INNOBAROMETER THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES

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1 Eurobarometer INNOBAROMETER THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES REPORT Fieldwork: February 2015 Publication: September 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs and co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication. This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors. Eurobarometer - TNS Political & Social

2 Project title Linguistic Version Catalogue Number Eurobarometer Innobarometer The innovation trends at EU enterprises EN ET EN-N ISBN DOI / European Union, 2015

3 Eurobarometer Innobarometer The innovation trends at EU enterprises Conducted by TNS Political & Social at the request of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Survey co-ordinated by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer Unit)

4 FLASH EUROBAROMETER TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PROFILES OF COMPANIES DEVELOPING INNOVATIONS What types of innovations? How much innovations represent in the company s turnover Investment activities PROBLEMS AND PUBLIC SUPPORT RELATED TO THE COMMERCIALISATION OF (INNOVATIVE) GOODS OR SERVICES Problems related to the commercialisation of goods or services Public support for the commercialisation of goods or services INVESTMENT IN INNOVATON THE ROLE OF DESIGN USE OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES USE OF INNOVATION AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT Involvement in public procurement Including innovative goods or services as part of a public procurement contract ANNEXES Technical specifications Questionnaire Tables 1

5 FLASH EUROBAROMETER INTRODUCTION Innovation is vital not only to Europe s economic growth, but also to Europe s ability to compete effectively in the global economy. Recognition of this importance is underlined by the work the European Commission undertakes to develop and implement policies and programmes that foster and support innovation, as stressed in the Investment Plan for Europe 1. The role of companies as primary sources of innovation and engines for growth and creation of jobs is fundamental. This Eurobarometer is aimed at capturing the main behaviours and trends of EU business as far as innovation related activities are concerned. Carried out in the 28 Member States, as well as in Switzerland and the United States, it was designed to collect information on the profiles of innovative companies, to explore barriers to commercialisation, as well as identify the areas where public funding could best support innovation. The survey covered the following areas: Profiles of companies that develop innovations, including the most common areas where innovations have occurred since January 2012; The impact of innovations on turnover, and the proportion of turnover invested in innovation activities; Barriers to commercialisation of both innovative and non-innovative goods and services; Preferred types of public support for the commercialisation of goods or services; The role of design, and the use of advanced manufacturing technologies; Involvement in public procurement and the role innovation plays in this process. Where possible, comparisons with the previous survey will be made 2. This survey was carried out by TNS Political & Social network in the 28 Member States of the European Union, Switzerland and the United States between the 2nd and 20th of February Some companies were interviewed, of which across the EU28 Member States. The sample comprises companies employing 1 or more persons in manufacturing (NACE category C), services (NACE categories G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, R) and the industry sector (NACE categories D, E, F). The sample was selected from an international database, with additional sample from local sources where necessary This survey follows on from a similar Eurobarometer conducted in 2014: en.pdf 2

6 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Interviews were conducted with key decision-makers of companies via telephone in their mother tongue on behalf of the European Commission, DG Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs. The methodology used is that of Eurobarometer surveys as carried out by the Directorate-General for Communication ( Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer Unit) 3.. A technical note on the manner in which interviews were conducted by the Institutes within the TNS Political & Social network is appended as an annex to this report. Also included are the interview methods and confidence intervals 4. Note: In this report, countries are referred to by their official abbreviation. The abbreviations used in this report correspond to: ABBREVIATIONS BE Belgium LT Lithuania BG Bulgaria LU Luxembourg CZ Czech Republic HU Hungary DK Denmark MT Malta DE Germany NL The Netherlands EE Estonia AT Austria EL Greece PL Poland ES Spain PT Portugal FR France RO Romania HR Croatia SI Slovenia IE Ireland SK Slovakia IT Italy FI Finland CY Republic of Cyprus*** SE Sweden LV Latvia UK The United Kingdom CH Switzerland EU28 European Union 28 Member States US The United States of America EU15 EU13 EURO AREA NON- EURO BG, CZ, DK, HU, PL, RO, SE, UK, HR AREA BE, IT, FR, DE, LU, NL, DK, UK, IE, PT, ES, EL, AT, SE, FI* BG, CZ, EE, HR, CY, LT, LV, MT, HU, PL, RO, SI, SK** BE, FR, IT, LU, DE, AT, ES, PT, IE, NL, FI, EL, EE, SI, CY, MT, SK, LV, LT * EU15 refers to the 15 countries forming the European Union before the enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2013 ** The EU13 are the 13 new Member States which joined the European Union during the 2004, 2007 and 2013 enlargements *** Cyprus as a whole is one of the 28 European Union Member States. However, the acquis communautaire has been suspended in the part of the country which is not controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. For practical reasons, only the interviews carried out in the part of the country controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus are included in the CY category and in the EU28 average. * * * * * We wish to thank the people throughout Europe and the USA who have given their time to take part in this survey. Without their active participation, this study would not have been possible The results tables are included in the annex. It should be noted that the total of the percentages in the tables of this report may exceed 100% when the respondent has the possibility of giving several answers to the question. 3

7 FLASH EUROBAROMETER EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PROFILES OF COMPANIES DEVELOPING INNOVATIONS Almost three quarters of EU companies have introduced innovations since January 2012 (72%) an increase of six percentage points since the last survey in More than four in ten (45%) have introduced new or significantly improved services, 42% new or significantly improved goods, 38% new or significantly improved organisational methods, 36% new or improved marketing strategies and 32% new or significantly improved processes. For most companies, innovative goods or services accounted for up to one quarter of turnover in 2014 (63%), while 18% say these innovations accounted for over one quarter of turnover. More than one in five companies (22%) have invested more than 5% of turnover on the acquisition of machines, equipment, software or licenses. Companies investing in innovation are most likely to have invested in machines, equipment, software or licenses (70%), in training (64%), in company reputation and branding (59%) and in organisation or business process improvements (53%). Compared to the last survey in 2014, companies are much less likely to have invested in organisational or business process improvements (-10 pp). PROBLEMS AND PUBLIC SUPPORT RELATED TO THE COMMERCIALISATION OF GOODS OR SERVICES Established competitors (65%), the lack of financial resources (60%) and the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (57%) are the problems for the commercialisation of innovative goods or services most mentioned by respondents. Established competitors is also the problem for the commercialisation of noninnovative goods or services most mentioned by respondents (53%), followed by a lack of financial resources (48%), the cost or complexity of dealing with regulations or standards (46%), or low demand for their goods or services (44%). Around a third of companies (30%) that introduced innovative goods or services say that support for training staff in how to promote and market innovative goods or services would be the type of public support with most positive impact on their company, followed by 23% that mention support for accessing or reinforcing online selling, 22% that say support for participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions, and 20% that mention support for meeting regulations or standards. 4

8 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Training staff in how to promote and market goods or services is also the most mentioned type of public support for the commercialisation of non-innovative goods or services (24%), followed by meeting regulations or standards (20%), accessing or reinforcing online selling (17%), or participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions (16%). Amongst companies that had innovated since January 2012, most invest no more than 5% of their 2014 turnover in innovation activities (54%), while 22% invest nothing. Almost three in ten of these companies (27%) plan to increase the proportion of investment they dedicate to innovation in the next 12 months. For companies that invest in innovation and plan to do the same in the next 12 months, services (44%) are most likely to be the focus of investment over the next 12 months, followed by marketing strategies (40%) or goods (35%). Market potential (43%) and increased competition (39%) are the main reasons to invest in innovation mentioned by respondents, followed by client request (33%). USE OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES A fourth of manufacturing companies use sustainable manufacturing technologies, 22% use high performance manufacturing and 13% use ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing. About a fourth of manufacturing companies (24%) plan to use sustainable manufacturing technologies or high performance manufacturing in the next 12 months, while 14% plan to use ICT-enabled manufacturing. Overall, 35% of manufacturing companies have used advanced manufacturing technologies in the past and also plan to use them in the next 12 months, 10% have used these technologies in the past, but do not plan to use them in the next 12 months and 6% have not used these technologies, but plan to do so. Almost half (49%) have not used these technologies in the past and do not plan to use them in the next 12 months. 5

9 FLASH EUROBAROMETER USE OF INNOVATION AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT One third of companies have had some level of involvement with public procurement since January 2012: 19% have won at least one public procurement contract, 8% have submitted a tender but the outcome is unknown and 15% have submitted at least one tender without success, and 5% investigated opportunities to bid on one or more contracts but have never submitted a tender. The majority of companies (62%) have never submitted a tender nor investigated opportunities to bid on a public procurement contract. This is an increase of five percentage points since the last survey. About four in ten companies (38%) that have won a public procurement contract included innovations as part of the winning bid. 6

10 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1. PROFILES OF COMPANIES DEVELOPING INNOVATIONS This section of the report considers the development of innovations 5. The kinds of innovations companies have introduced are discussed, as well as the proportion of turnover they represent. Finally, the proportion of turnover companies invest in a range of innovation-related activities is reviewed What types of innovations? - The majority of companies have introduced at least one innovation since January Almost three quarters of companies have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (72%) an increase of six percentage points since the last survey in The following definition of innovation was used in the questionnaire: Innovation occurs when a company introduces a new or significantly improved good, service, process, marketing strategy or organisational method. The innovation can be developed by the company itself or has been originally developed by other companies or organisations. 7

11 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Across the EU there has been an increase of six percentage points in the proportion of companies that introduced at least one innovation since January 2012, while in Switzerland the increase has been larger (+9 pp). In contrast, in the US there has been a 14 percentage point decline. The map illustrates that in most Member States there has been an increase in innovation activities compared to the survey in The largest increase in the proportion of companies introducing at least one innovation is observed Lithuania (+20 percentage points), although the proportion of companies having introduced at least one innovation since 2012 is not the highest in this Member State. There have also been large increases amongst companies in Luxembourg (+18 pp), the Czech Republic and Cyprus (both +16 pp). 8

12 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics shows that: The larger the company, the more likely it is to have implemented at least one innovation: 95% of companies with 250+ employees have done so, compared to 70% of those with 1-9 employees. Manufacturing (76%), retail (74%) or services (72%) companies are more likely to have implemented at least one innovation, compared to those in industry (64%). Companies that are part of a group are more likely than those that are not to have implemented at least one innovation (83% vs. 70%). More than eight in ten companies (82%) with a turnover of more than two million have introduced at least one innovation, compared to 61% of those with a turnover of up to 100,000 euros. Companies whose turnover has increased by 5% or more since 2012 are the most likely to have implemented at least one innovation (80%). 9

13 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - The proportion of companies introducing innovations has increased across a range of areas - More than four out of ten companies have introduced new or significantly improved services (45%) or goods (42%) since January Almost as many have introduced new or significantly improved organisational methods (38%), or marketing strategies (36%). Almost one third have introduced new or significantly improved processes (32%). Compared to the last survey in , companies are now more likely to say they have introduced new or significantly improved organisational methods (+8 percentage points), services (+7 pp), or new or significantly improved goods (+5 pp). They are also slightly more likely to say they have introduced new or significantly improved marketing strategies or processes (both +3 pp). 6 Q2 Has your company introduced any of the following types of innovation since January 2012? New or significantly improved goods; New or significantly improved services; New or significantly improved processes (e.g. production processes or distribution methods); New or significantly improved marketing strategies (e.g. packaging, product promotion or placement, or pricing strategies); New or significantly improved organisational methods (e.g. knowledge management or the work environment). 7 Please note that in the previous survey 2014 the question referred to a different time period: Has your company introduced any of the following types of innovation since January 2011? 10

14 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Companies in the US are less likely to have introduced new or significantly improved services since January 2012 when compared to those in EU28 (32% vs. 45%). Across EU Member States there is a fairly wide variation in the proportion of companies that have introduced new or significantly improved services. Companies in Croatia (60%), Luxembourg (55%) and the Czech Republic, Portugal and Poland (all 54%) are the most likely to say they have done this, compared to 20% of companies in Estonia and 29% of those in Hungary. Companies in the US are also much less likely to have introduced new or significantly improved goods when compared to those in the EU (23% vs. 42%). Across the EU there are only four Member States where at least half of all companies have introduced new or significantly improved goods: Denmark (54%), Portugal (53%), Italy and Luxembourg (both 52%). This contrasts to just 15% of companies in Estonia. 11

15 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Once again, a smaller proportion of companies in the US have introduced new or significantly improved organisational methods compared to their EU counterparts (26% vs. 38%). Within the EU, Portugal and Cyprus are the only countries where at least half of all companies have done this (55% and 50%, respectively), followed by 49% of those in Belgium and 48% in Luxembourg and Croatia. Companies in Hungary (17%), Estonia (19%), Finland and Sweden (both 21%) are the least likely to have introduced this kind of innovation. Companies in the EU (36%) are more likely than those in Switzerland (28%) and in the US (26%) to have introduced new or significantly improved marketing strategies since January Within the EU, companies in Malta (51%) are the most likely to have done this, followed by those in Ireland and Portugal (both 46%). Once again, companies in Estonia are the least likely to have introduced innovation in this area (16%), followed by those in Hungary (19%). 12

16 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Switzerland are much more likely than those in the EU to have introduced new or significantly improved processes since January 2012 (43% vs. 32%), although those in the EU are more likely to have done this when compared to companies in the US (32% vs. 17%). Cyprus and Croatia are the only Member States where a majority of all companies have introduced new or significantly improved processes (both 51%), compared to 17% of companies in Hungary and 21% in Sweden. 13

17 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Evolutions since 2014 Companies in the EU are more likely to say they have introduced each of the innovations than they were in the previous survey in 2014, while the reverse is generally true for companies in the US. For example, there has been an increase of seven percentage points in the proportion of EU companies that have introduced a new or significantly improved service. In contrast the proportion of US companies that have done this has declined by eight percentage points. Companies in Switzerland, on the other hand, are even more likely than their EU counterparts to have introduced new or significantly improved organisational methods (+12 pp vs. +8 pp) or processes (+9 pp vs. +3 pp). Looking across EU Member States shows companies in Cyprus (+24 pp), Luxembourg (+22 pp) and Austria (+17 pp) are much more likely to say they have introduced new or significantly improved services, compared to the previous survey in At the other end of the scale, Slovenia and Latvia are the only countries where companies are less likely to have done this (-6 pp and -1 pp, respectively). The largest increases in the introduction of new or significantly improved goods are observed amongst companies in Greece (+16 pp), Germany (+15 pp) and Latvia (+13 pp). In contrast, there has been a ten percentage point decline in the proportion of companies in Slovenia that say they have done this. Slovenia is also the only Member State where there has been a decline in the proportion of companies that have introduced new or significantly improved organisational methods (-3 pp). This compares to a 16 percentage point increase amongst companies in Belgium, Bulgaria and Luxembourg, and a 14 point increase amongst those in the Czech Republic. Companies in the Czech Republic are now also more likely to say they have introduced new or significantly improved marketing strategies (+17 pp), followed by those in Austria, Luxembourg and France (all +10 pp). Spain (-6 pp), Italy (-2 pp), the UK, Finland and Estonia (-1 pp) are the only Member States where companies are now less likely to have done this than they were in Companies in Cyprus are much more likely than they were in 2014 to say they have introduced new or significantly improved processes (+28 pp), as are those in Luxembourg and the Czech Republic (both +14 pp). At the other end of the scale, the proportion of companies in Germany and Slovenia that have done this has declined (-4 pp and -3 pp, respectively). 14

18 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 15

19 FLASH EUROBAROMETER An analysis of company characteristics reveals the following: The larger the company the more likely it is to have introduced new or significantly improved goods, services or processes. For example, 41% of companies with 1-9 employees have introduced new goods, compared to 72% of those with 250+ employees. Companies with employees are the most likely to have introduced new or significantly improved marketing strategies (50% vs. 34%-40%), Manufacturing companies are the most likely to have introduced new or improved goods (56% vs. 34%-48%) or processes (43% vs. 29%-32%), while retail companies are the most likely to have introduced new or improved marketing strategies (43% vs. 23%-34%). Companies established after 2014 are the most likely to have introduced new or significantly improved goods (53% vs. 42%-43%). Companies that are part of a group are much more likely to have introduced each of these innovations, compared to those that are not. For example, 54% of companies that are part of a group introduced new or significantly improved services, compared to 44% of those that are not part of a group. Companies with a turnover of more than 500,000 euros are the most likely to have introduced each type of innovation. For example 51% with a turnover of between 500,000 and 2 million and 50% with a turnover of more than 2 million have introduced new or improved goods, compared to 31%-38% of companies with a lower turnover. Companies whose turnover has risen since 2012 are more likely to have introduced each type of innovation compared to those whose turnover has remained the same or has fallen. For instance, 44% of those whose turnover has risen introduced new or improved processes, compared to 28% of companies whose turnover remained the same, and 24% of those whose turnover has fallen. 16

20 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: Companies that use design as a central element in their strategy are much more likely to have introduced each type of innovation. For instance, 65% of these companies have introduced innovative goods, compared to 28% of companies that do not use design. Furthermore, other companies that use design regularly 8 are also more likely to have introduced each type of innovation compared to those that do not use design systematically, or that do not use design at all. For example, 47% of companies that say design is integral, and 51% of those that use design as a last finish say they have introduced innovative marketing strategies, compare to 29% of companies that do not use design systematically, and 22% of those that do not use design at all. 8 Companies that use design as an integral but not central part of their strategy, and companies that use design as a last finish. 17

21 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies that introduced one type of innovation are more likely to have also introduced innovations of the other types. For example, 63% of companies that introduced innovative goods also introduced innovative services, compared to 32% among companies that did not introduce innovative goods. Similar patterns apply when comparing each kind of innovation. 18

22 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1.2. How much innovations represent in the company s turnover - For most companies that have introduced an innovative good or service since 2012, innovative goods or services accounted for up to one quarter of turnover in 2014 Companies that had introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 were asked the approximate percentage of their 2014 turnover that this innovation accounted for 9. For almost two thirds of these companies (63%), innovative goods or services accounted for between 1% and 25% of their 2014 turnover. Almost one in ten (9%) say these innovations accounted for 26%-50% of turnover, while a further 9% of companies say 51% or more of their turnover was a result of innovative goods or services. Almost one in ten companies (9%) say none of their turnover in 2014 was due to innovative goods or services introduced since January Base: Those companies that have introduced an innovative good or service since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) When comparing with the previous survey in 2014, there have been only small changes. The proportion of companies that say 1%-25% of turnover was due to innovative goods or services has increased two percentage points. The proportion of companies saying innovation accounted for 26%-50% of turnover has decreased by four percentage points. 19

23 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Compared to companies in the EU, those in Switzerland are more likely to report that 1%-25% of turnover in 2014 was due to innovative goods or services (72% vs. 63%), but are less likely to report 51% of turnover or more (2% vs. 9%), or that no turnover came from innovative goods (6% vs. 9%). Companies in the US, on the other hand, are more likely than those in the EU to say that no turnover came from innovative goods or services introduced since January 2012 (17%). Companies in the US are also less likely than their EU counterparts to say between 1 and 25% of turnover came from these goods (53% vs. 63%), but they are slightly more likely to say that 26%-50% of turnover came from innovative goods or services (13% vs. 9%). In all Member States, the majority of companies say that between 1 and 25% of turnover in 2014 was due to the innovative goods or services the company had introduced since January Companies in Belgium (74%), Malta (72%), Luxembourg and France (both 71%) are the most likely to say this, compared to 49% of those in Denmark, 51% in Cyprus and 52% in Estonia. Companies in Sweden (18%) and Slovakia (16%) are the most likely to say that 26%- 50% of their turnover in 2014 was from these kinds of innovations, while at the other end of the scale just 5% of companies in the UK and Bulgaria say the same. More than one in five companies in Finland (21%), as well as 13% of those in Sweden, Poland and Denmark say that 51% or more of turnover in 2014 was due to innovative goods or services introduced since January 2012, compared to 3% in Slovenia and 4% in Belgium. One in five companies in Cyprus (20%), as well as 18% in Slovenia and 15% in Croatia and Bulgaria say none of their 2014 turnover was due to the innovative goods or services they had introduced since January Just 1% of companies in Austria say the same. It is worth noting that 22% of the companies in Austria (22%), 18% of those in Estonia and 17% in the UK were unable to give an answer to this question. 9 Q3 Approximately what percentage of your company's turnover in 2014 was due to innovative goods or services that have been introduced since January 2012? 0%; Between 1 and 5%; Between 6 and 10%; Between 11 and 25%; Between 26 and 50%; 51% or more; Don t know 20

24 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Evolutions since 2014 A comparison with the results of the previous survey shows that unlike companies in EU28, those in Switzerland are now less likely to say 51% or more of turnover was from innovative goods or services (CH: -3 percentage points, EU28: +1 pp). Companies in the US are now more likely to say that no turnover was from innovative goods or services (+7 pp), and less likely to say that 1%-25% of turnover was from these type of goods or services (-7 pp). These trends are the opposite of those observed in EU28. The largest increases in the proportion of companies that report 1%-25% of turnover from innovation are observed amongst companies in Latvia (+13 pp) and the Netherlands (+11 pp). The largest declines are observed amongst those in Spain, Austria (both -8 pp) and Bulgaria (-6 pp). At the overall EU28 level the proportion of companies reporting 26%-50% of turnover from innovative goods and services has declined four percentage points, but the decline has been larger amongst companies in the UK (-9 pp), Germany (-8 pp) and Bulgaria (-7 pp). However, in some countries there have been small increases, in particular amongst those in Greece, Croatia (both +4 pp), Belgium (+3 pp). Companies in Bulgaria are now more likely to say 51% or more of their turnover was from innovative goods or services introduced since January 2012 (+8 pp), while those in Cyprus are now less likely to say this (-7 pp). In most countries there has been a decline in the proportion saying that no turnover came from innovative services or goods, and this is particularly the case amongst companies in Latvia (-11 pp), Belgium, Croatia and the Netherlands (all -10 pp). Conversely, increases are observed amongst companies in Spain, Bulgaria (both +3 pp) and Denmark (+2 pp). 21

25 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have introduced an innovative good or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 22

26 FLASH EUROBAROMETER A review of company characteristics illustrates the following differences: Companies with fewer than 250 employees are the most likely to say that 26% or more of turnover came from innovative goods or services (15%-19% vs. 4%). Companies with more than 250 employees are the most likely to say that 6%- 10% of turnover was a result of these innovations (32% vs. 21%-22%). Companies in the services sector are slightly more likely to say that at least 26% of turnover came from innovative goods or services (23% vs. 14%-19%). Companies whose turnover has risen since 2012 are more likely to report higher proportions of turnover from innovative goods or services compared to those whose turnover has fallen or remained the same. For example 26% of companies whose turnover has risen say that 1%-25% of turnover in 2014 was due to innovative goods or services, compared to 18% of companies whose turnover had remained the same, and 17% of those whose turnover fell. Base: Those companies that have introduced an innovative good or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 23

27 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 1.3. Investment activities - More than one in five companies have invested more than 5% of turnover on the acquisition of machines, equipment, software or licenses Companies were asked about the investment they have made 10. They are most likely to have invested in machines, equipment, software or licenses: 70% have invested in this area overall, with 22% investing more than 5%. Almost three quarters have made some investment in training (64%), while 59% have invested in company reputation and branding and 53% in organisation or business process improvements. Fewer than half say they have invested at least a proportion of total turnover on the design of products and services (44%), software development (43%) or research and development (31%). Compared to the last time this question was asked, the proportion of companies in EU28 that invested in training is about the same (+1 pp), while there is a slight increase in the proportion of companies that invested in company reputation and branding (+3 pp). On the other side, companies are now much less likely to have invested in organisational or business process improvements (-10 pp) and slightly less likely to have invested in research and development (-4 pp), software development (-3 pp) or product or service design (-2 pp). 10 Q4. Since January 2012, what percentage of its total turnover has your company invested in each of the following activities? Acquisition of machines, equipment, software or licenses ; Organisation or business process improvements; Design of products and services ; Research and development (R&D); Company reputation and branding, including web design ; Software development ; Training 24

28 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Looking at the evolution in more detail shows the following: Companies have decreased the proportion of turnover they have invested in training, with a five percentage point decrease in the proportion investing more than 5%, and increases in those investing 5% or less. A similar pattern applies for investment in company reputation and branding and product or service design. There has been a 12 percentage point decline in the proportion of companies investing more than 5% of turnover on organisational or business process improvements, and a seven point increase in those investing nothing. Companies in the euro area are more likely than those outside the euro area to have invested in training (67% vs. 59%), organisation or business process improvements (56% vs. 48%), or software development (45% vs. 40%). Companies in EU15 member states are also more likely than their EU13 counterparts to have invested in training (66% vs. 57%), research and development (33% vs. 26%), the design of products or services (45% vs. 40%) or organisation or business process improvements (54% vs. 49%). 25

29 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Companies in Switzerland are more likely than their EU and US counterparts to have invested in almost all of these areas with the exceptions of R&D and software development. For example, 78% of companies in Switzerland invested the acquisition of machines, equipment, software or licenses, compared to 70% of companies in the EU and 60% of those in the US. US companies, on the other hand, are generally less likely to have invested in any of these innovation-related areas with the exception of R&D. For example, 52% invested at least a proportion of turnover on training, compared to 64% of those in the EU and 72% in Switzerland. Looking in more detail at EU Member States shows that the majority of companies in each country invested at least a portion of turnover in acquisition of machines, equipment, software or licenses. Companies in Finland (80%), Germany, Austria and Sweden (all 78%) are the most likely to have done this, while those in Lithuania, Bulgaria (both 54%) and Romania (55%) are the least likely. 26

30 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In all but three Member States, a majority of companies invested in training, with those in Croatia, Spain (both 73%), Germany and Luxembourg (both 70%) the most likely to do so. The exceptions are companies in Greece, Hungary (both 44%) and Bulgaria (47%). Companies in Luxembourg (72%) and Belgium (70%) are the most likely to have invested in company reputation and branding, particularly compared to those in Estonia (36%) and Lithuania (39%). 27

31 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in Estonia and Lithuania are also the least likely to have invested in organisation or business process improvements (30% and 41%, respectively), while those in Spain, Belgium (both 64%), Luxembourg (63%) and Portugal (61%) are the most likely to have invested at least some turnover in this area. In seven Member States, at least half of all companies invested in product or service design, most notably companies in Luxembourg (54%) and Finland (53%). This compares to 21% of companies in Estonia and 28% in Lithuania. 28

32 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The majority of companies in Croatia (63%), Italy, Slovenia (both 56%) and Belgium (55%) have invested in software development, compared to 26% of companies in Latvia and Lithuania. Companies in Ireland (47%), Slovenia (46%) and the Netherlands (45%) are the most likely to have invested a proportion of turnover in research and development since January 2012, while those in Lithuania (9%) and Estonia (11%) are once again the least likely to have done so. 29

33 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Evolutions since 2013 Compared to 2013, companies in the US and Switzerland are now much less likely to be investing in any of these areas. For example in the US there has been an 18 percentage points decrease in the proportion investing in organisation or business process improvements, compared to a 10 point decrease amongst companies in the EU28 and a 12 point decrease amongst companies in Switzerland. Furthermore, companies in Switzerland recorded the largest declines in investment in software development (-20 pp vs. -15 pp in the US and -3 pp in EU28) and in research and development (-18 pp vs. -12 pp in the US and -4 pp in EU28). In the EU28, companies are now slightly more likely to be investing in training (+1 pp) and in company reputation and branding (+3 pp). Looking at the changes within EU28 Member States, companies in Malta (+29 pp) and Croatia (+24 pp) have recorded the largest increases in the proportion investing in training, while the largest declines are observed amongst companies in the Czech Republic (-13 pp), Poland (-9 pp), Bulgaria and Slovenia (both -8 pp). Companies in Spain (+18 pp), Croatia and Greece (both +14 pp) are all more likely to have invested in company reputation and branding compared to 2014, while those in Portugal (-20 pp), Poland (-19 pp) and Slovakia (-16 pp) are now less likely to have done so. There are only five Member States where there has been an increase in the proportion investing in organisation or business process improvements: Malta (+12 pp), Greece (+6 pp), Latvia (+5 pp), Spain and Croatia (both +4 pp). This compares with a decline of 24 pp in Slovakia and 20 pp in Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The proportion of companies in Malta investing in product or service design has increased by 19 percentage points, followed by companies in Luxembourg at 17 points. On the other hand, companies in Slovakia and Lithuania (both -16 pp) are now less likely to be investing in this area. Companies in Croatia are much more likely to be investing in software development than they were in 2014 (+18 pp) as are those in Greece (+8 pp). In contrast, the proportion investing in this area in the Czech Republic (-16 pp), Slovakia and Austria (both -13 pp) has declined. The largest increases in the proportion of companies investing in research and development are observed among companies in Malta (+16 pp) and Ireland (+10 pp), while those in Hungary (-17 pp), Finland (-16 pp) and Poland (-15 pp) show the largest declines. 30

34 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 31

35 FLASH EUROBAROMETER An analysis of company characteristics shows the following: The larger the company, the more likely it is it invested at least some turnover in training or research and development. For example 29% of companies with 1-9 employees invested in research and development, compared to 67% of those with 250+ employees. Companies with employees are the most likely to have invested in organisation or business process improvements (75% vs. 51%-65%), or product or service design (64% vs. 42%-56%). Manufacturing companies are the most likely to have invested in product or service design (57% vs. 38%-47%), or in research and development (46% vs. 25%-36%). Services sector companies are the most likely to have invested in reputation and branding (63% vs. 54%-59%). Industry sector companies are the most likely to have invested in training (72% vs. 58%-67%). Industry sector companies are, however, the least likely to have invested in software development (36% vs. 42%-47%). Companies founded after 2014 are the most likely to have invested in machines, equipment, software or licenses (77% vs. 69%-72%), but are the least likely to have invested in training (55% vs. 63%-65%). Companies that are part of a group are more likely than those that are not to have invested in almost all of these areas. For example 63% have invested in organisation or business process improvements, compared to 52% of companies that are not part of a group. Not surprisingly, companies with the smallest turnover are the least likely to have invested in any of these areas. Furthermore, companies whose turnover has risen since 2012 are the most likely to have invested in each area. For example 51% have invested in software development, compared to 40% of companies whose turnover either remained the same, or fell. 32

36 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 33

37 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2. PROBLEMS AND PUBLIC SUPPORT RELATED TO THE COMMERCIALISATION OF (INNOVATIVE) GOODS OR SERVICES This section of the report considers the problems faced by companies in their attempts to commercialise their innovative goods or services. It also discusses the public support options that would most likely have a positive impact on the commercialisation of innovative goods or services Problems related to the commercialisation of goods or services - Established competitors are a problem for the commercialisation of innovative goods or services - Companies that had introduced at least one innovative good or service since 2012 were asked how much of a problem a range of issues had been for them in commercialising their innovation(s) 11. A majority of companies say that a market dominated by established competitors (65%), a lack of financial resources (60%) or the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (57%) are a problem in the commercialisation of their innovative goods or services. In fact, more than one quarter say each of these issues is a major problem. At least four out of ten companies say a lack of human resources, administrative or legal issues (both 46%) or low demand for the innovative goods or services (43%) have been problems, although lack of human resources is the most likely of these three reasons to have been a major problem (19% vs. 17% and 13%, respectively). 11 Q5A Thinking about the commercialisation of your company s innovative goods or services since January 2012, have any of the following been a major problem, a minor problem or not a problem at all? Low demand for your innovative goods or services; Weak distribution channels; Lack of marketing expertise; Market dominated by established competitors; Difficulties in maintaining intellectual property rights; Administrative or legal issues ; Finding or using new technologies ; Cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards; Lack of human resources ; Lack of financial resources. 34

38 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Fewer than four in ten companies have had problems with a lack of marketing expertise (39%), weak distribution channels (36%) or finding or using new technologies (33%), with weak distribution channels (11%) and a lack of marketing expertise (10%) the most likely to have been a major problem. Finally, just over one in five companies have had problems maintaining their intellectual property rights (21%), although this has only been a major problem for 7%. Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) Compared to the last survey in 2014, companies are now significantly less likely to say that low demand has been a problem when commercialising their goods or services (-10 percentage points). They are also less likely to say that a lack of marketing expertise (-9 pp), weak distribution channels or a lack of financial resources (both -8 pp), difficulties in maintaining intellectual property rights (-6 pp) or the cost or complexity of meetings regulations or standards (-5 pp) have been problems when commercialising their goods and services. In particular, low demand and a lack of financial resources are now both much less likely to be considered a major problem (both -9 pp). Companies within the euro area are more likely than those outside the euro area to say the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (60% vs. 52%), a lack of financial resources (62% vs. 56%) or low demand for their innovative goods or services (46% vs. 39%) have been problems to some extent. Companies in EU13 Member States are more likely than EU15 countries to say the following have been a problem to some degree: a lack of human resources (55% vs. 43%), a lack of financial resources (69% vs. 57%), the cost or complexity of meetings regulations or standards (66% vs. 55%), administrative or legal issues (54% vs. 44%), weak distribution channels (41% vs. 34%) and a market dominated by established competitors (70% vs. 63%). 35

39 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis In general, companies in EU28 are more likely than those in Switzerland and the US to say each of these issues have been a problem in the commercialisation of their company s innovative goods or services. The exceptions are finding or using new technologies and difficulties maintaining intellectual property rights, with companies in Switzerland more likely to mention these are problems (37% vs. 33% and 29% vs. 21%, respectively). Companies in the US are less likely than those in Switzerland or EU28 to say any of these issues have been problems, except for lack of marketing expertise (29% for the US vs. 27% for Switzerland. This is particularly the case for the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (30% vs. 54%-57%), a market dominated by competitors (40% vs. 62%-65%) or a lack of financial resources (34% vs. 39%-60%). Amongst companies that have introduced an innovative good or service since January 2012, at least half in each Member State say that a market dominated by established competitors has been a problem in commercialising their innovative goods or services. Companies in Cyprus (81%), France, Poland (both 78%), Estonia (76%) and Luxembourg (75%) are the most likely to say this, compared to 52% of companies in Finland and Austria, and 53% in Germany. A lack of financial resources is most likely to have been a problem for companies in Greece (81%), Portugal (79%) and Croatia (78%), but it is least likely to be mentioned by companies in Germany, Denmark and Belgium (all 41%). In 18 countries, at least half of all companies say that the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards has been a problem, and this is particularly the case for companies in Poland (80%), France (77%) and Slovakia (68%). Companies in Denmark (35%) and Lithuania (37%) are much less likely to say this has been a problem. Companies in Latvia (64%), Luxembourg (62%) and Poland (60%) are the most likely to say a lack of human resources has been a problem in commercialising their innovative goods or services. In contrast, 25% of companies in the Netherlands and 31% in Denmark say the same. Administrative or legal issues are most likely to have been a problem for 67% of companies in France, and 62% of those in Poland and Slovakia, and least likely to have been an issue for companies in Finland and Malta (both 26%). Companies in Portugal and Cyprus are the most likely to say low demand for their innovative goods or services has been a problem (both 63%), compared to the 30% of companies in Denmark and 31% in Sweden that say the same. At least half of companies in Ireland (63%), Portugal, Latvia (both 57%) and Lithuania (50%) say a lack of marketing expertise has been a problem. Companies in Germany (25%), Sweden (28%) and Hungary (29%) are the least likely to mention this reason. 36

40 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Portugal and Poland are the only countries where at least half of all companies say weak distribution channels have been a problem (55% and 52%, respectively). By comparison, around one in five companies in Denmark, the UK (both 20%) and the Netherlands (22%) say this has been a problem when commercialising their company s innovative goods or services. Companies in Portugal (59%) are also the most likely to say finding or using new technologies has been a problem, followed by 46% of companies in Greece and 45% in France and Belgium. Companies in Estonia (23%) and Denmark (24%) are the least likely to say this has been a problem. Finally, companies in Portugal are also the most likely to mention difficulties maintaining intellectual property rights (40%), followed by those in Poland (32%). Companies in Estonia and Denmark are the least likely to say this has been an issue (10%). 37

41 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Evolutions since 2014 There are some differences in the evolution since 2014 for the results of EU28, Switzerland and the US. Compared to the last survey in 2014, companies in the US and Switzerland are now less likely to say a market dominated by established competitors has been a problem compared to those in EU28, where there has been little change (-14 pp and -8 pp vs +1 pp, respectively). Companies in EU28 are now less likely to say difficulties in maintaining intellectual property rights has been a problem for them (-6 percentage points). However, companies in the US (+2 pp) and Switzerland (+3 pp) are now more likely to say this has been a problem. Companies in Estonia (+20 percentage points), France, Malta (both +14 pp), and Latvia (+12 pp) are all much more likely than they were in 2014 to say a market dominated by established competitors has been a problem when commercialising their innovative goods or services. In contrast, those in Portugal, Finland and Romania are now less likely to say this has been a problem (all -9 pp). There are only four Member States where companies are now more likely to say that a lack of financial resources has been a problem: Luxembourg (+11 pp), France (+8 pp), Hungary (+4 pp) and Greece (+3 pp). On the other hand, companies in Cyprus (-20 pp), Spain (-15 pp) and Denmark (-14 pp) are now much less likely to say this has been a problem. Companies in France (+22 pp), Luxembourg (+19 pp) and Hungary (+17 pp) are all much more likely to say that the cost of complexity of meetings regulations or standards has been a problem, while those in Italy (-24 pp), Romania (-20 pp) and Spain (-18 pp) are now much less likely to do so. Compared to 2014, companies in Luxembourg (+14 pp) are also much more likely to say that low demand for the innovative goods or services has been a problem, as are those in Lithuania (+6 pp). In contrast, companies in Romania (-24 pp) and Cyprus (-19 pp) are much less likely to say this has been a problem. A lack of marketing expertise is much more likely to be mentioned by companies in Luxembourg (+18 pp), Estonia (+17 pp) and France (+14 pp), but less likely to be mentioned by companies in Cyprus (-28 pp) and Italy (-24 pp). Companies in Luxembourg (16%) are also much more likely to say weak distributions channels have been a problem, with those in Italy (-20 pp), Romania and Spain (both - 17 pp) much less likely to do so. And finally, companies in Luxembourg (+19 pp) and Hungary (+12 pp) are much more likely than they were in 2014 to say that difficulties in maintaining intellectual property rights have been a problem, while those in Romania (-19 pp), Italy (-17 pp) and Spain (-16 pp) are now less likely to mention this has been a problem. 38

42 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 39

43 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 40

44 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics highlights the following: The smaller the company, the more likely it is to say a lack of financial resources has been a problem: 62% of companies with 1-9 employees say this, compared to 40% of those with Companies with less than 50 employees are the least likely to say a lack of human resources (44%-49% vs. 58%-59%) and finding or using new technologies have been problems (31%-33% vs. 46%-47%). Companies with employees are the most likely to say they have had problems maintaining intellectual property rights (33% vs 14%-21%). Retail companies are the most likely to say a market dominated by established competitors has been a problem (71% vs. 59%-65%). Manufacturing companies are the most likely to say maintaining intellectual property rights has been a problem (27% vs. 19%-22%). Companies established after 2014 are generally less likely to say they have faced problems with regards to the commercialisation of innovative goods or services. For example 47% of the youngest companies say a lack of financial resources has been a problem, compared to 59%-65% of companies that have been established for longer. Not surprisingly, the smaller the company s turnover in 2014, the more likely it is to say a lack of financial resources has been a problem: 71% of companies with the smallest turnover say this, compared to 48% of companies with a turnover of 2 million. 41

45 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 42

46 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - Established competitors are also a problem for the commercialisation of noninnovative goods or services - Companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 were asked about problems they may have encountered commercialising their goods or services 12. In general, these companies are less likely to consider each of these issues as problems, compared to companies who have innovative goods or services. A market dominated by established competitors is the only problem mentioned by at least half of all the companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services (53%). Almost half (48%) say a lack of financial resources has been a problem, although companies are slightly more likely to say this has been a major problem than they are about a market dominated by established competitors (24% vs. 22%). At least four out of ten say the cost or complexity of dealing with regulations or standards (46%), or low demand for their goods or services are problems (44%), while 35% say administrative or legal issues have been a problem. At least one in five say a lack of human resources (27%), a lack of marketing expertise (26%), weak distribution channels (22%) or finding or using new technologies (21%) have been problems. Companies are least likely to say that difficulties maintaining intellectual property rights have been a problem (11%), with just 2% saying this has been a major problem. For most problems, companies are more likely to say they have been minor rather than major ones. The exception is a lack of financial resources, with an equal proportion of companies saying this has been a major or a minor problem (both 24%). 12 Q5B Thinking about the commercialisation of your company s goods or services since January 2012, have any of the following been a major problem, a minor problem or not a problem at all? Low demand for your goods or services; Weak distribution channels; Lack of marketing expertise; Market dominated by established competitors; Difficulties in maintaining intellectual property rights; Administrative or legal issues ; Finding or using new technologies ; Cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards; Lack of human resources ; Lack of financial resources. 43

47 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) Since the last survey in 2014, companies are less likely to say that the following have been a problem: lack of financial resources (-8 percentage points), a lack of marketing expertise (-7 pp), the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (-6 pp), low demand for their goods or services, weak distribution channels (both -5 pp), or difficulties in maintaining intellectual property rights (-3 pp). In particular, companies are now less likely to say a lack of financial resources (-8 pp), low demand for their goods or services (-6 pp) or the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (-5 pp) have been a major problem. Country analysis Companies in the US are less likely than those in Switzerland or EU28 to say that each of these issues have been problems for them. For example 27% of companies in the US say the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards has been a problem, compared to 46% of companies in EU28 and 47% in Switzerland. Companies in Switzerland are more likely than those in EU28 to say most of these issues have been problems. The exceptions are a lack of financial resources (41 vs. 48% in EU28), and low demand for the company s goods or services (36% vs. 44%). 44

48 FLASH EUROBAROMETER At least two thirds of companies in Cyprus (80%), Poland (73%), Greece (70%) and Spain (67%) that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 say a market dominated by established competitors has been a problem for them when commercialising their goods or services. In fact, at least one third of companies in each Member State says the same, with those in Finland (33%) and the UK (35%) the least likely to mention this has been a problem. There is a large variation across the EU in the proportion of companies that say a lack of financial resources has been a problem: 85% of companies in Cyprus and 81% in Greece say this has been a problem, compared to 24% in the UK and 25% in Germany. Companies in Cyprus and Greece are also the most likely to say low demand for their goods or services has been a problem (84% and 80%, respectively), while those in the UK (23%) and Belgium (25%) are the least likely to say this. In nine Member States at least half of the companies say that the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards has been a problem, with companies in France (70%), Portugal (62%) and Luxembourg (56%) the most likely to say this. This compares with the 24% of companies in Estonia, 26% in Sweden and 27% in Lithuania that say the same. At least half of the companies in France (59%), Poland (55%), Cyprus and Luxembourg (both 52%) say administrative or legal issues have been a problem, compared to 14% of companies in Estonia and Romania, and 15% in the UK. Latvia is the only country where at least half say a lack of human resources has been an issue (52%), followed by 47% of companies in Slovakia and 44% in France, Luxembourg, Bulgaria and Lithuania. At the other end of the scale just 10% in the Netherlands and 19% in Spain say the same. Companies in Ireland (53%) and Poland (52%) are the most likely to say that a lack of marketing expertise has been a problem, while those in Sweden (14%) and the Czech Republic (16%) are the least likely to do so. Companies in Poland (47%), Cyprus (37%), Latvia and Portugal (both 35%) are the most likely to say weak distribution channels have been a problem, particularly when compared to companies in the UK and Belgium (both 10%). Finding or using new technologies is most likely to have been a problem for companies in Poland (39%), Cyprus (33%) and France (32%), and least likely to have been a problem for companies in Austria (8%) or Estonia (10%). Companies in Portugal (25%) and Cyprus (20%) are the most likely to say maintaining intellectual property rights has been a problem, compared to just 2% of companies in Malta. 45

49 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Evolutions since 2014 Companies in the US and the EU are generally less likely to say each of these issues has been a problem for them, compared to the results of the last survey in 2014: for example a lack of financial resources (EU28: -8 percentage points, US: -14 pp) However, in Switzerland companies are now more likely to say a number of these issues have been problems, and in particular a lack of financial resources (+15 pp), low demand for their goods or services (+12 pp), a market dominated by established competitors (+9 pp), and the cost or complexity of meeting regulations or standards (+8 pp). Although in EU28 there has been no change in the proportion saying a market dominated by established competitors is a problem, at country level there have been some notable variations. Companies in Cyprus, Luxembourg (both +18 pp) and Ireland (+15 pp) are now more likely to say this has been a problem than they were in 2014, while those in Malta (-18 pp), the Netherlands (-14 pp) and Bulgaria (-12 pp) are now less likely to do so. Companies in the Czech Republic (-21 pp), Spain and the UK (both -19 pp) are much less likely to say a lack of financial resources has been a problem, while those in Luxembourg (+19) and Cyprus (+13) are more likely to do so. Companies in Luxembourg are also much more likely to say the cost or complexity of meeting regulations of standards has been a problem, compared to 2014 (+35 pp), as are companies in Cyprus (+18 pp) and Latvia (+17 pp). On the other hand, companies in the Czech Republic (-28 pp), Italy (-22 pp), and Croatia (-17 pp) are less likely to say this has been a problem than they were in Companies in Cyprus are now much more likely to say low demand for their goods or services has been a problem (+22%), while companies in Ireland (-19 pp), the Czech Republic (-18 pp) and Spain (-16 pp) are much less likely to say this has been a problem. Compared to the results from 2014, most companies are now less likely to say a lack of marketing expertise has been a problem, and this is particularly the case amongst companies in Italy (-24 pp), Portugal (-17 pp) and Spain (-14 pp). However, there have been increases, most notably amongst companies in Ireland (+18 pp), Latvia (+13 pp) and Luxembourg (+10 pp). Weak distribution channels are much more likely to be mentioned as a problem by companies in Luxembourg (+19 pp), Malta (+14 pp) and Cyprus (+12 pp) compared to On the other hand, companies in Spain (-19 pp), the Czech Republic (-16 pp) and Greece (-15 pp) are now less likely to say this has been a problem when commercialising their goods or services. Finally, companies in Luxembourg are also more likely to say that maintaining their intellectual property rights has been a problem than they were in 2014 (+11 pp), while those in Italy (-12 pp) and the Czech Republic (-10 pp) are less likely to do so. 46

50 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) 47

51 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) 48

52 FLASH EUROBAROMETER An analysis of company characteristics reveals the following differences: The largest companies are the most likely to say finding or using new technologies has been a problem (46% vs. 21%-37%), but they are the least likely to say a lack of demand for goods or services (30% vs. 43%-45%), or administrative or legal issues (28% vs. 35%-43%) have been problems. Companies with employees, on the other hand, are the most likely to say a lack of marketing expertise has been a problem (36% vs 25%-29%). Companies in the industry sector are the least likely to say a lack of marketing expertise has been a problem (20% vs. 27%-29%). The younger the company, the more likely it is to say a market dominated by established competitors has been a problem: 91% of the youngest companies say this, compared to 51% of those established before The youngest companies are also the most likely to say administrative or legal issues (56% vs. 28%-36%), a lack of marketing expertise (46% vs. 24%-35%), weak distribution channels (39% vs. 22%-27%), or finding or using new technologies (37% vs. 20%-21%) have been problems. Perhaps not surprisingly, companies with a turnover of 500,000 or less are the most likely to say a lack of financial resources has been a problem (50%-56% vs. 38%-39%). Companies whose turnover has fallen since 2012 are the most likely to say a market dominated by established competitors (62% vs. 48%-49%), a lack of financial resources (67% vs. 35%-43%), or a lack of demand for their goods or services (66% vs. 32%-37%) have been problems. 49

53 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) 50

54 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 2.2. Public support for the commercialisation of goods or services - Support for training staff in how to promote and market innovative goods and services would be the type of public support with most positive impact - Companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 were asked which types of public support for commercialisation of their innovations would have the most positive impact 13. Almost one third (30%) say support for training staff in how to market and promote innovative goods or services would be the type of public support with most positive impact. At least one in five say accessing or reinforcing online selling (23%), participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions (22%) or meeting regulations or standards (20%) would have the most positive impact. Almost as many mention accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets (17%). Market-testing a product or service before launch, or applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights are mentioned by relatively few companies as support that would have the most positive impact (9% and 6%, respectively). MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) Companies within the euro area are more likely than their non-euro area counterparts to say that accessing or reinforcing online selling would have the most positive impact (26% vs. 18%). 13 Q6A Thinking about possible public support for commercialisation of your innovative goods or services, which of the following two types of intervention would have the most positive impact on your company? Support for: (MAX. 2 ANSWERS) Meeting regulations or standards; Accessing or reinforcing online selling; Participating in conferences, trade fairs, exhibitions; Training staff in how to promote and market innovative goods or services; Applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights; Market-testing a product or service before launch; Accessing or reinforcing your presence in export markets Other (SPONTANEOUS); None (SPONTANEOUS); Don t know 51

55 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in EU15 countries are more likely than EU13 to say that meeting regulations or standards (21% vs. 15%) or training staff how to market and promote innovative goods or services (31% vs. 24%) would have the most positive impact. However, they are less likely than companies in EU13 to mention participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions (21% vs. 28%). Country analysis Compared to their EU28 counterparts, companies in the US are much more likely to say training staff how to promote and market innovative goods or services would have the most positive impact on their company (43% vs. 30%). In turn, companies in EU28 are more likely to mention this kind of support compared to those in Switzerland (14%). Companies in Switzerland are less likely than their counterparts in EU28 to say that accessing or reinforcing online selling (11% vs. 23%), meeting regulations or standards (11% vs. 20%) or accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets (8% vs. 17%) would have the most positive impact. Companies in the US are the most likely to mention applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights (15% vs. 6% of companies in EU28 and in Switzerland). In 16 Member States, companies are most likely to say that training staff how to promote and market innovative goods or services would have the most positive impact. This is particularly the case for companies in Estonia (44%), Malta (43%), Portugal and France (both 42%). At the other end of the scale 18% of companies in Slovenia and Germany, and 20% in Hungary say the same. Companies in Italy and the Netherlands are most likely to say that accessing or reinforcing online selling would have the most positive impact (38% and 32%, respectively), and this kind of support is also widely mentioned by companies in Ireland (36%) and Finland (31%). In contrast just 7% of companies in Estonia. In ten Member States, companies are most likely to mention participating in conferences, trade fairs and exhibitions - particularly companies in Croatia (37%), Finland (35%) and Poland (32%). This option is also widely mentioned by companies in Malta (36%). On the other hand, companies in Luxembourg (13%) and Denmark (14%) are least likely to say this kind of support would have the most positive impact. Companies in France are the most likely to say meeting regulations and standards would have the most positive impact (40%), followed by those in the UK (25%), the Netherlands and Luxembourg (both 23%). Just 6% of companies in Lithuania and 8% in Romania say the same. Companies in Greece (45%) and Cyprus (42%) are most likely to say accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets would have the most positive impact, compared to 9% of companies in France. 52

56 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Market-testing a product or service before launch is most likely to be seen as having the most positive impact by companies in Sweden and Lithuania (both 18%), followed by those in Luxembourg and Hungary (both 15%). This compared with 6% of companies in France and 7% in Ireland, Finland and Slovakia. Austria is the only country where at least one in ten companies say applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights would have the most positive impact (12%) no companies in Malta say the same. MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 53

57 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Highlights from the analysis of company characteristics include: Companies with at least 50 employees are the most likely to say that training staff how to promote and market innovative goods or services would have the most positive impact (38%-43% vs. 28%-29%). Those with 250+ employees are also the most likely to mention applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights (16% vs. 3%-6%), but the least likely to mention participating in conferences, trade fairs, exhibitions (13% vs. 22%-23%). Companies with 1-9 employees are the least likely to mention accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets (15% vs. 24%-28%). Manufacturing companies are the most likely to mention accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets (30% vs. 10%-17%), but are the least likely to say training staff how to promote and market innovative goods or services would have the most positive impact (23% vs. 30%-32%). Retail companies are the most likely to mention accessing or reinforcing online selling (32% vs. 16%-18%), while those in industry are the most likely to mention meeting regulations or standards (29% vs. 17%-20%). Companies with a turnover of more than two million euros are the most likely to say accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets would have the most positive impact (26% vs. 14%-16%). MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 7 961, 61% of total base) 54

58 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - Again, support for training staff in how to promote and market goods and services would be the type of public support with most positive impact - Companies that had not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 were also asked about which type of public support for the commercialisation of their goods and services would have the most positive impact 14. For this group of companies, support for training staff in how to promote and market goods or services is also the type of public support that would have most positive impact (24%). One in five of these companies mention meeting regulations or standards (20%), while 17% mention accessing or reinforcing online selling, and 16% participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions. One in ten say accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets would have the most positive impact (10%), while fewer mention market-testing (5%) or applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights (4%). MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) Companies in the euro area are more likely than their non-euro area counterparts to say meeting regulations or standards (23% vs. 14%), or training staff how to promote and market goods or services (26% vs. 20%) would have the most positive impact. 14 Q6B Thinking about possible public support for commercialisation of your goods or services, which two of the following types of intervention would have the most positive impact on your company? Support for: (MAX. 2 ANSWERS) Meeting regulations or standards; Accessing or reinforcing online selling; Participating in conferences, trade fairs, exhibitions; Training staff in how to promote and market goods or services; Applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights; Market-testing a product or service before launch; Accessing or reinforcing your presence in export markets Other (SPONTANEOUS); None (SPONTANEOUS); Don t know 55

59 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Furthermore, companies in EU15 are more likely than EU13 to say meeting regulations or standards (22% vs. 12%), or training staff how to promote and market goods or services (25% vs. 18%) would have the most positive impact. Country analysis Companies in the US are more likely than those in EU28 or Switzerland to say participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions would have the most positive impact (21% vs. 16% and 11%, respectively). Companies in Switzerland, on the other hand, are less likely than those in EU28 and the US to say training (17% vs. 24% and 22%), meeting regulations or standards (14% vs. 20% and 18%), or accessing or reinforcing online selling (10% vs. 17% and 19%) would have the most positive impact. In 15 Member States, companies are most likely to say training staff how to promote and market goods or services would have the most positive impact, and this is particularly the case for those in Belgium (31%), Portugal (30%) and Spain (29%). However, companies in France are the most likely across the EU to mention this type of support as having the most positive impact (36%). At the other end of the scale 12% of companies in Slovenia and 13% in Croatia mention this kind of support. Companies in France are also the most likely to mention meeting regulations of standards (40%), followed by those in Malta (31%) and Luxembourg (26%). This compares to 5% of companies in Estonia, 8% in Romania, and 9% in Bulgaria and Lithuania. Accessing or reinforcing online selling is most likely to be mentioned by companies in the Netherlands, Spain (both 26%) and Greece (23%), and least likely to be mentioned by those in Romania and Belgium (both 6%). Companies in Cyprus (46%) are the most likely to say that participating in conferences, trade fairs or exhibitions would have the most positive impact, followed by 24% of companies in Slovenia and Ireland, and 22% in Sweden, Croatia and Spain. This compares with 9% of companies in France and 11% in Austria. Companies in Cyprus (36%) are also the most likely to say accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets would have the most positive impact, followed by companies in Greece (34%) and Croatia (23%). In contrast just 3% of companies in Bulgaria and 4% in the UK and Austria say the same. Sweden and Spain (both 11%) are the only countries where at least one in ten companies mention market-testing, and Spain is also the only country where at least one in ten mention applying for, managing or protecting intellectual property rights (10%). 56

60 FLASH EUROBAROMETER MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) 57

61 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics illustrates the following: Companies with more 250+ employees are the most likely to mention participating in conferences, trade fairs, exhibitions (42% vs. 15%-24%), but are the least likely to say that meeting regulations or standards would have the most positive impact (11% vs. 19%-25%). Retail companies are the most likely to mention accessing or reinforcing online selling (23% vs. 10%-17%), while those in manufacturing are the most likely to mention accessing or reinforcing their presence in export markets (20% vs. 8%- 11%). Companies established after 2014 are the most likely to mention accessing or reinforcing online selling (30% vs. 14%-17%), participating in conferences, trade fairs, or exhibitions (30% vs. 14%-23%), or market-testing a product or service before launch (22% vs. 5%-9%). Companies with the lowest turnover are the least likely to mention training staff in how to promote and market goods or services (18% vs. 26%-29%), while those with the highest turnover are the most likely to mention participating in conferences, trade fairs, or exhibitions (22% vs. 14%-16%). MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have not introduced any innovative goods or services since January 2012 (n = 5 156, 39% of total base) 58

62 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 3. INVESTMENT IN INNOVATON - Most companies invest no more than 5% in innovation activities - Companies that had introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 were asked what proportion of their 2014 turnover was invested in innovation activities 15. These companies are most likely to have invested between one and five percent (36%), although 18% invested less than 1%. The same proportion (18%) invested at least 6% - although most of these companies invested six to ten percent, rather than higher proportions. At least one in five of these companies said they did not invest any 2014 turnover in innovation activities (22%). Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) 15 Q7 Approximately what percentage of your company's turnover in 2014 was invested in innovation activities? 0%; Less than 1%; Between 1 and 5%; Between 6 and 10%; Between 11 and 15%; 16% or more; Don t know 59

63 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Companies in Switzerland are more likely than their EU counterparts to have invested at least some turnover in innovation activities, with only 11% investing nothing (compared to 22% for EU companies). Companies in Switzerland are more likely than those in the EU to have invested less than 1% (27% vs. 18%) or between 1 and five percent (40% vs. 36%). Companies in the US, on the other hand, are the least likely overall to have invested a proportion of their turnover in innovation in 2014, with 33% saying they had invested nothing. At least one quarter of companies in Estonia, Finland (both 27%), Lithuania (26%), Croatia (25%) say they invested less than one percent of 2014 turnover in innovation activities, compared to 12% of companies in Cyprus and Portugal and 13% in France that say the same. In all EU Member States, companies are most likely to say that they invested between one and five percent of their turnover in innovation activities in Companies in Belgium are the most likely to have done so (48%), followed by those in Malta (42%) and Bulgaria (41%). At the other end of the scale, in Estonia, Latvia, Sweden and Romania only 29% of the companies invested this proportion of turnover in innovation activities. Companies in Malta and the Netherlands are the most likely to say they invested between six and ten percent in innovation activities in 2014 (both 15%), followed by those in Slovakia and Italy (both 14%). This compares with 5% of companies in Finland and Cyprus and 6% in the UK and Lithuania. Companies in the Netherlands are the most likely to have invested in 2014 between 11% and 15% of their turnover in innovation activities (7%), while those in Slovakia are the most likely to have invested 16% or more (15%).. One third of companies in France and Portugal (both 33%) that introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 say they invested no turnover in innovation activities in 2014, as do 30% of the companies in Cyprus and 29% in Latvia and Spain. At the other end of the scale only 11% of companies in Slovakia, 12% of those in Belgium and 13% in Austria say they invested none of their turnover in innovation activities. 60

64 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) 61

65 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics highlights the following: Companies with 1-9 employees are the most likely to say they invested none of their 2014 turnover in innovation activities (24% vs. 5%-14%). Companies in the retail (26%) and industry (25%) sectors are the most likely to say they invested none of their 2014 turnover in innovation activities. Those in the services and manufacturing sectors are the most likely to have done some investment (76% and 79% vs. 68%-72%). Companies that were established after 2014 are the most likely to say they invested none of their 2014 turnover (29% vs. 22%-23%). The higher a company s turnover since 2012, the more likely they are to have invested at least some of 2014 s turnover on innovation activities. For example 23% of companies with a turnover of up to 100,000 euros invested nothing, compared to 14% of those with a turnover of more than 2 million euros. Those whose turnover has risen since 2012 are more likely to have invested in innovation activities than those whose turnover has remained the same or fallen (81% vs 72% and 67%, respectively). Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) 62

66 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - The majority of companies plan to maintain or increase the share of investment in innovation in the next 12 months - More than one quarter of companies that introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 plan to increase the proportion of investment they dedicate to innovation in the next 12 months (27%) 16. A further 48% of companies plan to maintain their level of investment. Fewer than one in twenty plan to reduce their investment in innovation (4%), while 16% do not plan to invest in innovation in the next 12 months. Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) Companies outside the euro area are more likely to say they will increase their investment in innovation, compared to their euro area counterparts (31% vs. 25%). Euro area companies, on the other hand, are more likely to say they will not invest in innovation (19% vs. 11%). Companies in EU13 countries are also more likely than EU15 countries to say they will increase investment (33% vs. 26%) and less likely to say they will keep the proportion invested unchanged (44% vs. 49%). 16 Q8 Do you plan to increase, reduce or keep unchanged the percentage of investment dedicated to innovation in the next 12 months? Increase; Keep the percentage unchanged; Reduce; You do not plan to invest in innovation in the next 12 months; Don t know 63

67 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis About a third of companies (27%) in the US and in EU28 that have innovated say they will increase the proportion of investment dedicated to innovation in the next 12 months. In contrast just 14% of companies in Switzerland say the same. Companies in Switzerland are much more likely to say they will keep the proportion of investment unchanged (74% vs. 53% for the US and 48% for the EU). It is worth noting here that companies in Switzerland were far less likely than those in EU28 and in the US to say they had not used any turnover from 2014 to invest in innovation. Indeed, companies in the EU are more likely than those in the US and Switzerland to say they will not invest in innovation in the next 12 months (16% vs. 10% and 4%, respectively). Within the EU, companies in Romania (49%), Malta (47%) and Ireland (41%) are the most likely to say they will increase the percentage of investment dedicated to innovation in the next 12 months. At the other end of the scale only 18% of companies in France and 19% in Germany say the same. At least six out of ten companies in Finland (67%), the Netherlands (66%), Denmark (63%) and Germany (60%) say they will keep the percentage invested in innovation unchanged, compared to 22% of companies in Romania. Companies in Finland and France (both 8%) are the most likely to say they will reduce the proportion of investment dedicated to innovation in the next 12 months. Finally, almost four in ten companies in France (37%) and 28% of the companies in Spain say that they do not plan to invest in the next 12 months. Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) 64

68 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics highlights that: Companies with less than 50 employees are the most likely to say they are not planning to invest in innovation in the next 12 months (12%-17% vs. 5%-7%). Retail companies are the least likely to say they will increase investment, particularly compared to those in the industry sector (24% vs. 30%). Companies established after 2014 are the most likely to say they will increase investment (42% vs. 25%-27%). Companies whose turnover has increased are the most likely to say they will increase investment (30% vs. 25%-26%). Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) 65

69 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: The more of their turnover a company invested in innovation in 2014, the more likely they are to say they will increase investment in innovation in the next 12 months: 19% of companies that invested none of their 2014 turnover say this, compared to 41% of companies that invested 11% or more. Base: Those companies that have introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 (n = 9 449, 72% of total base) 66

70 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - Services are most likely to be the focus of investment in innovation over the next 12 months - At least one third of companies that invested in innovation, plan to focus their investment on services (44%), marketing strategies (40%), or goods (35%) in the next 12 months 17. More than one quarter will focus their investment on organisational methods (28%), while almost as many will focus on processes (26%). MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Those companies that have invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months (n = 7 285, 88% of total base) 17 Q9 What will be the focus of your planned investment in innovation in the next 12 months? (MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE) Goods; Services; Processes (e.g. production processes or distribution methods); Marketing strategies (e.g. packaging, product promotion or placement or pricing strategies); Organisational methods (e.g. knowledge management or the work environment); Don t know 67

71 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Companies in EU28 are much more likely than their US counterparts to say they will focus their investment in each of these areas. For example 44% of companies in EU28 say they will focus their investment on services, compared to 32% of US companies. In addition, in EU28 35% of companies will focus investment on goods, compared to 20% of companies in the US. A significant proportion of companies in the US don t know where they will focus their investment (41%). Companies in Switzerland are less likely than those in EU28 to say they will focus investment in marketing strategies (33% vs. 40%) or organisational methods (13% vs. 28%). In 18 Member States, companies that invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months are most likely to say the focus of their investment will be services. This is particularly the case for companies in Spain (60%), Luxembourg (58%) and Slovakia (53%). Investing in services is also widely mentioned by companies in the UK (57%). At the other end of the scale, 29% of companies in France, Greece and Bulgaria are planning to invest in services. In the UK (61%), and Ireland (54%) companies are most likely to be planning to invest in marketing strategies, and this kind of investment is also widely mentioned by companies in Spain (52%) and the Finland (49%). In contrast 24% of companies in Lithuania, 27% in Estonia and 31% in Sweden plan to invest in marketing strategies. Companies in Finland are the most likely to be planning to invest in innovation in goods (51%), followed by those in France (45%), Belgium (44%) and Hungary (43%). This is in contrast to 19% of companies in Austria and Bulgaria. Almost half of companies in the UK plan to invest in innovative organisational methods (48%), as do 44% of companies in Luxembourg and 41% of those in Spain. At the other end of the scale 11% of companies in Sweden and 13% in Slovakia say the same. Companies in the Czech Republic are the most likely to be investing in innovative processes (39%), followed by 38% of those in Belgium, Luxembourg and Latvia. Just 11% of companies in Romania and 12% in Hungary say the same. 68

72 FLASH EUROBAROMETER MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Those companies that have invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months (n = 7 285, 88% of total base) 69

73 FLASH EUROBAROMETER A review of the analysis of company characteristics shows the following: The larger the company, the more likely they are to say they will invest in goods or processes. For example 34% of the smallest companies will invest in goods, compared to 49% of companies with 250+ employees. Companies with employees are the most likely to say they will invest in marketing strategies (51% vs. 33%-40%) or organisational methods (42% vs. 26%-35%). Manufacturing companies are the most likely to be planning to invest in goods (47% vs. 30%-40%) or processes (36% vs. 21%-32%). Retail companies are the most likely to be planning to invest in innovative marketing strategies, closely followed by services companies (44% and 42% vs. 29%-31%). Companies established after 2014 are the most likely to be planning to invest in services, marketing strategies, goods and organisational methods when compared to older companies. Companies that are part of a group are more likely to be investing in all areas, with the exception of marketing strategies (37% vs. 41% for companies not part of a group). The larger a company s turnover in 2014, the more likely it is to be planning to invest in goods or processes. For example 32% of companies with the lowest turnover plan to invest in goods, compared to 41% of companies with a turnover of more than two million euros. 70

74 FLASH EUROBAROMETER MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Those companies that have invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months (n = 7 285, 88% of total base) 71

75 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - Market potential and increased competition are the main reasons to invest in innovation - The main reasons companies that have invested in innovation have decided to do so in the next 12 months are market potential (43%) and increased competition (39%), while for 33% it is the result of a client request 18. Relatively few companies are investing in innovation as a result of legal or administrative requirements (12%), or because suppliers offered a new feature or solution (11%). MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months (n = 7 285, 88% of total base) Companies in EU15 Member States are more likely than EU13 to be planning to invest as a result of market potential (45% vs. 35%), while those in EU13 countries are more likely to be planning this as a result of increased competition (50% vs. 36%) or client request (34% vs. 30%). 18 Q10 What are the two main reasons why your company decided to invest in innovation in the next 12 months? (MAX. 2 ANSWERS) Market potential; Client request; Increased competition; Supplier offering a new feature or business solution; New legal or administrative requirements coming into force in the coming years Other (SPONTANEOUS); Don t know 72

76 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis There is little difference in the pattern of reasons for investing in innovation between companies in EU28 and in Switzerland, although companies in Switzerland are more likely to mention client request (42% vs. 33%), and slightly less likely to mention a supplier offering a new feature or solution (4% vs. 11%). Companies in the US, however, are less likely to mention each of these reasons, and more likely to say they don t know (40%). For example, 28% of companies in the US mention market potential, compared to 43% of those in EU28. In 12 Member States, companies are most likely to say they are planning to invest as a result of market potential, and this is particularly the case for companies in the Netherlands (66%), the UK (63%), Greece (57%), Ireland (55%) and Spain (54%). Companies in Poland (27%), Slovenia (28%) and Lithuania (29%) are the least likely to give market potential as a reason. Companies in Poland (61%), Portugal (51%) and the Czech Republic (50%) are the most likely to give increased competition as a reason for investing in innovation in the next 12 months, compared to 24% of companies in the Netherlands and 25% in Denmark. Companies in France (56%), Luxembourg (49%) and Romania (44%) are the most likely to give client request as a reason for investment, while companies in Hungary and Spain (both 12%) are much less likely to give this reason. New legal or administrative requirements are most likely to be given as a reason for investment by companies in Belgium (24%), France (23%), Hungary (22%) and the Netherlands (21%), and least likely to be mentioned by companies in Sweden (4%). Companies in Spain (21%) and Finland (20%) are the most likely to mention suppliers offering a new feature or solution, while companies in Lithuania are the least likely to give this as a reason (3%). 73

77 FLASH EUROBAROMETER MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months (n = 7 285, 88% of total base) 74

78 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Results from the analysis of company characteristics highlight the following: Companies with 1-9 employees are the least likely to mention market potential (40% vs. 50%-59%). The largest companies are also the most likely to say they are investing in innovation as a result of client request (40% vs. 32%-33%) or increased competition (52% vs. 37%-40%). Companies in the manufacturing sector are the most likely to say they are investing in innovation as a result of client requests (38% vs. 30%-34%). Companies in the industry sector are much less likely than those in other sectors to say they are investing due to market potential (37% vs. 41%-47%), but they are more likely to mention new legal or administrative requirements (20% vs. 8%-15%). Companies which are part of a group are more likely than those that are not to be investing as a result of a client request (41% vs. 31%). The larger a company s turnover, the more likely it is to be investing due to market potential: 36% of companies with the smallest turnover are investing for this reason, compared to 53% of those with a turnover of more than two million euros. Companies whose turnover has risen since 2012 are also more likely to be investing as a result of market potential, compared to those whose turnover has remained the same, or has fallen (50% vs. 41%-35%). 75

79 FLASH EUROBAROMETER MAX. 2 ANSWERS Base: Those companies that have invested in innovation and plan to invest in the next 12 months (n = 7 285, 88% of total base) 76

80 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 4. THE ROLE OF DESIGN - More than six out of ten companies use design in some way - For 13% of companies design is a central element in the company s strategy, while for 18% design is an integral, but not central element of development work 19. For 14%, design is used as a last finish, while 16% do not work systematically with design. However, the most common response from companies is that design is not used (38%). 19 Q1 Which of the following statements best describes the activities of your company with regard to design? Design is a central element in the company's strategy; Design is an integral, but not central element of development work in the company; Design is used as last finish, enhancing the appearance and attractiveness of the final product; The company does not work systematically with design; Design is not used in the company; Don t know 77

81 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Country analysis Companies in the US are more likely to say design is not used in the company, compared to their counterparts in EU28 (49% vs 38%). However, companies in EU28 are more likely to say design is not used compared to those in Switzerland (38% vs. 32%). Companies in Greece, Cyprus and the UK (48%, 41% and 22%, respectively) are considerably more likely than those in other Member States to say design is a central element in the company s strategy. At the other end of the scale just 4% of companies in Slovenia and 5% in Latvia say design is a central element. In six Member States at least one quarter of companies say design is an integral but not central element of development work: Malta (39%), the Czech Republic, Latvia (both 28%), Cyprus, Luxembourg and Spain (all 26%). This compares to 8% of companies in Estonia and 10% in Slovenia and Sweden that say the same. Companies in Austria (22%), Slovakia (17%), Portugal and Italy (both 16%) are the most likely to say design is used as a last finish, compared to just 3% of companies in Estonia and Cyprus. Companies in Hungary (31%), Slovenia (26%) and Portugal (25%) are the most likely to say their company does not systematically work with design, while those in Malta (4%) and Cyprus (6%) are the least likely to say this. In Estonia (66%) and Italy (51%) a majority of companies say design is not used in their company, as do 46% of companies in Poland and 45% in Slovenia and Bulgaria. In fact, in 26 Member States at least one quarter of companies say they do not use design. 78

82 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 79

83 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics reveals the following differences: Companies with at least 50 employees are the most likely to say design is a central element in the company s strategy (19%-23% vs. 12% for smaller companies). In the same way, the larger the company, the more likely it is to say design is an integral but not central element: 17% of companies with 1-9 employees say this, compared to 40% of those with Companies with 1-9 employees are the most likely to say design is not used (40% vs. 17%-33%). Companies in the industry sector are the least likely to say design is a central element (7% vs. 12%-15%), and the most likely to say design is not used (45% vs. 33%-39%). Manufacturing companies are the most likely to say that design is an integral but not central element (23% vs. 16%-18%). The older the company, the more likely it is that design is not used: 40% of companies established before 2009 say this, compared to 27% of those established after Companies whose turnover has fallen since 2012, or has remained the same, are more likely to say design is not used, compared to those whose turnover has increased (44% and 42% vs. 30%). 80

84 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: In general, companies that have introduced at least one innovation and more specifically those who have introduced innovative goods, services, processes, marketing strategies or organisational methods are more likely to also say they work with design. On the other hand, companies that have not innovated in these areas are more likely to mention that their company does not work systematically or at all with design. Companies that introduced at least one innovation since January 2012 are more likely than those who have not innovated to say design is central (16% vs. 5%), integral (21% vs. 10%), or used as a last finish (16% vs. 7%). Companies that introduced innovative goods or services are more likely than those that introduced other innovations to say design is a central element of the company strategy (17% vs. 9%). 81

85 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 5. USE OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES - More than one in five manufacturing companies use sustainable technologies and high performance manufacturing technologies - Companies in the manufacturing sector were asked about their use of specific technologies 20. One quarter use sustainable manufacturing technologies (25%), while almost as many use high performance manufacturing (22%). Just over one in ten use ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing (13%). A slight majority (52%) of manufacturing companies say they do not use any of these technologies. MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) Companies outside the euro area are more likely than those within the euro area to use each type of technology: sustainable manufacturing (28% vs. 23%), high performance manufacturing (26% vs. 20%), and ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing (16% vs. 11%). A majority of euro area companies do not use any of these technologies (55%), compared to 47% of companies outside the euro area. 20 Q11A Have you used any of the following technologies? (MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE) Sustainable manufacturing technologies (i.e. technologies which use energy and materials more efficiently and drastically reduce emissions); ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing (i.e. technologies which digitalise the production processes); High performance manufacturing which combines flexibility, precision and zero-defect (e.g. high precision machine tools, advanced sensors or 3D printers); None (SPONTANEOUS); Don t know 82

86 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Companies in EU13 Member States are more likely than EU15 to use high performance manufacturing (28% vs. 20%) or ICT-enabled manufacturing (19% vs. 11%). Those in EU15 countries, on the other hand, are more likely to say they don t use any of these technologies (54% vs. 46%). Due to small sample size, country analysis could not be performed for this question. The analysis of company characteristics illustrates the following: The larger the company, the more likely it is to have used each of these technologies. For example 11% of companies with 1-9 employees have used ICTenabled intelligent manufacturing, compared to 26% of those with Companies that are part of a group are more likely to have used each of these technologies than those that are not. For instance, 34% of companies that are part of a group have used sustainable manufacturing, compared to 24% of companies that are not part of a group. MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) 83

87 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: Goods or services innovators are more likely than companies that have innovated in other areas to have used sustainable manufacturing technologies (29% vs. 22%) or high performance manufacturing technologies (26% vs. 18%). MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) 84

88 FLASH EUROBAROMETER - Almost one quarter of manufacturing companies plan to use sustainable technologies and high performance manufacturing technologies - Manufacturing companies were also asked if they planned to use any of these technologies in the next 12 months 21. Almost one quarter plan to use sustainable manufacturing technologies or high performance manufacturing (both 24%), while 14% plan to use ICT-enabled manufacturing. However the majority of companies do not plan to use any of these (52%). MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) Companies outside the euro area are more likely that those within the euro area to be planning to use sustainable manufacturing (29% vs. 21%) or high performance manufacturing (30% vs. 20%). A majority of euro area companies are not planning to use any of these technologies (57%), compared to 44% of non-euro area companies. Companies in EU13 Member States are more likely than EU15 countries to be planning to use sustainable manufacturing (32% vs. 21%) or high performance manufacturing (32% vs. 21%). Those in EU15 countries, on the other hand, are more likely to say they don t plan to use any of these technologies in the next 12 months (56% vs. 41%). Due to small sample size, country analysis could not be performed for this question. 21 Q11B Do you plan to use any of the following technologies in the next 12 months? (MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE) Sustainable manufacturing technologies (i.e. technologies which use energy and materials more efficiently and drastically reduce emissions); ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing (i.e. technologies which digitalise the production processes); High performance manufacturing which combines flexibility, precision and zero-defect (e.g. high precision machine tools, advanced sensors or 3D printers); None (SPONTANEOUS); Don t know 85

89 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Highlights from the analysis of company characteristics include: The larger the company, the more likely it is to be planning to use each of these technologies in the next 12 months. For example 21% of companies with 1-9 employees plan to use high performance manufacturing, compared to 58% of those with Companies that are part of a group are more likely to be planning to use each of these technologies. For instance, 34% of companies that are part of a group have used sustainable manufacturing, compared to 23% of companies that are not part of a group. MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) 86

90 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: Goods or services innovators are more likely than companies that have innovated in other areas to have used sustainable manufacturing (27% vs. 23%) or ICTenabled intelligent manufacturing (17% vs. 11%). MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) 87

91 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The combination of the results of questions 11a and 11b 22 shows that just over one third of manufacturing companies have used advanced technologies in the past, and also plan to use them in the next 12 months (35%). One in ten (10%) have used these technologies in the past, but do not plan to use them in the next 12 months. Just over one in five (6%) have not used these technologies, but plan to do so in the future. However, companies are most likely to say they have not used these technologies in the past, and do not plan to use them in the next 12 months (49%). Table: Present and future take up of advanced manufacturing technologies Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) As the previous results indicate, companies outside the euro area are more likely than those within the euro area to have used these technologies in the past and also plan to use them in the next 12 months (43% vs. 30%). Companies within the euro area, however, are more likely to say they have not used these technologies and do not plan to do so (53% vs. 43%). 22 Has used and plans to use advanced technologies covers the companies that have used the advanced manufacturing technologies explored in Q11A and plan to use them in the next 12 months in Q11B; Has used but does not plan to use advanced technologies covers the companies that have answered they have used the advanced manufacturing technologies explored in Q11A and answered none or don t know in Q11B; Has not used but plans to use advanced technologies covers the companies that have answered none or don t know in Q11A and answered they plan to use the advanced manufacturing technologies explored in Q11B; Has not used and does not plan to use advanced technologies covers the companies that have answered none or don t know in both Q11A and Q11B. 88

92 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Similarly companies in EU13 countries are more likely than those in EU15 to have used these technologies in the past and also plan to use them in the next 12 months (46% vs. 31%). Companies in EU15 countries, on the other hand, are more likely to say they have not used these technologies and do not plan to do so (53% vs. 40%). Due to small sample size, country analysis could not be performed for this question. The analysis of company characteristics shows the following: The larger the company, the more likely it is to have used advanced technologies in the past, and also plan to do so in the future: 32% of the smallest companies fall into this category, compared to 75% of those with 250+ employees. The smaller the company, the more likely they are to say they have not used these technologies, and do not plan to do so. Companies that are part of a group are more likely that those that are not to have used advanced technologies in the past, and also plan to do so in the future (52% vs. 33%). Companies that are not part of a group are more likely to say they have not used these technologies, and do not plan to do so (52% vs. 27%). At least half of all manufacturing companies whose turnover has remained the same (57%) or fallen (54%) have not used these technologies and do not plan to do so, compared to 38% of companies whose turnover has risen since Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) 89

93 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: Companies that have innovative goods or services are more likely than those with other innovations to say they have used advanced technologies in the past and plan to do so in future (42% vs. 29%). Companies that plan to increase their investment in innovation are the most likely to say they have used these technologies in the past and will do so in future, particularly compared to those that do not plan to invest in innovation (53% vs. 21%). Base: Manufacturing companies (n = 1 178, 9% of total base) 90

94 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 6. USE OF INNOVATION AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT This last section of the report considers the relationship between innovation and public procurement. The proportion of companies involved in public procurement is reviewed, followed by a discussion about the part innovative goods or services have played in public procurement contracts Involvement in public procurement - One third of companies have had some level of involvement with public procurement - Companies were asked if they had had any involvement with public procurement since January Almost one in five (19%) say they have won at least one public procurement contract in that time, while a further 8% have submitted a tender but the outcome is unknown. More than one in ten (15%) have submitted at least one tender without success, while 5% investigated opportunities to bid on one or more contracts but have never submitted a tender. However, the majority of companies (62%) have never submitted a tender nor investigated opportunities to bid on a public procurement contract. 23 Q12 Since January 2012 has your company? (MULTIPLE ANSWERS POSSIBLE ): Won at least one public procurement contract; Submitted at least one tender for a public procurement contract and the outcome is unknown; Submitted at least one tender for a public procurement contract without success; Investigated opportunities to bid on one or more public procurement contracts, but have never submitted a tender; Has never submitted a tender nor investigated opportunities to bid on a public procurement contract; Don t know 91

95 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In comparison to the last survey in 2014, companies are now slightly more likely to have submitted at least one tender where the outcome is unknown (+3 percentage points), but they are less likely to have investigated opportunities but not submitted a tender (-9 pp) to bid on one or more contracts. There has also been a five percentage point increase in the proportion of companies that have neither submitted a tender, nor investigated opportunities to bid on a public procurement contract. Country analysis Companies in EU28 are more likely than those in the US (19% vs. 14%), but less likely than those in Switzerland (23%) to have won at least one public procurement contract since January Companies in Switzerland are the least likely to say they have neither submitted a tender, nor investigated opportunities to bid on a public procurement contract during this time (56%), followed by those in the US (60%) and EU28 (62%). Companies in Greece (35%), Cyprus (31%) and Slovenia (29%) are the most likely to say that they have won at least one public procurement contract since January In fact, overall at least one in five companies in 13 Member States say this. At the other end of the scale, 9% of companies in the Netherlands and 13% in Hungary and Estonia have won at least one public procurement contract during this time. Companies in Belgium (18%) and France (14%) are the most likely to have submitted a tender where the outcome is unknown. This compares to just 2% of companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Latvia and Lithuania. Companies in Belgium (24%) and France (20%) are also the most likely to have submitted at least one tender without success, while those in Romania (7%), Bulgaria, Spain, Slovenia and Portugal (all 8%) are the least likely to have done this. Finland (14%), the Czech Republic (12%) and Hungary (10%) are the only Member States where at least one in ten companies has investigated opportunities to bid on one or more public procurement contracts, but have never submitted a tender. At the other end of the scale, 1% of companies in Cyprus and 2% in Romania and Estonia have done the same. At least half of the companies in each Member State say they have never investigated or submitted a tender. Companies in Estonia (76%), Spain, Romania (both 74%) and Malta (73%) are most likely to say this, particularly compared to companies in Ireland (50%), Croatia and Belgium (both 51%). 92

96 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Evolutions since 2014 Since the last survey in 2014 there has been little change in the proportion of companies in EU28 that have won at least one public procurement contract (+1 percentage point), but in Switzerland there has been an increase of eight percentage points. Companies in Cyprus (+15 pp), Slovenia (+13 pp) and Greece (+12 pp) are now much more likely to say they have won at least one public procurement contract, compared to the last survey in On the other hand, companies in Malta (-10 pp), Portugal (-9 pp) and Luxembourg (-8 pp) are now less likely to have done so. Companies in the UK, Luxembourg and Cyprus (all +7 pp) are all more likely to say they have submitted at least one tender with an unknown outcome, while those in Denmark (-4 pp) and Portugal (-2 pp) are less likely to say this. In Latvia, there has been a seven percentage point increase in the proportion of companies that have submitted at least one tender without success, and the proportion of companies in Germany, Italy, Cyprus and the UK has also increased by six percentage points. At the other end of the scale, the proportion of companies saying this has decreased most in Portugal (-8 pp) and Ireland (-7 pp). In all but one country, there has been a decline in proportion of companies that have investigated opportunities to bid but have not submitted a tender, and some of these have been large. For example, there has been a 23 percentage point decline in the proportion of companies in Latvia and Hungary that say this, and the declines amongst companies in Slovakia (-20 pp), Croatia and Bulgaria (both -19 pp) are almost as large. The smallest declines are observed amongst companies in Greece, Austria (both -2 pp) and Italy (-3 pp). The exception is Malta, where the proportion is unchanged. There have been large increases in the proportion of companies in Slovakia (+23 pp), Hungary (+21 pp) and Bulgaria (+20 pp) that have never submitted a tender nor investigated opportunities to bid on a public procurement contract. Conversely, the proportion of companies saying this has declined most in the UK (-12 pp) and Greece (-10 pp). 93

97 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 94

98 FLASH EUROBAROMETER The analysis of company characteristics reveals the following: The largest companies are the most likely to have won at least one procurement contract (35% vs. 17%-29%), or to have submitted a tender without success (36% vs. 14%-21%). The smaller the company, the more likely it is to say it has never submitted a tender nor investigated opportunities to bid: 65% of companies with 1-9 employees say this, compared to 29% of companies with 250+ employees. Companies in the industry sector are more likely than those in the other sectors to have won a contract (31% vs. 16%-17%), submitted one where the outcome is unknown (14% vs. 5%-7%), or submitted a tender without success (25% vs. 11%-15%). The older the company, the more likely it is to have won a contract, or to have submitted a tender without success. One in five (20%) companies established before 2009 have won at least one public procurement contract, compared to 12% of the newest companies. Companies that are part of a group are more likely than those who are not to have won a contract (25% vs. 18%), or submitted a tender where the outcome is unknown (13% vs. 7%). The smaller a company s turnover, the more likely it is to say it has never submitted a tender nor investigated opportunities to do so: 70% of companies with the lowest turnover say this, compared to 57% of those with a turnover of more than two million euros. 95

99 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 96

100 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: Companies that have introduced innovative goods or services since January 2012 are slightly more likely to have won at least one public procurement contract: 22% have done so, compared to 16% of companies that innovated in other areas, and 13% of those that did not innovate. Companies with innovative goods or services are also less likely to say they have not submitted a tender nor investigated the opportunities to bid (58% vs. 68%-69%). 97

101 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 6.2. Including innovative goods or services as part of a public procurement contract - More than one third of companies that have won a public procurement contract included innovations as part of the winning bid - Companies that have won at least one public procurement contract were asked about the inclusion of innovations in the contract 24. More than one third (38%) say they included innovations as part of a public procurement that they won. The majority, however, have not (59%). Base: Those companies who won at least one public procurement contract (n = 2 461, 19% of total base) There has been no notable change since the last wave of the survey in Companies outside the euro area are more likely to say they included innovations as part of a public procurement contract that they have won, compared to those in the euro area (43% vs. 35%). Due to small sample size, country analysis could not be performed for this question. 24 Q13 Has your company included any of its innovations as part of any public procurement contract that you have won? Yes; No; Don t know 98

102 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Results of the analysis of company characteristics show that: Companies with employees are the most likely to have included innovations in a winning public procurement contract (53% vs. 36%-43%). Services (46%) and manufacturing companies (44%) are more likely to have included innovations compared to those in industry (35%) and retail (27%). Base: Those companies who won at least one public procurement contract (n = 2 461, 19% of total base) 99

103 FLASH EUROBAROMETER In addition: Goods or services innovators are more likely to have included innovations in a winning contract than those that innovated in other areas (43% vs. 32%). Base: Those companies who won at least one public procurement contract (n = 2 461, 19% of total base) 100

104 ANNEXES

105 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

106 FLASH EUROBAROMETER FLASH EUROBAROMETER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Between the 2 nd and 20 th of February 2015, TNS Political & Social, a consortium created between TNS political & social, TNS UK and TNS opinion, carried out the survey FLASH EUROBAROMETER about Innobarometer The innovation trends at EU enterprises. This survey has been requested by the EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs. It is survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer Unit). The FLASH EUROBAROMETER covers businesses employing one or more persons in manufacturing (NACE category C), services (NACE categories G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, R) and the industry sector (NACE categories D, E, F) in the 28 Member States of the European Union, Switzerland and the USA. The sample was selected from an international database, with additional sample from local sources where necessary. Whenever a company was eligible the selected respondent had to be a general manager, a financial director or a significant owner. All interviews were carried using the TNS e-call center (our centralized CATI system). Quotas were applied on both company size (using four different ranges: 1-9 employees, employees, employees and 250 employees or more) and sectors (Manufacturing, Retail, Services and Industry). These quotas were adjusted according to the country s universe (sectors and business sizes in scope of the survey) but were also reasoned in order to ensure that the sample was large enough in every cell. TNS has developed its own RDD sample generation capabilities based on using contact telephone numbers from responders to random probability or random location face to face surveys, such as Eurobarometer, as seed numbers. The approach works because the seed number identifies a working block of telephone numbers and reduces the volume of numbers generated that will be ineffective. The seed numbers are stratified by NUTS2 region and urbanisation to approximate a geographically representative sample. From each seed number the required sample of numbers are generated by randomly replacing the last two digits. The sample is then screened against business databases in order to exclude as many of these numbers as possible before going into field. This approach is consistent across all countries. TS1

107 FLASH EUROBAROMETER Readers are reminded that survey results are estimations, the accuracy of which, everything being equal, rests upon the sample size and upon the observed percentage. With samples sizes up to 500 interviews, the real percentages vary within the following confidence limits: TS2

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