# 6. Vectors Scott Surgent

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1 6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot, and the end is its head. A vector is usually labelled in boldface, such as v. In an xy-axis system ( ), the vector is written,, which means that from the foot of v, move units in the x direction, and units in the y direction, to arrive at the vector s head. The values and are the vector s components. In, a vector has three components and is written,,. Given two points,, and,, a vector can be drawn with its foot at and head at, where,. In, we have,,. To add two vectors, and,, add the respective components:,. Visually, place the foot of v at the head of u, then sketch a vector that begins at the foot of u and ends at the head of v. This is called a resultant Scott Surgent

2 The magnitude of a vector is found by the Pythagorean Formula: in or in. The notation represents the magnitude of v, and is always a non-negative number. A vector may be multiplied by any real number c, called a scalar. For example, if u is a vector, then 2 2,2, which results in a vector 2u that is twice the magnitude of u. Note that the magnitude of a vector is a scalar. That is, if v is a vector, then is a scalar. Roughly speaking, scalars act as coefficients when multiplied to a vector. In general, for a vector v and a scalar c, the magnitude of cv is, where is the absolute value of c. There are two closure properties of vectors: If u and v are two vectors in (or ), then their sum u + v is also in (or ). If u is a vector in (or ), then for any scalar c, cu is also in (or ). The structural properties of vectors are: Commutativity: u + v = v + u. Vectors can be added in any order. Associativity: (u + v) + w = u + (v + w). Additive Identity:, with the property that u + 0 = 0 + u = u. Thus, 0 is called the zero vector, and is a single point, with a magnitude of 0: 0, and if 0, then v = 0. In, the zero vector is 0,0, and in, it is 0,0,0. Additive Inverse: For any non-zero vector u, the vector exists with the property that. Visually, has the same magnitude as, but points in the opposite direction. Subtraction of two vectors is now defined: 1. Distributivity of a scalar across vectors: If c is a scalar, then. Distributivity of a vector across scalars: If c and d are scalars, then. Associativity and Commutativity of Scalars:. Multiplicative scalar identity: 1v = v. Any set for which the two closure properties and the eight structural properties are true for all elements in and for all real-number scalars is called a vector space. Elements of a vector space are called vectors. Common vector spaces are, where n is any non-negative integer. Thus, the xy-axis system is a vector space, as is the xyz-axis system. The real line is also a vector space Scott Surgent

3 Given any non-zero vector v, the unit vector of v is found by multiplying v by. The unit vector has magnitude 1. In, the vectors 1,0 and 0,1 are called the standard orthonormal basis vectors, which allows us to write a vector,. In, the standard orthonormal basis vectors are 1,0,0, 0,1,0 and 0,0,1. Pay attention to notation. Parentheses are used to represent points, and angled brackets are used to represent vectors. Example 6.1: Sketch 2,3. Solution: From any starting point, move 2 units in the x (horizontal) direction, and 3 units in the y (vertical) direction. Below are five copies of the vector u. Note that the foot can be placed anywhere. Multiple copies of the same vector can be drawn using different starting points. The position of a vector relative to a coordinate axis system is not relevant. A vector may be moved at will. As long as its direction and magnitude are not changed, it is considered to be the same vector Scott Surgent

4 Example 6.2: Given 4, 5, find. Solution: The magnitude is Example 6.3: Find a vector whose foot is 1,4 and head is 5,2. Solution: The vector is 51,24 6, 2. Note that, has its foot at B, head at A, and is 6, 2 6,2. Example 6.4. Given 2,1 and 1,5, Find and sketch (a) u + v, and (b) u v. Solution: We have 21,15 1,6 and 21,15 3, 4. Vectors u and v form a parallelogram, with u + v as one diagonal inside the parallelogram, and u v the other diagonal. If u and v have a common foot, then u v has its foot at the head of v, and its head at the head of u Scott Surgent

5 Example 6.5: Given 3,1, Find and sketch (a) 2v and (b) 3v. Solution: We have 2 23,21 6,2 and 3 33,31 9, 3. Note that 2v has twice the magnitude of v, and 3v has three times the magnitude of v, pointing in the opposite direction. Both 2v and 3v are parallel to v, and in general, cv is parallel to v, for all 0. Example 6.6: Given 1, 4,2 and 5,8,3, find 4u 3v. Solution: We have , 4,2 3 5,8,3 4, 16,8 15, 24, 9 19, 40, 1. Example 6.7: Given 1, 4,2 and 5,8,3, find w such that 3w + 2u = v. Solution: Solve for w: Scott Surgent

6 Now, substitute u and v, and simplify: ,8,3 2 1, 4, ,8 3,1 2 3, 8 3,4 3 1,0, 7 3. Example 6.8: Given 1,2,4, find the unit vector in the same direction as v. Solution: The magnitude is Thus, ,2,4 1 21, 2 21, Example 6.9: Find a vector in the opposite direction of 2,1 that is 4 times the length of. Solution: Multiply by 4, where the 4 increases the magnitude by a factor of 4, and the negative reverses the direction: 4 4 2,1 8, 4. Example 6.10: Given 1,5,2, find a vector w in the same direction as, with magnitude 3. Solution: The unit vector is Then multiply by 3: ,5, ,5,2. In many situations, it is easier to leave any scalar multipliers to the front of the vector, rather than distributing it among the components Scott Surgent

7 Example 6.11: A boat travels north at 30 miles per hour. Meanwhile, the current is moving toward the east at 5 miles per hour. If the boat s captain does not account for the current, the boat will drift to the east of its intended destination. After two hours, find (a) the boat s position as a vector, (b) the distance the boat travelled, and (c) the boat s position as a bearing. Solution. Superimpose an xy-axis system, so that the positive y-axis North, and the positive x-axis is East. Thus, the boat s vector can be represented by 0,30, and the current s vector by 5,0. a) The boat s position after two hours will be 2 2 5,30 10,60. From the boat s starting point, the boat moved 10 miles east and 60 miles north. b) The boat travelled a distance of , or about miles. c) Viewing a drawing below, we see that we can find the angle using inverse trigonometry. Thus, tan degrees East of North. Example 6.12: A 10 kg mass hangs by two symmetric cables from a ceiling such that the cables meet at a 40-degree angle at the mass itself. Find the tension (in Newtons) on each cable Scott Surgent

8 Solution: The force of the mass with respect to gravity is 10 kg N. Let be the tension on one cable. We can decompose into its vertical and horizontal components: The two horizontal components sum to 0, since the forces cancel one another, while the two vertical components support the 98 N downward force. Thus, we have Solving for we, we obtain 2 sin N. 2sin70 Each cable has a tension of about N. If the angle at which the cables meet was larger, the tensions would be greater. For example, if the cables were to meet at the mass at an angle of 150 degrees, then each cable would have a tension of 98 2sin N Example 6.13: A mass with a downward force of 100 N is being supported by two cables at full tension as shown in the diagram below. Let represent the tension in one cable, and the tension in the other cable. Find and Scott Surgent

9 Solution: Decompose and : In doing so, we obtain two equations. The horizontal forces sum to 0, and since one force acts in the opposite direction of the other, we have cos 50 cos At the same time, the two vertical forces support the 100 N force, so we have sin 50 sin This is a system of two equations and two unknowns, and : cos 50 cos 65 0 sin 50 sin Multiplying the top by sin 65 and the bottom by cos 65, we have Summing the two equations, we have Now we can isolate : sin 65 cos 50 sin 65 cos 65 0 sin 50 cos 65 sin 65 cos cos 65. sin 65 cos 50 sin 50 cos cos cos N. sin 65 cos 50 sin 50 cos 65 To find, we use the first equation of the system, cos 50 cos 65 0, solve for, and substitute N. We have cos 50 cos cos 50 cos N Scott Surgent

10 Example 6.14: An object with a weight of 75 lbs hangs at the center of a cable that is supported at opposite ends by poles 30 feet apart such that the cable meets the poles at the same height. Assume the weight sits in the center and causes a sag of 2 feet. Find the tension in each half of the cable. Solution: A diagram helps us see the situation. Since this is a symmetric system, the horizontal components of tension will sum to 0, while the two vertical components will support the 75 lb weight: 2 sin 75; therefore 75 2sin. We are not given the angle, but we do know that sin, where 229 is the length of the hypotenuse of the right triangle, the hypotenuse being the cable under tension. Thus, we have lbs Each side is supporting lbs, which is plausible when considering the large angle at which the two halves of the cable meet at the object Scott Surgent

11 7. The Dot Product Let,, and,, be two vectors. The dot product of and, written, is defined in two ways: cos, where is the angle formed when the feet of and are placed together;. The two forms are equivalent and related to one another by the Law of Cosines. For most practical purposes, we don t know the angle between the two vectors, so we tend to use the second formula. However, we may use the first formula to find the angle between vectors u and v. Note that the dot product results in a scalar value. Some common properties of the dot product are: Commutativity:. Distributivity:. Scalars can be combined by multiplication:. Relation to magnitude:. The most useful feature of the dot product is its sign: If 0, then the angle between vectors u and v is acute 0. If 0, then the angle between vectors u and v is obtuse. If 0, then the angle between vectors u and v is right, and the two vectors are orthogonal to one another. Be aware of notation. The dot product is defined between two vectors and is always written with the dot symbol. Traditional scalar multiplication is written without the dot symbol. Thus, statements like and cu are well defined, while statements like uv and are not defined Scott Surgent

12 Example 7.1: Let 1, 2, 5 and 3,4, 2. Find (a), and (b) the angle between and. Solution: a) We use the second definition of the dot product: Since the dot product is positive, we know that the angle between and is acute. b) We use the first definition of the dot product, solving for : cos 5 cos 1.4 radians, or degrees Example 7.2: Suppose 12 vectors of equal magnitude are arranged on an analog clock, such that all vectors have a common foot at the center. The vectors point to 12 o clock, 1 o clock, and so on. a) Would the dot product of the vectors pointing to 2 o clock and 4 o clock be positive, negative, or zero? Why? b) Would the dot product of the vectors pointing to 10 o clock and 1 o clock be positive, negative, or zero? Why? c) Would the dot product of the vectors pointing to 5 o clock and 9 o clock be positive, negative, or zero? Why? Solution: a) The two vectors form an acute angle, so their dot product would be positive. b) The two vectors form a right angle, so their dot product would be zero. c) The two vectors form an obtuse angle, so their dot product would be negative Scott Surgent

13 Example 7.3: Let 8,2,3 and 3,,5. Find k so that u and v are orthogonal. Solution: Since u and v are orthogonal, their dot product is 0: Thus, the vectors 8,2,3 and 3,,5 are orthogonal. Example 7.4: Suppose vector has magnitude 6. What is? Solution: We use the relationship. Since 6, then Example 7.5: Let 1,4,6 and 3,10, 2. Find all possible vectors that are orthogonal to both and. Solution: Let,,. Since is orthogonal to, and orthogonal to, we know that 0 and 0. 0 gives 4 6 0, 0 gives This is a system of two equations in three variables. Let (a constant). Now we have a system of two equations in two variables: Multiplying the bottom row by 3, we have Scott Surgent

14 Summing the two equations, we have 34 8, so that Back-substituting, we can find z. Using the equation 4 6 and letting, we have Now we solve for z: We now have vector identified: ,,, 4 11, , 4 17, There are infinitely many vectors that are simultaneously orthogonal to 1,4,6 and 3,10, 2, and they are all scalar multiples of the vector 1,,. Typically, we would multiply through by a convenient constant to clear fractions. In this case, letting 34, we would get the vector 34, 8, Scott Surgent

15 8. Projections Given two vectors and, the orthogonal projection (or projection) of onto is given by proj. Think of a right triangle: is the hypotenuse, and proj is the adjacent leg of the triangle that points in the direction of v. The opposite leg, called norm, is found by vector summation: Since proj norm, then norm proj. Often, we need to write a vector in terms of a vector parallel to, and another vector orthogonal (or normal) to. This is called decomposition of a vector, and is done using projections. Take care to perform the projection operations in the correct order. When we say project u onto v, it is vector v that is being altered. Example 8.1: Find the projection of 2,5 onto 4,1. Solution: The projection of onto is proj 4,1 2,5 4,1 4,1 4, , ,1 13 4,1 3.06, In the left image, vectors u and v are plotted. In the center image, a perpendicular is dropped from u onto v. In the right image, proj is the vector on v that forms the adjacent leg of a right triangle, with u as the hypotenuse Scott Surgent

16 Example 8.2: Decompose 2,5 into two vectors, one parallel to 4,1, and another normal to 4,1. Solution: The vector parallel to is found by projecting 2,5 onto 4,1. From the previous example, we have proj 4,1. The vector normal to is found by vector subtraction norm proj 2, , , ,4. 17 Viewing this as a right triangle, proj 4,1 and norm 1,4 are the two legs of a right triangle, with 2,5 being the hypotenuse. Example 8.3: Jimmy is standing at the point 1,2 and wants to visit his friend who lives at the point 7,3, all units in miles. Jimmy starts walking in the direction given by 4,1. If he continues to walk in this direction, he will miss point. Suppose Jimmy is allowed one rightangle turn. At what point should Jimmy make this right angle turn so that he arrives at point? Solution: We sketch a diagram to get a sense of Jimmy s location and direction of travel, as well as to see where his right-angle turn should be made Scott Surgent

17 The diagram suggests a right triangle, with the vector 6,1 forming the hypotenuse, and 4,1 defining the direction of the adjacent leg (relative to Jimmy s initial position). Thus, we find the projection of AB onto v: proj 6,1 4,1 4,1 4,1 4, , ,1. This vector, 4,1,, can be placed so its foot is at 1,2. Thus, its head will be at 1,2,, or about (6.88, 3.47), which agrees well with the diagram. This is where Jimmy should make his right-angle turn. Note that Jimmy will walk a distance of, 6.06 miles in the direction of v, and miles orthogonal to v Scott Surgent

18 9. The Cross Product Let,, and,, be two vectors in. The cross product of and is denoted and is defined by the formula,,. The cross product is a vector that is simultaneously orthogonal to and to. That is, 0 and 0. Since it is easy to make a calculation error when finding the cross product, check your work by showing the result is orthogonal with the two original vectors. The calculation of the cross product is best memorized as the determinant of a 3 by 3 matrix:. The cross product vector,, points in a direction as defined by the right hand rule. Curling one s fingers on their right hand from to, the cross product vector will point in the direction of the thumb pointing away from the palm. Some of the common properties of the cross product are: The cross product is not commutative:. Scalars can be grouped to the front:. Distributivity:. The magnitude of the cross product is sin. It is the area of the parallelogram formed by and. A corollary to the last property is that if and are parallel, then. If vectors and are in, then the cross product is defined if the vectors are rewritten as,,0 and,,0. In this case, the result is 0, 0, Scott Surgent

19 Example 9.1: In the image below, vectors u, v and w are drawn. State whether the cross products (a), (b) and (c) are positive (coming out of the paper), negative (going into the paper) or 0. Solution: (a) Since u and v are parallel, ; (b) Placing the feet of u and w together, curl your finger from u to w. Your thumb will point upwards, out of the paper, so is positive. Lastly, (c) placing the feet of w and v together, you would have to invert your hand in order to curl your fingers from w towards v. Thus, your thumb would point down, or into the paper, and is negative. Example 9.2: Let 1,4,6 and 3,10, 2. Find. Solution: We have , or 68,16, 22. Check that this is correct by showing 0 and 0: 68,16, 22 68,16, 22 1,4, , 3,10, Thus, 68,16, 22 is orthogonal to and orthogonal to. In Example 7.5, we showed that there are infinitely many vectors that are orthogonal to 1,4,6 and 3,10, 2, all having the form 1,,. Note that 68,16, 22 is one such vector, when Scott Surgent

20 Example 9.3: Let 1,4,6 and 3,10, 2. Find the area of the parallelogram formed by u and v, then find the area of the triangle formed by u and v. Solution: From the previous example, we have 68,16, 22. Thus, the area of the parallelogram formed by u and v is 68,16, , or about units. The area of the triangle formed by u and v is half this quantity, 5364, or about units2. Example 9.4: Find the area of the triangle formed by the points 1,3,2, 4,0,3 and 6, 3,5. Solution: We form two vectors from among the three points (any pair of vectors will suffice). The vector from A to B is 3, 3,5, and the vector from A to C is 5, 6,7. The cross product of AB and AC is ,4, (Check that this is correct by verifying that 0 and 0.) The area of the triangle is half the magnitude of : Area units. Other vectors formed from points A, B and C will work. For example, try this with BA and CB Scott Surgent

21 10. The Scalar Triple Product Let,,,,, and,, be three vectors in. The scalar triple product of u, v and w is given by. The scalar triple product is a scalar quantity. Its absolute value is the volume of the parallelepiped (a tilted box) formed by u, v and w. The ordering of the vectors is not important. For example,,, and, result in values that differ by at most the factor 1. Example 10.1: Find the volume of the parallelepiped with sides represented by the vectors 1,3,2, 4,2, 5 and 0, 3,1. Solution: We have Taking the absolute value, the volume is 23 cubic units Scott Surgent

22 Example 10.2: Four ordered triples, 3,2,1, 2,5,4, 6,10,1 and 0,7,4 form a tetrahedron, a four-sided solid in which each face is a triangle. Find the volume of this tetrahedron. Solution: The volume of a tetrahedron is one-sixth the volume of a parallelepiped. We find three vectors, and then find their scalar triple product. Next, we have: 5,3,3, 3,8,0, 3,5, Thus, the volume of the tetrahedron is cubic units. Example 10.3: Find the volume of the parallelepiped with sides represented by the vectors 2,1,3, 5,2,1 and 3,3,4. Interpret the result. Solution: We have The volume of the parallelepiped formed by u, v and w is 0. The object has no thickness, which would imply that the three vectors are coplanar (lying on a common plane) Scott Surgent

23 11. Work & Torque Work is defined as force F (in Newtons) applied to move an object a distance of d (in meters). It is the product of F and d: The standard metric unit for work is Joules, which is equivalent to Newton-meters. If the force is not applied in the same direction that the object will move, then we need to find the component of F (written now as a vector) that is parallel to the direction d, also now written as a vector. Placing the feet of F and d together, the component of F in the direction of d is given by cos. If is the distance of vector d, then the work is given by cos. This is exactly the dot product of F and d. Thus, work can be defined as a dot product,. Note that work is a scalar. It may be a negative value, which can be interpreted that the object is moving against the force being applied to it. For example, walking into a stiff frontwind. Example 11.1: A force of 10 Newtons is applied in the direction of 1,1 to an object that moves in the direction of the positive x-axis for 5 meters. Find the work performed on this object. Solution: Using geometry, the component of the force in the direction of the positive x-axis is cos The object moves 5 meters, so the work performed is Using vectors, the force vector is performed is Joules., and the direction vector is 5,0. Thus, the work 10 2, , Joules Scott Surgent

24 Example 11.2: A force of 50 N is applied in the direction of the positive x-axis, moving an object 10 meters up an inclined plane of 30 degrees. Find the work. Solution: Using geometry, the component of the force that is parallel to the inclined ramp is 50 cos N. This component of the force moves the object 10 m, so the total work performed is Joules. Using vectors, the force is given by 50,0 while the 10-mtere ramp inclined at 30 degrees has is described by the vector 10 cos 30, 10 sin 30. Thus the work performed is 50,0 10 cos 30, 10 sin cos Joules. Torque describes the force resulting from a pivoting motion. For example, when a wrench is turned around a pivot point (e.g. a bolt), it creates a force in the direction of the bolt. If the wrench is described as a vector r (where the length of the wrench is ) and the force applied to the wrench as another vector F (with magnitude ), then the torque (tau) is orthogonal to both r and F, defined by the cross product:. This means that torque is a vector. However, if both r and F lie in the xy-plane, then is a vector of the form 0,0,, and its magnitude is. This scalar value is usually given as the torque in place of its vector form. It makes intuitive sense that the force F applied to a wrench r (or anything that turns on a pivot) should be orthogonal to r. If F is not orthogonal to r, then we look for the component of F that is orthogonal to r. This component of F is what turns the wrench, so to speak Scott Surgent

25 In the following image, vectors r and F are both drawn with their feet at a common point, the pivot point. The angle between r and F is. Naturally, we would not apply the force F at the pivot itself. Recall that a vector can be moved at will, so we locate F so that its foot is at r s head. Now we look for the component of the magnitude of F that is orthogonal to r. We see that it is sin. If is the length of the wrench, then the area given by sin is interpreted as the torque, as a scalar. This is. Also note that in this example, points out of the page. This force F will turn r in a counterclockwise direction, and in the usual sense of a wrench turning a bolt, this will loosen the bolt i.e. it will emerge from this page. Since F is in Newtons, then r must be in meters to maintain consistency in units. The units for torque are Newton-meters, abbreviated Nm. Example 11.3: Find the torque around the pivot shown in the following diagram. Solution: We convert the magnitude of r into meters. Thus, the torque is sin sin Nm. 25 cm 0.25 m Scott Surgent

26 Example 11.4: Find the torque around the pivot shown in the following diagram. Solution: Note the position of the force vector F relative to r. Although it is reasonable to assume that to turn r around its pivot, we would apply the force F at its head, the angle given in the diagram must be handled carefully. The desired angle is defined by placing the feet of F and r at a common point. In other words, the equation sin sin 160 is incorrect. Instead, redraw the diagram slightly, placing the foot of F at the pivot: The desired angle is 20. Thus, the torque is sin sin Nm Scott Surgent

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