I. World trade developments

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1 I. World trade developments The value of world merchandise exports increased by 20 per cent in 2011 while exports of commercial services grew by 11 per cent. Key developments in 2011: a snapshot Trade data List of tables Overview Trade by region Leading traders Bilateral trade of leading traders Regional trade agreements Least-developed countries Foreign affiliates statistics I WORLD TRADE DEVELOPMENTS Where to find more online: you can access and download the Excel files for the tables via 11

2 Merchandise trade flows within regions outperform flows between regions Merchandise exports by region and destination 2011 (US$ billion) Europe North America Central & South America & the Caribbean Africa % of Central and South 50% America exports sent to North America in 2011 of total world exports are from North America and Europe Where to find more: Tables I.4 and A10 12

3 Middle East Commonwealth of Independent States Asia 2926 Trade within regions remains strong in North America, Europe and Asia. Europe has the highest level of intraregional trade, with 71 per cent of its exports remaining within Europe in A total of 53 per cent of Asian trade is exported to Asian countries while nearly 48 per cent of North America s exports are to members of the North American Free Trade Agreement. In South and Central America, 27 per cent of exports went to other countries in the region in In the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Africa and the Middle East, the totals were 20 per cent, 13 per cent and 9 per cent respectively. Africa s main destination market for export is the European Union, followed by Asia and North America. A little over half of CIS exports go to Europe and the Middle East s main market is still Asia. Less than a quarter of South and Central America s total exports go to North America and 22 per cent go to Asia. I WORLD TRADE DEVELOPMENTS Africa Asia Commonwealth of Independent States Central & South America & the Caribbean Europe Middle East North America All fi gures are in US$ billion of Middle East products were exported to Asia in 53%

4 Moderate recovery for merchandise exports in 2011 World merchandise exports increased by 5 per cent in volume terms in World gross domestic product (GDP) expanded by 2.4 per cent. Since 2005, world merchandise trade has grown by 3.7 per cent annually while GDP has risen by 2.3 per cent. Some of the growth in merchandise trade is due to trade in intermediate products that criss-cross national borders before being processed into final products. Volume of world merchandise exports and gross domestic product, % Asia s merchandise export volumes grew by 6% in % World merchandise import volumes grew by 5% in ANNUAL PERCENTAGE CHANGE (%) VOLUME OF TOTAL EXPORTS GDP Where to find more: Table I.2 14

5 US remains the leading merchandise trader The United States remains the world s biggest trader in merchandise, with imports and exports totalling US$ 3,746 billion in Its trade deficit amounted to US$ 785 billion, 5.2 per cent of its GDP. China and Germany rank second and third respectively in merchandise trade. Their trade surpluses were US$ 155 billion and US$ 218 billion respectively in 2011, 2.1 per cent and 6.1 per cent of their GDP. In contrast to 2010, Japan incurred a trade deficit in 2011, amounting to US$ 32 billion. With imports and exports totalling US$ 1,678 billion, it remains the fourth-largest trader in the world. Leading economies of merchandise trade, 2011 IMPORTS US$ BILLION United States China 40% Germany s trade surplus is 40% higher than China s I WORLD TRADE DEVELOPMENTS France Japan Germany The United States was the world s biggest merchandise trader in Netherlands EXPORTS US$ BILLION US$ 1,480 bn Exports US$ 2,266 bn Imports Where to find more: Tables A6 and A7 15

6 World exports of commercial services up by 11% in 2011 The value of world exports of commercial services rose by 11 per cent in 2011 to US$ 4,170 billion, exceeding pre-crisis levels of US$ 3,850 in Europe showed signs of recovery, with annual growth of 11 per cent in In contrast, Asian economies saw their growth rate halved compared with 2010, mainly due to slower growth in transportation services and other commercial services. North America s exports of commercial services expanded by 9 per cent in 2011, the same as in 2010, while in Africa exports stagnated following the Arab Spring uprising that began at the end of The CIS was the most dynamic region, with exports of commercial services increasing by 19 per cent, followed by South and Central America with 13 per cent. Commercial services exports, World % growth in exports of world commercial services in 2011 CIS C. and S. America and the Caribbean Europe % rise in Africa s exports of commercial services in 2011 Asia Middle East North America Africa ANNUAL PERCENTAGE CHANGE (%) Where to find more: Table I.3 16

7 US remains the leading commercial services trader The United States remained the world s largest trader of commercial services in 2011 with US$ 976 billion of trade, making a surplus of US$ 186 billion. The United Kingdom, which ranked third with US$ 444 billion, recorded also a surplus of US$ 103 billion. Both the United States and the United Kingdom have recorded a surplus in services every year since the 1980s. Germany, the second-largest services trader with US$ 542 billion of trade, recorded a deficit of US$ 36 billion in Among the leading emerging economies, China remained a net services importer in 2011, while India registered a positive balance, with the value of exports exceeding imports. Leading traders in commercial services, 2011 United States Germany United Kingdom China France Japan India Netherlands Ireland Italy Largest traders in commercial services US$ 976 bn United States US$ 542 bn Germany US$ 444 bn United Kingdom I WORLD TRADE DEVELOPMENTS US$ BILLION EXPORTS IMPORTS BALANCE Where to find more: Table I.9 17

8 US service supply through affiliates to emerging economies on the rise Services supplied by US majority-owned foreign affiliates to China and India proved more resilient to the global crisis than exports of crossborder services. In 2009, US exports of commercial services to India decreased by 4 per cent. However, services supplied to India through commercial presence (i.e. through US majority-owned foreign affiliates established in India) rose by 34 per cent. Similarly, in China services supplied by US majority-owned foreign affiliates grew by 25 per cent, while exports of commercial services grew by only 2 per cent. In contrast, services supplied through US majority-owned foreign affiliates to Europe and North America declined, following the same pattern as cross-border exports. US services supplied to China and India, Growth of US services supply through affiliates in 2009 US$ BILLION 25 34% in India % in China CHINA (FATS) CHINA (BOP) INDIA (FATS) INDIA (BOP) Where to find more: Tables I.15 and I.26 BOP: Exports of commercial services as measured in the balance of payments (modes 1, 2 and 4). FATS: Outward foreign affiliates statistics (mode 3). 18

9 List of tables I. World trade developments 1. Overview Table I.1 Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, Table I.2 Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade by selected region and economy, Trade by region Table I.3 World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services by region and selected economy, Table I.4 Intra- and inter-regional merchandise trade, Table I.5 World merchandise exports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and Table I.6 World merchandise imports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and Leading traders Table I.7 Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade, Table I.8 Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade (excluding intra-eu (27) trade), Table I.9 Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services, Table I.10 Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services (excluding intra-eu (27) trade), I WORLD TRADE DEVELOPMENTS 4. Bilateral trade of leading traders Table I.11 Merchandise trade of Canada by origin and destination, Table I.12 Merchandise trade of the United States by origin and destination, Table I.13 Merchandise trade of the European Union (27) by origin and destination, Table I.14 Merchandise trade of Japan by origin and destination, Table I.15 Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, Regional trade agreements Table I.16 Merchandise trade of NAFTA countries by major product group and by origin/destination, Table I.17 Merchandise trade of MERCOSUR countries by major product group and by origin/destination, Table I.18 Merchandise trade of Andean Community countries by major product group and by origin/destination, Table I.19 Merchandise trade of ASEAN countries by major product group and by origin/destination, Least-developed countries Table I.20 Ratio of exports of goods and commercial services to GDP of the least-developed countries, Table I.21 Merchandise exports and imports of least-developed countries, Table I.22 Imports of agricultural products, fuels and manufactures of the European Union (27), Asia and North America from the least-developed countries,

10 Table I.23 Exports of commercial services of the least-developed countries by category, Foreign affiliates statistics Table I.24 Sales by affiliates of foreign companies - resident affiliates primarily engaged in services activities (inward FATS), Table I.25 Sales by foreign affiliates of resident companies - affiliates located abroad primarily engaged in services activities (outward FATS), Table I.26 Services supplied by United States affiliates established abroad (outward FATS) and by foreign affiliates in the United States (inward FATS) by economy of affiliate,

11 1. Overview Table I.1 Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, ( change) World merchandise exports Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures World merchandise production Agriculture Mining Manufacturing World GDP Note : See the Metadata for the estimation of world aggregates of merchandise exports, production and GDP. Table I.2 Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade by selected region and economy, I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS ( change) Exports Imports World North America Canada Mexico United States South and Central America Europe European Union (27) Norway Switzerland Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Asia Australia China Hong Kong, China India Japan Six East Asian traders a a Hong Kong, China; Malaysia; Republic of Korea; Singapore; Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Taipei, Chinese) and Thailand. 21

12 2. Trade by region Table I.3 World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services by region and selected economy, ( change) Exports Imports Merchandise World North America United States Canada South and Central America Brazil Argentina Europe European Union (27) Switzerland Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Russian Federation Ukraine Africa South Africa Nigeria a Middle East Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of United Arab Emirates a Asia China Japan Commercial services World North America United States Canada South and Central America Brazil Argentina Europe European Union (27) Switzerland Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Russian Federation Ukraine Africa South Africa Egypt Middle East Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of United Arab Emirates Asia China Japan a Secretariat estimates. 22

13 Table I.4 Intra- and inter-regional merchandise trade, 2011 (Billion dollars and ) Origin Value North America Destination South and Central America Europe CIS Africa Middle East Asia World World North America South and Central America Europe Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Africa Middle East Asia Share of regional trade flows in each region's total merchandise exports World North America South and Central America Europe Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Africa Middle East Asia Share of each region's exports in world merchandise exports to the region World North America South and Central America Europe Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Africa Middle East Asia Share of regional trade flows in world merchandise exports World North America South and Central America Europe Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Africa Middle East Asia I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS 23

14 Table I.5 World merchandise exports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2011 (Billion dollars and ) World Share World North America United States Canada Mexico South and Central America Brazil Argentina Europe Germany a France Italy United Kingdom Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) b Africa South Africa c Middle East Asia China Japan India Australia and New Zealand Six East Asian Traders Memorandum item: EU d USSR, Former GATT/WTO Members e a Figures refer to the Fed. Rep. of Germany from 1948 through b Figures are significantly affected by including the mutual trade flows of the Baltic States and the CIS between 1993 and c Beginning with 1998, figures refer to South Africa only and no longer to the Southern African Customs Union. d Figures refer to the EEC(6) in 1963, EC(9) in 1973, EC(10) in 1983, EU(12) in 1993, EU(25) in 2003 and EU(27) in e Membership as of the year stated. Note: Between 1973 and 1983 and between 1993 and 2003 export shares were significantly influenced by oil price developments. Value 24

15 Table I.6 World merchandise imports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2011 (Billion dollars and ) World Share World North America United States Canada Mexico South and Central America Brazil Argentina Europe Germany a France United Kingdom Italy Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) b Africa South Africa c Middle East Asia China Japan India Australia and New Zealand Six East Asian Traders Memorandum item: EU d USSR, Former GATT/WTO Members e Value I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS a Figures refer to the Fed. Rep. of Germany from 1948 through b Figures are significantly affected by including the mutual trade flows of the Baltic States and the CIS between 1993 and c Beginning with 1998, figures refer to South Africa only and no longer to the Southern African Customs Union. d Figures refer to the EEC(6) in 1963, EC(9) in 1973, EC(10) in 1983, EU(12) in 1993, EU(25) in 2003 and EU(27) in e Membership as of the year stated. Note: Between 1973 and 1983 and between 1993 and 2003 import shares were significantly influenced by oil price developments. 25

16 3. Leading traders Table I.7 Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade, 2011 (Billion dollars and ) Rank Exporters Value Share change Rank Importers Value Share change 1 China United States United States China Germany Germany Japan Japan Netherlands France France United Kingdom Korea, Republic of Netherlands Italy Italy Russian Federation Korea, Republic of Belgium Hong Kong, China retained imports United Kingdom Canada a Hong Kong, China India domestic exports re-exports Canada Belgium Singapore Spain domestic exports re-exports Singapore Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of retained imports Mexico Mexico Spain Russian Federation a Taipei, Chinese Taipei, Chinese India Australia United Arab Emirates b Turkey Australia Brazil Brazil Thailand Switzerland Switzerland Thailand Poland Malaysia United Arab Emirates b Indonesia Austria Poland Malaysia Sweden Indonesia Austria Sweden Czech Republic Czech Republic Norway Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Turkey South Africa Iran b Viet Nam Ireland Hungary Nigeria b Denmark Qatar Norway Denmark Finland Hungary Ukraine Kuwait Portugal Viet Nam Slovak Republic South Africa Romania Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of Israel Kazakhstan Chile Argentina Argentina Iraq b Ireland Chile Philippines Slovak Republic Iran Finland Greece Algeria Egypt Ukraine Nigeria b Total of above c Total of above c World c World c a Imports are valued f.o.b. b Secretariat estimates. c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export. Note : For annual data , see Appendix A6 and A7 26

17 Table I.8 Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade (excluding intra-eu (27) trade), 2011 (Billion dollars and ) Rank Exporters Value Share change Rank Importers Value Share change 1 Extra-EU (27) exports Extra-EU (27) imports China United States United States China Japan Japan Korea, Republic of Korea, Republic of Russian Federation Hong Kong, China Hong Kong, China retained imports domestic exports re-exports Canada a Canada India Singapore Singapore domestic exports retained imports Singapore re-exports Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Mexico Mexico Russian Federation a Taipei, Chinese Taipei, Chinese India Australia United Arab Emirates b Turkey Australia Brazil Brazil Thailand Switzerland Switzerland Thailand United Arab Emirates b Malaysia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Norway Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Turkey South Africa Iran b Viet Nam Nigeria b Norway Qatar Ukraine Kuwait Israel Viet Nam Chile South Africa Argentina Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of Philippines Kazakhstan Iran Argentina Egypt Iraq b Nigeria b Chile Colombia Algeria Iraq b Ukraine Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of b Israel Algeria Angola b Belarus Colombia Morocco Philippines Pakistan Oman Peru Peru Kazakhstan Belarus Bangladesh New Zealand Qatar b Azerbaijan Kuwait Egypt Ecuador Pakistan Tunisia Bangladesh Oman b Ecuador Croatia Morocco Angola a b Bahrain, Kingdom of Panama Total of above c Total of above c I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS World (excl. intra-eu (27)) c World (excl. intra-eu (27)) c a Imports are valued f.o.b. b Secretariat estimates. c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export. Note : For annual data , see Appendix A6 and A7 27

18 Table I.9 Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services, 2011 (Billion dollars and ) Rank Exporters Value Share change Rank Importers Value Share change 1 United States United States United Kingdom Germany Germany China China United Kingdom France Japan Japan France Spain India India Netherlands Netherlands Ireland Singapore Italy Hong Kong, China Singapore Ireland Canada Italy Korea, Republic of Switzerland Spain Korea, Republic of Russian Federation Belgium Belgium Sweden Brazil Canada Australia Luxembourg Denmark Denmark Hong Kong, China Austria Sweden Russian Federation Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Australia Thailand Taipei, Chinese United Arab Emirates Norway Switzerland Thailand Norway Macao, China Austria Greece Taipei, Chinese Turkey Luxembourg Poland Malaysia Brazil Indonesia Malaysia Poland Finland Finland Israel Mexico Portugal Iran a Czech Republic Nigeria Hungary Angola a Indonesia Turkey Egypt Israel Ukraine South Africa Total of above Total of above World World a Secretariat estimate. Note: Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. changes and rankings are affected by continuity breaks in the series for a large number of economies, and by limitations in cross-country comparability. See the Metadata. For annual data , see Appendix Tables A8 and A9. 28

19 Table I.10 Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services (excluding intra-eu (27) trade), 2011 (Billion dollars and ) Rank Exporters Value Share change Rank Importers Value Share change 1 Extra-EU (27) exports Extra-EU (27) imports United States United States China China Japan Japan India India Singapore Singapore Hong Kong, China Canada Switzerland Korea, Republic of Korea, Republic of Russian Federation Canada Brazil Russian Federation Australia Australia Hong Kong, China Taipei, Chinese Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Norway Thailand Thailand United Arab Emirates Macao, China Switzerland Turkey Norway Brazil Taipei, Chinese Malaysia Malaysia Israel Indonesia Indonesia Mexico Egypt Iran a Ukraine Nigeria Lebanon a Angola a Philippines Turkey Mexico Israel South Africa South Africa Argentina Kuwait Morocco Argentina Croatia Qatar Chile Lebanon a United Arab Emirates Ukraine Cuba a Chile Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Egypt New Zealand Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of Kuwait Viet Nam Iran a Philippines Viet Nam Algeria Syrian Arab Republic a New Zealand Panama Kazakhstan Total of above Total of above World (excl. intra-eu (27)) World (excl. intra-eu (27)) I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS a Secretariat estimate. Note: Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. changes and rankings are affected by continuity breaks in the series for a large number of economies, and by limitations in cross-country comparability. See the Metadata. For annual data , see Appendix Tables A8 and A9. 29

20 4. Bilateral trade of leading traders Table I.11 Merchandise trade of Canada by origin and destination, 2011 (Million dollars and ) Exports Imports a Destination Value Share change Origin Value Share change Region Region World World North America North America Asia Asia Europe Europe South and Central America South and Central America Middle East Africa Africa Middle East CIS CIS Economy Economy United States United States European Union (27) European Union (27) China China Japan Mexico Mexico Japan Above Above Korea, Republic of Korea, Republic of Hong Kong, China Algeria Brazil Taipei, Chinese Norway Peru India Norway Australia Canada b Taipei, Chinese Brazil Indonesia Switzerland Russian Federation Kazakhstan United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Turkey Thailand Switzerland India Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Nigeria Thailand Iraq Chile Angola Singapore Argentina Malaysia Malaysia Colombia Chile Egypt Australia Pakistan Singapore South Africa Indonesia Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela Viet Nam Bangladesh Russian Federation Philippines Turkey Peru Bangladesh Argentina Israel Cuba South Africa Israel Philippines New Zealand United Arab Emirates Trinidad and Tobago Colombia Viet Nam Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela Sri Lanka Cuba Morocco Côte d'ivoire Ecuador Equatorial Guinea Ghana New Zealand Above Above a Imports are valued f.o.b. b In 2011, Canada reported imports from Canada accounting for nearly 1 percent of its total merchandise imports. 30

21 Table I.12 Merchandise trade of the United States by origin and destination, 2011 (Million dollars and ) Exports Imports Destination Value Share change Origin Value Share change Region Region World World North America Asia Asia North America Europe Europe South and Central America South and Central America Middle East Middle East Africa Africa CIS CIS Economy Economy Canada China European Union (27) European Union (27) Mexico Canada China Mexico Japan Japan Above Above Korea, Republic of Korea, Republic of Brazil Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Hong Kong, China Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela Singapore Taipei, Chinese Australia India Taipei, Chinese Russian Federation Switzerland Nigeria India Brazil United Arab Emirates Malaysia Chile Thailand Turkey Switzerland Colombia Colombia Malaysia Israel Israel Indonesia Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Singapore Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela Viet Nam Thailand Iraq Argentina Algeria Peru Angola Russian Federation Costa Rica Panama Australia Philippines Ecuador Indonesia Chile Dominican Republic South Africa South Africa Philippines Guatemala Norway Egypt Trinidad and Tobago Honduras Kuwait Costa Rica Peru Ecuador Turkey Nigeria Bangladesh Viet Nam Argentina Norway Honduras New Zealand Gabon Bahamas Hong Kong, China Above Above I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS 31

22 Table I.13 Merchandise trade of the European Union (27) by origin and destination, 2011 (Million dollars and ) Exports Imports Destination Value Share change Origin Value Share change Region Region World World Europe Europe Asia Asia North America CIS CIS North America Africa Africa Middle East Middle East South and Central America South and Central America Economy Economy European Union (27) European Union (27) a United States China Switzerland United States China Russian Federation Russian Federation Switzerland Above Above Turkey Norway Japan Japan Norway Turkey India Korea, Republic of United Arab Emirates Brazil Brazil India Korea, Republic of Taipei, Chinese Canada Algeria Australia Libya Hong Kong, China Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Singapore Canada Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Malaysia South Africa Singapore Mexico South Africa Ukraine Thailand Algeria Kazakhstan Israel Nigeria Taipei, Chinese Indonesia Morocco Iran Egypt Mexico Iran Ukraine Croatia Israel Malaysia Hong Kong, China Tunisia Australia Nigeria Chile Thailand Viet Nam Serbia Azerbaijan Argentina Argentina Indonesia Tunisia Chile Morocco Belarus Egypt Kazakhstan United Arab Emirates Libya Iraq Qatar Qatar Gibraltar Bangladesh Above Above a The figures are affected by the "INTRASTAT" system of recording trade between EU member States. Intra-EU (27) imports are under-recorded. To compensate for this under-recording, intra-eu (27) exports have been used to obtain total (World) imports. 32

23 Table I.14 Merchandise trade of Japan by origin and destination, 2011 (Million dollars and ) Exports Imports Destination Value Share change Origin Value Share change Region Region World World Asia Asia North America Middle East Europe North America South and Central America Europe Middle East South and Central America Africa CIS CIS Africa Economy Economy China China United States European Union (27) European Union (27) United States Korea, Republic of Australia Taipei, Chinese Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Above Above Hong Kong, China a United Arab Emirates Thailand Korea, Republic of Singapore Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Australia Qatar Indonesia Thailand Panama Taipei, Chinese Russian Federation Russian Federation Philippines Kuwait India Canada Mexico Iran, Islamic Rep. of Viet Nam Brazil Switzerland Viet Nam Canada Chile United Arab Emirates Philippines Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Singapore Brazil South Africa South Africa Switzerland Liberia India Turkey Brunei Darussalam Oman Oman Chile Mexico Israel Iraq New Zealand New Zealand Marshall Islands Peru Iran, Islamic Rep. of Norway Pakistan Sudan Colombia Nigeria Norway Hong Kong, China Kuwait Equatorial Guinea Egypt Israel Bangladesh Argentina Qatar Papua New Guinea Argentina Egypt Sri Lanka Kazakhstan Above Above I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS a Includes significant shipments recorded as exports to Hong Kong, China with China as final destination. 33

24 Table I.15 Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2010 (Million dollars and ) Exports Imports Value Share change Value Share change European Union (27) World World European Union (27) European Union (27) United States United States Switzerland Switzerland Russian Federation China China Japan Above Above Japan Russian Federation Norway Turkey Australia Norway Singapore Singapore Canada Canada India India Brazil Hong Kong, China Hong Kong, China Australia Turkey Egypt Korea, Republic of Brazil Above Above United States World World European Union (27) European Union (27) Canada Bermuda Japan Canada Mexico Japan China Switzerland Above Above Switzerland Mexico Brazil India Korea, Republic of China Australia Korea, Republic of Bermuda Hong Kong, China India Taipei, Chinese Singapore Australia Taipei, Chinese Brazil Hong Kong, China Israel Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of Singapore Above Above China a World World Hong Kong, China Hong Kong, China European Union (27) European Union (27) Japan United States United States Japan Taipei, Chinese Korea, Republic of Above Above Korea, Republic of Australia Singapore Macao, China Macao, China Taipei, Chinese Australia Singapore Above Above

25 Table I.15 (continued) Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2010 (Million dollars and ) Exports Imports Value Share change Value Share change Japan World World United States United States European Union (27) European Union (27) Singapore China China Singapore Taipei, Chinese Korea, Republic of Above Above Indonesia Hong Kong, China Korea, Republic of Taipei, Chinese Thailand Australia Australia Thailand Switzerland Switzerland Canada United Arab Emirates India Indonesia Hong Kong, China Canada Brazil Philippines Malaysia Russian Federation Above Above Hong Kong, China b World World China China United States European Union (27) European Union (27) United States Japan Japan Taipei, Chinese Singapore Above Above Australia Australia Singapore Taipei, Chinese Korea, Republic of Canada Canada Thailand Malaysia Korea, Republic of Switzerland Macao, China India India Indonesia Malaysia Thailand Switzerland Philippines Philippines Above Above Korea, Republic of World World China United States United States European Union (27) Japan China European Union (27) Japan United Arab Emirates Hong Kong, China Above Above Hong Kong, China Singapore Singapore Australia Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Viet Nam Taipei, Chinese United Arab Emirates India Canada Viet Nam Indonesia Australia Taipei, Chinese Russian Federation Philippines Thailand Thailand Malaysia India Above Above I World TRADE DEVELOPMENTS 35

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