Offshoring of Services Practices, Risks and Benefits

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1 Offshoring of Services Practices, Risks and Benefits Offshoring Research Network workshop ULB - October 28 th, 2010 Dr. Carine Peeters Florence Duvivier and Julien Gooris

2 Offshoring Research Network (ORN) Initiated in 2004 at Duke University, US Expanded to partners in Europe and Asia: Denmark (Copenhagen Business School), Spain (IESE Business School), UK (Manchester Business School), Netherlands (Erasmus Rotterdam School of Management), Germany (Otto Beisheim School of Management), France (EMLyon Business school), Belgium (ULB Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management) Australia (Macquarie University), Japan (University of Tokyo), Korea (Kyung Hee University) Objectives: Track evolution of offshoring over time Study offshoring benefits, risks, and strategies 2 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

3 ORN activities Academically rigorous knowledge relevant to business 2 major surveys Corporate clients (1400+ firms) Service providers (400+ firms) Case studies Debriefing workshops Corporate events Publications: Reports, in-depth analyses and thematic studies Academic papers 3 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

4 Offshoring: definition Process of sourcing and coordinating tasks and business functions, across national borders Support domestic or global rather than local operations (>< sales) Both captive and outsourced activities Focus on Administrative and Technical services BPO ITO and software development Technology Contact centers No manufacturing production in ORN project 4 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

5 Offshoring as internationalization of value chains 5 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

6 Project scope All administrative and technical business services: IT, software development, R&D, engineering Finance, accounting, HR, sales support Contact centers All locations: India, China, South East Asia, S. America, East. Europe, Africa All delivery models: From fully captive to fully outsourced, joint ventures All industries: Manufacturing and services All companies that do offshore, do not, or are considering 6 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

7 Corporate client survey design Corporate/BU-wide strategies guiding offshoring Strategic Drivers Internal and External Risks Processes Locations Models Performance Outcomes Future Plans 7 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

8 Demographics 49% of EU companies and 46% of US companies More than 4000 offshore implementations 300 from companies in Belgium 75% implemented, 25% in planning phase Size repartition 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 30% 44% 64% 17% Large 11% Medium 4% Small 53% 45% 32% USA EU BEL Small: up to 50 employees; medium: empl.; large: >250 empl. 8 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

9 What functions are offshored? IT? Contact centers? Administrative? Software development? Engineering, design services? R&D? 9 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

10 Distribution of functions offshored Technology = 22% R&D 7% Des 6% Eng 10% Contact centers 14% F&A 11% IT & Software 31% Proc 7% M&S 6% HR 5% Know 2% Leg 1% BPO = 32% BPO: Finance & Accounting (F&A), Procurement (Proc), Marketing & Sales (M&S), Human resources (HR), Knowledge processes (Know), Legal services (Leg) Technology: Product design (Des), Research & Development (R&D), Engineering services (Eng) 10 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

11 Functions offshored: Cross-country comparison 100% 90% 16% 13% 12% Contact centers 80% 70% 60% 22% Product design 23% 27% Research & Technology Development Engineering IT - Software 50% 32% 30% 27% Legal services Knowledge processes 40% 30% Human Resources Marketing & Sales Procurement BPO 20% 29% 33% 35% Finance & Accounting 10% 0% USA EU BEL 11 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

12 Where are these functions offshored? India? China? Sri Lanka? Poland? Czec Republic? Morocco? Tunisia? Brazil? 12 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

13 Preferences for offshore locations 1% 1% 6% 6% 8% 10% 4% US sample 2% 1% 4% 10% Asia = 69% 47% 1 of 2 projects goes to India 2 nd best location = China & SE Asia India South East Asia China East Asia Middle East & Central Asia Eastern Europe Western Europe Central America South America North America Australia & NZ Africa 4% 18% 8% EU sample 1% 4% 5% 19% Asia = 41% 23% 9% 2% 1% 6% 1 of 4 projects goes to India 2 nd best location = East & West Europe Source: ORN Global Survey 13

14 Offshore locations by US and EU companies US (%) 14 India 47 China 10 Philippines 7 Eastern Europe Western Europe EU (%) India 23 China 9 Philippines 3 Eastern Europe Western Europe 6 6 Africa Africa 4

15 Offshore locations by companies in Belgium BE companies prefer staying in Europe EE: 30% WE: 28% If not they go to India (13%) or increasingly Africa (10%) Eastern Europe: Poland (7%), Romania (5%), Rep Czech (3%), Bosnia (3%), Russia (2%), Slovakia (2%), Lithuania (2%), Bulgaria (1%), Hungary (1%), Moldavia (1%), Slovenia (1%), Macedonia (1%), Ukraine (1%) Western Europe: France (6%), Netherlands (5%), Luxembourg (3%), Germany (3%), Spain (3%), Portugal (2%), UK (2%), Ireland (2%), Switzerland (1%) Africa: Morocco (3%), South Africa (3%), Tunisia (2%), Algeria (1%) 15

16 Characteristics of offshore markets Eastern Europe and India have similar functional profiles But India attracts more US firms and Eastern Europe more EU firms China differentiates in technology activities (40%) and procurement (15%) Access to engineers + co-location with manufacturing Management of procurement close to Asian low cost inputs Western Europe differentiates in Contact Centers, Marketing & sales, and HR Activities that have to do with firms customers and employees (= human dimension) African and Eastern European offshore markets dominated by EU firms: 84% and 75% of implementations from EU Offshoring to Africa is mostly about IT (36%) and CC (27%) 16 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

17 What service delivery model? Captive? Outsourcing? Joint venture? BOT? Pseudo-captive? 17 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

18 Companies moving away from captive model 100% 90% 22 80% 70% % 2 50% 40% % Outsourcing % Joint Venture % Captive 30% 20% % 0% Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

19 Country differences in preferences for models US EU Outsourcing 58% Captive 40% Joint Venture 2% Local Provider 24% Domestic Provider 9% Internatio nal Provider 67% Domestic Provider 22% Outsourcin g 39% Joint Venture 12% Captive 49% Local Provider 46% Internatio nal Provider 32% BE Outsourcin g 20% Joint Venture 20% Captive 60% Local Provider 44% Domestic Provider 30% Internation al Provider 26% 19 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

20 Model depends on function offshored BPO IT - Software Outsourcing 41% Captive 51% Outsourcing 58% Captive 36% Joint venture 8% Joint venture 6% Contact centers Outsourci ng 61% Captive 36% Technology Outsourcing 39% Captive 51% Joint venture 3% Joint venture 10% 20 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

21 Why do companies offshore? Labor arbitrage? Other cost savings? Non cost drivers? 21 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

22 Ranking of strategic drivers by country US EU BE Labor costs Other costs Access qualified personnel Growth Flexibility Efficiency Innovation capacity Competitive pressures Global strategy Speed to market Location specific advantage Improving services Shortage of qualified personnel Accepted industry practice Access to new markets «Top 5» 22 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

23 Why firms offshore depends on what they offshore Access to new markets Labor cost savings 9 8 Access to qualified personnel 7 Domestic shortage of qualified personnel 6 5 Business process redesign 4 IT - Soft Enhance capacity for innovation 3 Increase organizational flexibility Technology BPO Increasing speed to market Competitive pressure Part of a larger global strategy Growth strategy Source: ORN Global Survey 23 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

24 What risks do companies face? Internal Loss of control? Resistance? External Cultural? Political? 24 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

25 Ranking of perceived risks by country US EU BE Low quality of service Threat to data security Loss of managerial control Loss of operational efficiency Loss of internal capabilities Cultural differences Lack buy in in corporate culture Offshore wage inflation Resistance from internal clients Resistance from customers Offshore employee turnover Loss of IP Legal and contractual risks Industry relations and unions Offshore political instability Difficulty to find qualified personnel Loss of synergies across firm activities Political backlash at home «Top 3» risks different for BE vs EU firms 25 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

26 Perception of risks change with experience Operational efficiency Service quality Cultural differences Lack of buy-in of offshoring in corporate culture Loss of internal capabilities / process knowledge Loss of managerial control Data security Lack of acceptance from internal clients Lack of intellectual property protection Legal/contractual risks Wage inflation High employee turnover Loss of synergy across firm activities Increasing difficulty in finding qualified personnel Lack of acceptance from customers Political backlash at home Political instability Industrial relations / trade unions at home Underestimated risks Considering offshoring Already offshoring 26 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

27 What do companies gain from offshoring? Savings? Innovation? Productivity? Access to talent? Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits 27 Carine Peeters

28 Expected and achieved savings Most companies achieve lower than expected savings 31% achieved versus 36% expected US firms expect but also achieve higher savings than EU Expected Achieved US 40% 37% EU 30% 23% BE 31% 21% US higher performance holds for all functions But important cross country and cross functional heterogeneity in both achieved and expected savings 28 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

29 Savings by home region and function BPO F&A Procurement M&S HR Legal In % Expected Achieved Expected Achieved Expected Achieved Expected Achieved Expected Achieved USA EU Technology In % Engineering R&D Design Expected Achieved Expected Achieved Expected Achieved USA EU ITO and Contact centers IT Soft Contact centers In % Expected Achieved Expected Achieved USA EU Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

30 Savings by companies in Belgium Extremely poor performance in IT offshoring 12% savings achieved against 28% expected EU achieves 27% savings and US 36% on average Small firm size does not explain poor performance Some big failures in CC too 19% savings achieved for 34% expected Above EU average savings in F&A offshoring, which we do less than other countries Africa is only region where EU companies save more than US companies, and BE companies perform even better than EU average 30 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

31 Achieved cost savings decline as companies increase their scale and scope of offshoring 60 Manufacturing F&I Professional & Technical Services Software 50 Achieved Cost Savings (%) Low Scale & Scope High Source: ORN Global Survey Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters 31

32 Companies with offshoring strategy achieve consistently higher performance With Strategy Achieved cost savings Increase in firm's overall competitiveness Major product innovation(s) Breakthrough process improvement(s) Better access to new markets Improved service quality Improved organizational flexibility Better access to qualified personnel Better focus on core competencies Firm growth Increased productivity/efficiency Without Strategy 34% 28% 50% 17% 12% 24% 14% 20% 20% 45% 31% 45% 56% 41% 52% 43% 48% 39% 55% 64% 64% 62% Source: ORN Global Survey 32 Offshoring of services - Risks and benefits Carine Peeters

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50.

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50. Overall Results Climate Change Performance Index 2012 Table 1 Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 1* Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 21 - Egypt***

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