. I can sketch a vector. I can add and subtract vector. I can multiply a vector by

More information

Example SECTION 13-1. X-AXIS - the horizontal number line. Y-AXIS - the vertical number line ORIGIN - the point where the x-axis and y-axis cross

Example SECTION 13-1. X-AXIS - the horizontal number line. Y-AXIS - the vertical number line ORIGIN - the point where the x-axis and y-axis cross CHAPTER 13 SECTION 13-1 Geometry and Algebra The Distance Formula COORDINATE PLANE consists of two perpendicular number lines, dividing the plane into four regions called quadrants X-AXIS - the horizontal

More information

Vectors. Objectives. Assessment. Assessment. Equations. Physics terms 5/15/14. State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables.

Vectors. Objectives. Assessment. Assessment. Equations. Physics terms 5/15/14. State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables. Vectors Objectives State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables. Analyze and describe position and movement in two dimensions using graphs and Cartesian coordinates. Organize and

More information

Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body

Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body G.1 EE1.el3 (EEE1023): Electronics III Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body Dr Philip Jackson http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/teaching/courses/ee1.el3/ G.2 Moments, torque and

More information

THEORETICAL MECHANICS

THEORETICAL MECHANICS PROF. DR. ING. VASILE SZOLGA THEORETICAL MECHANICS LECTURE NOTES AND SAMPLE PROBLEMS PART ONE STATICS OF THE PARTICLE, OF THE RIGID BODY AND OF THE SYSTEMS OF BODIES KINEMATICS OF THE PARTICLE 2010 0 Contents

More information

Section V.3: Dot Product

Section V.3: Dot Product Section V.3: Dot Product Introduction So far we have looked at operations on a single vector. There are a number of ways to combine two vectors. Vector addition and subtraction will not be covered here,

More information

Problem set on Cross Product

Problem set on Cross Product 1 Calculate the vector product of a and b given that a= 2i + j + k and b = i j k (Ans 3 j - 3 k ) 2 Calculate the vector product of i - j and i + j (Ans ) 3 Find the unit vectors that are perpendicular

More information

AP Physics - Vector Algrebra Tutorial

AP Physics - Vector Algrebra Tutorial AP Physics - Vector Algrebra Tutorial Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology AP Physics Team Summer 2013 1 CONTENTS CONTENTS Contents 1 Scalars and Vectors 3 2 Rectangular and Polar Form

More information

Vector Algebra. Addition: (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (associative) Subtraction: A B = A + (-B)

Vector Algebra. Addition: (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (associative) Subtraction: A B = A + (-B) Vector Algebra When dealing with scalars, the usual math operations (+, -, ) are sufficient to obtain any information needed. When dealing with ectors, the magnitudes can be operated on as scalars, but

More information

discuss how to describe points, lines and planes in 3 space.

discuss how to describe points, lines and planes in 3 space. Chapter 2 3 Space: lines and planes In this chapter we discuss how to describe points, lines and planes in 3 space. introduce the language of vectors. discuss various matters concerning the relative position

More information

NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS

NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS TEST DESIGN AND FRAMEWORK September 2014 Authorized for Distribution by the New York State Education Department This test design and framework document

More information

The Vector or Cross Product

The Vector or Cross Product The Vector or ross Product 1 ppendix The Vector or ross Product We saw in ppendix that the dot product of two vectors is a scalar quantity that is a maximum when the two vectors are parallel and is zero

More information

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors ddition and Subtraction of Vectors 1 ppendi ddition and Subtraction of Vectors In this appendi the basic elements of vector algebra are eplored. Vectors are treated as geometric entities represented b

More information

Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010

Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010 Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010 This Packet is a Study Guide, not a replacement for studying from your notes, tests, quizzes, and textbook. Midterm Date: Thursday, January 28 th 8:15-10:15 Room:

More information

Two vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not

Two vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not Vectors define vectors Some physical quantities, such as temperature, length, and mass, can be specified by a single number called a scalar. Other physical quantities, such as force and velocity, must

More information

Definition: A vector is a directed line segment that has and. Each vector has an initial point and a terminal point.

Definition: A vector is a directed line segment that has and. Each vector has an initial point and a terminal point. 6.1 Vectors in the Plane PreCalculus 6.1 VECTORS IN THE PLANE Learning Targets: 1. Find the component form and the magnitude of a vector.. Perform addition and scalar multiplication of two vectors. 3.

More information

Number Sense and Operations

Number Sense and Operations Number Sense and Operations representing as they: 6.N.1 6.N.2 6.N.3 6.N.4 6.N.5 6.N.6 6.N.7 6.N.8 6.N.9 6.N.10 6.N.11 6.N.12 6.N.13. 6.N.14 6.N.15 Demonstrate an understanding of positive integer exponents

More information

Equations Involving Lines and Planes Standard equations for lines in space

Equations Involving Lines and Planes Standard equations for lines in space Equations Involving Lines and Planes In this section we will collect various important formulas regarding equations of lines and planes in three dimensional space Reminder regarding notation: any quantity

More information

Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast

Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast John Vince Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast Springer Contents 1. MATHEMATICS 1 Is mathematics difficult? 3 Who should read this book? 4 Aims and objectives of this book 4 Assumptions made

More information

Math 241, Exam 1 Information.

Math 241, Exam 1 Information. Math 241, Exam 1 Information. 9/24/12, LC 310, 11:15-12:05. Exam 1 will be based on: Sections 12.1-12.5, 14.1-14.3. The corresponding assigned homework problems (see http://www.math.sc.edu/ boylan/sccourses/241fa12/241.html)

More information

Vectors 2. The METRIC Project, Imperial College. Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, 1996.

Vectors 2. The METRIC Project, Imperial College. Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, 1996. Vectors 2 The METRIC Project, Imperial College. Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, 1996. Launch Mathematica. Type

More information

v w is orthogonal to both v and w. the three vectors v, w and v w form a right-handed set of vectors.

v w is orthogonal to both v and w. the three vectors v, w and v w form a right-handed set of vectors. 3. Cross product Definition 3.1. Let v and w be two vectors in R 3. The cross product of v and w, denoted v w, is the vector defined as follows: the length of v w is the area of the parallelogram with

More information

South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Pre-Calculus

South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Pre-Calculus South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Pre-Calculus Key Concepts Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions PC.AAPR.2 PC.AAPR.3 PC.AAPR.4 PC.AAPR.5 PC.AAPR.6 PC.AAPR.7 Standards Know

More information

General Physics 1. Class Goals

General Physics 1. Class Goals General Physics 1 Class Goals Develop problem solving skills Learn the basic concepts of mechanics and learn how to apply these concepts to solve problems Build on your understanding of how the world works

More information

Part I. Basic Maths for Game Design

Part I. Basic Maths for Game Design Part I Basic Maths for Game Design 1 Chapter 1 Basic Vector Algebra 1.1 What's a vector? Why do you need it? A vector is a mathematical object used to represent some magnitudes. For example, temperature

More information

Biggar High School Mathematics Department. National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress

Biggar High School Mathematics Department. National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress Biggar High School Mathematics Department National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress Expressions & Formulae Topic Learning Intention Success Criteria I understand this Approximation

More information

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) There are two main ways to introduce the dot product

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) There are two main ways to introduce the dot product Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) Two definitions for the dot product. Geometric definition of dot product. Orthogonal vectors. Dot product and orthogonal projections. Properties of the dot

More information

ex) What is the component form of the vector shown in the picture above?

ex) What is the component form of the vector shown in the picture above? Vectors A ector is a directed line segment, which has both a magnitude (length) and direction. A ector can be created using any two points in the plane, the direction of the ector is usually denoted by

More information

Worksheet to Review Vector and Scalar Properties

Worksheet to Review Vector and Scalar Properties Worksheet to Review Vector and Scalar Properties 1. Differentiate between vectors and scalar quantities 2. Know what is being requested when the question asks for the magnitude of a quantity 3. Define

More information

Section 10.4 Vectors

Section 10.4 Vectors Section 10.4 Vectors A vector is represented by using a ray, or arrow, that starts at an initial point and ends at a terminal point. Your textbook will always use a bold letter to indicate a vector (such

More information

Review of Vector Analysis in Cartesian Coordinates

Review of Vector Analysis in Cartesian Coordinates R. evicky, CBE 6333 Review of Vector Analysis in Cartesian Coordinates Scalar: A quantity that has magnitude, but no direction. Examples are mass, temperature, pressure, time, distance, and real numbers.

More information

Section V.2: Magnitudes, Directions, and Components of Vectors

Section V.2: Magnitudes, Directions, and Components of Vectors Section V.: Magnitudes, Directions, and Components of Vectors Vectors in the plane If we graph a vector in the coordinate plane instead of just a grid, there are a few things to note. Firstl, directions

More information

The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited

The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited 1. Introduction In a class handout entitled, Three-Dimensional Proper and Improper Rotation Matrices, I provided a derivation

More information

Pre-Calculus Unit Plan: Vectors and their Applications. Dr. Mohr-Schroeder. Fall 2012. University of Kentucky. Jessica Doering.

Pre-Calculus Unit Plan: Vectors and their Applications. Dr. Mohr-Schroeder. Fall 2012. University of Kentucky. Jessica Doering. Pre-Calculus Unit Plan: Vectors and their Applications Dr. Mohr-Schroeder Fall 2012 University of Kentucky Jessica Doering Andrea Meadors Stephen Powers Table of Contents Narrative and Overview of Unit

More information

... ... . (2,4,5).. ...

... ... . (2,4,5).. ... 12 Three Dimensions ½¾º½ Ì ÓÓÖ Ò Ø ËÝ Ø Ñ So far wehave been investigatingfunctions ofthe form y = f(x), withone independent and one dependent variable Such functions can be represented in two dimensions,

More information

Chapter 5A. Torque. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 5A. Torque. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University Chapter 5A. Torque A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Torque is a twist or turn that tends to produce rotation. * * * Applications

More information

Chapter 3B - Vectors. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 3B - Vectors. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University Chapter 3B - Vectors A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Vectors Surveyors use accurate measures of magnitudes and directions to

More information

Name DATE Per TEST REVIEW. 2. A picture that shows how two variables are related is called a.

Name DATE Per TEST REVIEW. 2. A picture that shows how two variables are related is called a. Name DATE Per Completion Complete each statement. TEST REVIEW 1. The two most common systems of standardized units for expressing measurements are the system and the system. 2. A picture that shows how

More information

Parallel and Perpendicular. We show a small box in one of the angles to show that the lines are perpendicular.

Parallel and Perpendicular. We show a small box in one of the angles to show that the lines are perpendicular. CONDENSED L E S S O N. Parallel and Perpendicular In this lesson you will learn the meaning of parallel and perpendicular discover how the slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines are related use slopes

More information

Chapter 4. Moment - the tendency of a force to rotate an object

Chapter 4. Moment - the tendency of a force to rotate an object Chapter 4 Moment - the tendency of a force to rotate an object Finding the moment - 2D Scalar Formulation Magnitude of force Mo = F d Rotation is clockwise or counter clockwise Moment about 0 Perpendicular

More information

Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000)

Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Finding the formula in polar coordinates for the angular momentum of a moving

More information

Georgia Standards of Excellence Frameworks. Mathematics. GSE Pre-Calculus Unit 7: Vectors

Georgia Standards of Excellence Frameworks. Mathematics. GSE Pre-Calculus Unit 7: Vectors Georgia Standards of Excellence Frameworks Mathematics GSE Pre-Calculus Unit 7: Vectors These materials are for nonprofit educational purposes only. Any other use may constitute copyright infringement.

More information

by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given

by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors Example Suppose Then So, geometrically, multiplying a vector in by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given vector about the y-axis We observe that

More information

13 MATH FACTS 101. 2 a = 1. 7. The elements of a vector have a graphical interpretation, which is particularly easy to see in two or three dimensions.

13 MATH FACTS 101. 2 a = 1. 7. The elements of a vector have a graphical interpretation, which is particularly easy to see in two or three dimensions. 3 MATH FACTS 0 3 MATH FACTS 3. Vectors 3.. Definition We use the overhead arrow to denote a column vector, i.e., a linear segment with a direction. For example, in three-space, we write a vector in terms

More information

Introduction and Mathematical Concepts

Introduction and Mathematical Concepts CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts PREVIEW In this chapter you will be introduced to the physical units most frequently encountered in physics. After completion of the chapter you will be

More information

Trigonometric Functions and Equations

Trigonometric Functions and Equations Contents Trigonometric Functions and Equations Lesson 1 Reasoning with Trigonometric Functions Investigations 1 Proving Trigonometric Identities... 271 2 Sum and Difference Identities... 276 3 Extending

More information

Vector Algebra CHAPTER 13. Ü13.1. Basic Concepts

Vector Algebra CHAPTER 13. Ü13.1. Basic Concepts CHAPTER 13 ector Algebra Ü13.1. Basic Concepts A vector in the plane or in space is an arrow: it is determined by its length, denoted and its direction. Two arrows represent the same vector if they have

More information

Universal Law of Gravitation

Universal Law of Gravitation Universal Law of Gravitation Law: Every body exerts a force of attraction on every other body. This force called, gravity, is relatively weak and decreases rapidly with the distance separating the bodies

More information

Unit 11 Additional Topics in Trigonometry - Classwork

Unit 11 Additional Topics in Trigonometry - Classwork Unit 11 Additional Topics in Trigonometry - Classwork In geometry and physics, concepts such as temperature, mass, time, length, area, and volume can be quantified with a single real number. These are

More information

2-1 Position, Displacement, and Distance

2-1 Position, Displacement, and Distance 2-1 Position, Displacement, and Distance In describing an object s motion, we should first talk about position where is the object? A position is a vector because it has both a magnitude and a direction:

More information

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product Geometrical definition Properties Expression in components. Definition in components Properties Geometrical expression.

More information

Mathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 10. Vector Algebra

Mathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 10. Vector Algebra 1 P a g e Mathematics Notes for Class 12 chapter 10. Vector Algebra A vector has direction and magnitude both but scalar has only magnitude. Magnitude of a vector a is denoted by a or a. It is non-negative

More information

L 2 : x = s + 1, y = s, z = 4s + 4. 3. Suppose that C has coordinates (x, y, z). Then from the vector equality AC = BD, one has

L 2 : x = s + 1, y = s, z = 4s + 4. 3. Suppose that C has coordinates (x, y, z). Then from the vector equality AC = BD, one has The line L through the points A and B is parallel to the vector AB = 3, 2, and has parametric equations x = 3t + 2, y = 2t +, z = t Therefore, the intersection point of the line with the plane should satisfy:

More information

Chapter 1 Units, Physical Quantities, and Vectors

Chapter 1 Units, Physical Quantities, and Vectors Chapter 1 Units, Physical Quantities, and Vectors 1 The Nature of Physics Physics is an experimental science. Physicists make observations of physical phenomena. They try to find patterns and principles

More information

The Geometry of the Dot and Cross Products

The Geometry of the Dot and Cross Products Journal of Online Mathematics and Its Applications Volume 6. June 2006. Article ID 1156 The Geometry of the Dot and Cross Products Tevian Dray Corinne A. Manogue 1 Introduction Most students first learn

More information

Linear Algebra: Vectors

Linear Algebra: Vectors A Linear Algebra: Vectors A Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A Motivation A 3 A2 Vectors A 3 A2 Notational Conventions A 4 A22 Visualization A 5 A23 Special Vectors A 5 A3 Vector

More information