# SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis

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1 SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis I put this together to give you a step-by-step guide for replicating what we did in the computer lab. It should help you run the tests we covered. The best way to get familiar with these techniques is just to play around with the data and run tests. As you do it, though, think of the research questions from your project and how these tests can answer them. For the final exam, be sure you are able to: Peform a regression analysis (both bivariate and multivariate) Interpret the output o Which variables are significant? o How is an unstandardized coefficient used? Standardized? o Which is the b0 coefficient? o Which are the b coefficients? Create a regression equation from the output Plug in coefficients to predict a Y variable from the X variable(s)

2 In SPSS, go to Analyze>Regression>Linear Regression Enter your dependent variable (Y) in the dependent box, and your independent variable(s) in the Independent(s) box. Under the Statistics button, make sure that Estimates is checked under Regression Coefficient, and fit is checked. Click continue, and then OK on the main menu.

3 Your output should look like this: Entered/Removed b Entered Removed Method 1 CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads a. Enter a. All requested variables entered. Summary R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate a a. Predictors: (Constant), CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads ANOVA b Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression a Residual Total a. Predictors: (Constant), CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads a. Dependent Variable: CON8 Privacy Concern

4 First, look at your model summary. Your R-square tells you the goodness of fit of the model. You can think of it as a percentage. Our R-square for this model is.066, which means that the X variable can explain about 6.6% of the change in Y. The next table, ANOVA, just tells us that the model can predict Y using X. The significance is.000, so we can reject the null hypothesis that The model has no predictive value. Finally, the most important table is the coefficients. The significance level of.000 indicates that we can reject the null hypothesis that X does not predict Y. The first coefficient, (Constant), is your intercept term. That is, before you account for the dependent variable(s) or, putting it another way, when X is zero this is the value of Y. In this case, the intercept is 2.297, so when X=0, Y will equal Remember, that regression equations are in this format: Y = b 0 + b 1 x 1 Each of the other coefficients are b variables, or the slope of the line. For each 1-unit change in X, Y will change by b units. Since we only have one variable in this case, we just have a b1 (the slope) and a x1 (the value of X). In this case, X is CON3 (Perceived invasiveness). For prediction, use the unstandardized coefficient. We can plug the coefficients into the formula to predict Y using a value of X. Y = b 0 + b 1 x 1 Y = * CON3 If X=1, then Y= (.028*1) = If X=2, then Y= (.028*2) = etc. So when do we use the standardized coefficient? It tells us the relative size of the influence of a variable. The standardized coefficient can be interpreted like the Pearson coefficient in bivariate associative analysis (a 0-1 scale with 1 being perfectly correlated). In multivariate regression, this allows us to compare the relative influence of multiple variables, as shown in the next example where we add some more variables to this analysis. Let s use the following variables: Dependent: CON8 (Privacy concern) Independent: CON6 (Perceived information security) Q2 (Age) (F4) How many months participating in SNS CON3 (Perceived invasiveness)

5 Entered/Removed b Entered Removed Method 1 F4 About how many months have you been participating in SNS sites, CON6 Perceived Information Security of SNS, CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads, Q2 Age a. Enter a. All requested variables entered. Summary R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate a a. Predictors: (Constant), F4 About how many months have you been participating in SNS sites, CON6 Perceived Information Security of SNS, CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads, Q2 Age Notice that our R-square has increased to.083, so we have a better model with the additional variables. ANOVA b Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression a Residual Total a. Predictors: (Constant), F4 About how many months have you been participating in SNS sites, CON6 Perceived Information Security of SNS, CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads, Q2 Age

6 The ANOVA shows that the model has predictive value, since it is significant. (Null hypothesis of no predictive value is rejected) Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) CON3 Perceived Invasiveness of SNS Ads Q2 Age CON6 Perceived Information Security of SNS F4 About how many months have you been participating in SNS sites a. Dependent Variable: CON8 Privacy Concern Notice that all of the significance levels are <.05, so they are all significant. (Reject null hypothesis that they are not associated with the dependent variable). The unstandardized coefficients can be used to create an equation for Y. b 0 = (Constant) b 1 = CON3 b 2 = Age etc. Y = b 0 + b 1 x 1 + b 2 x 2 + b 3 x 3 + b 4 x 4 Y = (2.251) + (.253)*x *x 2 + (-.095)*x 3 + (.004)*x 4 For this example, we ll stop here, but to calculate Y you would just plug in the data from an individual observation for each of these variables.

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