# The Dummy s Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS

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1 The Dummy s Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS Mathematics 57 Scripps College Amy Gamble April, 2001 Amy Gamble 4/30/01 All Rights Rerserved

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Helpful Hints for All Tests...1 Tests for Numeric Data 1. Z-Scores Helpful Hints for All T-Tests One Group T-Tests Independent Groups T-Test Repeated Measures (Correlated Groups or Paired Samples) T-Test Independent Groups ANOVA Repeated Measures (Correlated Groups or Paired Samples) ANOVA Correlation Coefficient Linear Regression...5 Tests for Ordinal Data 1. Helpful Hints for All Ordinal Tests Kruskal Wallis H Friedman s Spearman s...7 Tests for Nominal Data 1. Helpful Hints for All Nominal Tests Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square Independence Cochran s Q Phi or Cramer s V (Correlations for Nominal Data)...9 ii

3 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 1 of 8 For All Tests Remember that the Significance (or Asymp. Sig. in some cases) needs to be less than 0.05 to be significant. The Independent Variable is always the variable that you are predicting something about (i.e. what your Ha predicts differences between, as long as your Ha is correct). The Dependent Variable is what you are measuring in order to tell if the groups (or conditions for repeated measures tests) are different. For correlations and for Chi-Square, it does not matter which one is the Independent or Dependent variable. H a always predicts a difference (for correlations, it predicts that r is different from zero, but another way of saying this is that there is a significant correlation) and H o always predicts no difference. If your H a was directional, and you find that it was predicted in the wrong direction (i.e. you predicted A was greater than B and it turns out that B is significantly greater than A) you should still accept H o, even though H o predicts no difference, and you found a difference in the opposite direction. If there is a WARNING box on your Output File, it is usually because you used the wrong test, or the wrong variables. Go back and double check. Tests For Numeric Data Z-Scores (Compared to Data ) Analyze Descriptive Statistics Descriptives Click over the variable you would like z-scores for Click on the box that says Save Standardi zed Values as Variables. This is located right below the box that displays all of the variables. If means and standard deviations are needed, click on Options and click on the boxes that will give you the means and standard deviations. The z-scores will not be on the Output File!!! They are saved as variables on the Data File. They should be saved in the variable that is to the far right of the data screen. Normally it is called z, and then the name of the variable (e.g. ZSLEEP) Compare the z-scores to the critical value to determine which z-scores are significant. Remember, if your hypothesis is directional (i.e. one-tailed), the critical value is + or If your hypothesis is non-directional (i.e. twotailed), the critical value is + or 1.96.

4 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 2 of 9 Z-Scores Compared to a Population Mean and Standard Deviation: The methodology is the same except you need to tell SPSS what the population mean and standard deviation is (In the previous test, SPSS calculated it for you from the data it was given. Since SPSS cannot calculate the population mean and standard deviation from the class data, you need to plug these numbers into a formula). Remember the formula for a z-score is: µ z = X σ You are going to transform the data you got into a z-score that is compared to the population by telling SPSS to minus the population mean from each piece of data, and then dividing that number by the population standard deviation. To do so, go to the DATA screen, then: Transform Compute Name the new variable you are creating in the Target Variable box (ZUSPOP is a good one if you can t think of anything). Click the variable you want z-scores for into the Numeric Expression box. Now type in the z-score formula so that SPSS will transform the data to a US population z-score. For example, if I am working with a variable called Sleep, and I am told the US population mean is 8.25 and that the US population standard deviation is.50, then my Numeric Expression box should look like this: (SLEEP 8.25)/.50 Compare for significance in the same way as above. For All T-Tests The significance that is given in the Output File is a two-tailed significance. Remember to divide the significance by 2 if you only have a one-tailed test! For One Group T-Tests Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T Test The Dependent variable goes into the Test Variables box. The hypothetical mean or population mean goes into the Test Value box. Be Careful!!! The test value should be written in the same way the data was entered for the dependent variable. For example, my dependent variable is Percent Correct on a Test and my population mean is 78%. If the data for

5 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 3 of 9 the Percent Correct on a Test variable were entered as 0.80, 0.75, etc., then the vest value should be entered as If the data were entered as 90, 75, etc., then the test value should be entered as 78. In order to know how the data were entered, click on the Data File screen and look at the data for the dependent variable. For Independent Groups T-Tests Analyze Compare Means Independent-Samples T Test The Dependent Variable goes in the Test Variable box and the Independent variable goes in the Grouping Variable box. Click on Define Groups and define them. In order to know how to define them, click on Utilities Variables. Click on the independent variable you are defining and see what numbers are under the value labels (i.e. usually it s either 0 and 1 or 1 and 2). If there are more than two numbers in the value labels then you cannot do a t-test unless you are using a specified cut-point (i.e. if there are four groups: 1 = old women, 2 = young women, 3 = old men, 4 = young men, and you simply wanted to look at the differences between men and women, you could set a cut point at 2). If there are no numbers, you should be using a specified cutpoint. If you have more than two numbers in the value labels, or if you have no numbers in the value labels, and no cut-point has been specified on the final exam you are doing the wrong kind of test!!!! On the Output File: Remember, this is a t-test, so ignore the F value and the first significance value (Levene s Test). Also, ignore the equal variances not assumed row. Before accepting Ha, be sure to look at the means!!! If I predict that boys had a higher average correct on a test than girls and my t-test value is significant I may say, yes, boys got more correct than girls. However, this t-test could be significant because girls got significantly more correct than boys!! (Therefore, Ha was predicted in the wrong direction!) In order to know which group got significantly more correct than the other, I need to look at the means and see which one is bigger!! For Repeated Measures (a.k.a Correlated Groups, Paired Samples) T- Test Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples T Test Click on one variable and then click on a second variable and then click on the arrow that moves the pair of variables into the Paired Variables box. [In order to make things easier on yourself, click your variables in, in order of your hypotheses. For example, if you are predicting that A is greater than B, click on A first. This way, you should expect that your t value will be positive. If the test is significant, but your t value is negative, it means that B was significantly greater than A!! (So H a was predicted in the wrong direction and you should accept H o ). If you are predicting that A is less than B, then click on A first. This way, you

6 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 4 of 9 should expect that the t value will be negative. If the test is significant but the t value is positive, you know that it means that B was significantly less than A (so H a was predicted in the wrong direction, and you should accept H o ).] For Independent Groups ANOVA Analyze General Linear Model One-Way ANOVA Put the Dependent variable into the Dependent List box. Put the Independent variable into the Factor box. Click on the Post Hoc box. Click on the Tukey box. Click Continue. If means and standard deviations are needed, click on the Options box. Then click on Descriptive. For Repeated Measures (a.k.a. Correlated Groups, Paired Samples) ANOVA Analyze General Linear Model Repeated Measures Type in the within-subject factor name in the Within-Subject Factor Name box. This cannot be the name of a pre-existing variable. You will have to make one up. Type in the number of levels in the Number of levels box. How do you know how many levels there are? If my within-subject factor was Tests and I have a variable called Test 1 a variable called Test 2 and a variable called Test 3, then I would have 3 levels. In other words, the number of levels equals the number of variables (that you are examining) that correspond to the withinsubject factor. Click on Define. Put the variables you want to test into the Variables box. Preferably, put them in the right order (if there is an order to them). This will keep you from getting confused. For example, I should put in my Test 1 variable in first, my Test 2 variable in second, etc. For post hoc tests, click on Options, highlight the variable, move it into Display Means For box, click on Compare Main Effects, change Confidence Interval Adjustment to Bonferonni (the closest we can get to Tukey s Test). You may also want to click on Estimates of Effect Size for eta 2. Remember to look at the Tests of Within-Subjects Effects box for your ANOVA results. Correlation Coefficient (r) Analyze Correlate Bivariate Make sure that the Pearson box (and only the Pearson box) has a check in it. Put the variables in the Variables box. Their order is not important.

7 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 5 of 9 Select your tailed significance (one or two-tailed) depending on your hypotheses. Remember directional hypotheses are one-tailed and non-directional hypotheses are two-tailed. If means and standard deviations are needed, click on Options and then click on Means and Standard Deviations. Linear Regression Graphs Scatter Simple This will let you know if there is a linear relationship or not. Click on Define. The Dependent variable (criterion) should be put in the Y-axis box and the Independent variable (predictor) should be put in the X-axis box and hit OK. In your Output: Double click on the scatterplot. Go to Chart Options. Click on Total in the Fit Line box, then OK. Make sure it is more-or-less linear. The next step is to check for normality. Graphs Q-Q Put both variables into the Variable box. Hit OK. Look at the Normal Q-Q Plot of., not the Detrended Normal Q -Q of box. If the points are a smiley face they are negatively-skewed. This means you will have to raise them to a power greater than one. If the points make a frown face then they are positively-skewed. This means you will have to raise them to a power less than one (but greater than zero). To do this, go to the DATA screen then: Transform Compute Give the new variable a name in the Target Variable box. Since you will be doing many of these (because it is a guess and check) it may be easiest to name it the old variable and then the power you raised it to. For example, SLEEP.2 if I raised it to the.2 power, or SLEEP3 if I raised it to the third power. Click the old variable (that you want to change) into the Numeric Expressions box. Type in the exponent function (**), and then the power you want to raise it to. Hit OK. Redo the Q-Q plot with the NEW variable (i.e. SLEEP.2, and not SLEEP). Repeat until you have the best fit data. The variable that you created with the best-fit data (i.e. SLEEP.2) will be the variable that you will use for the REST OF THE REGRESSION (no more SLEEP). The next step is to remove Outliers. To do so, run a regression: Analyze Regression Linear

8 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 6 of 9 The Independent variable is the predictor (the variable from which you want to predict). The Dependent variable is the Criterion (the variable you want to predict). Click on Save and then click on Cook s Distance. Like the z-scores, these values will NOT be in your Output file. They will be on your Data file, saved as variables (COO-1). Do a Boxplot: Graphs Boxplot Click on Simple and Summaries of Separate Variables. Put Cook s Distance (COO_1) into the Boxes Represent box. Put a variable that will label the cases (usually ID or name) into the Label Cases by box. Double click on the Boxplot in the Output file in order to enlarge it and see which cases need to be removed (those lying past the black lines). Keep track of those cases. (Some people prefer to take out only extreme outliers, those marked by a *.) Go back to the Data file. Find a case you need to erase. If you highlight the number to the far left (in the gray), it will highlight all of the data from that case. Then go to Edit Clear. Repeat this for all of the outliers. ERASE FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE FILE, WORKING UP; IF YOU DON T THE ID NUMBERS WILL CHANGE AND YOU LL ERASE THE WRONG ONES! DO NOT RE-RUN THE BOXPLOT LOOKING FOR MORE OUTLIERS! Once you have cleared the outliers from the first (and hopefully only) boxplot, you can continue. Now re-run the regression. Remember: R tells you the correlation. R 2 tells you the proportion of variance in the criterion variable (Dependent variable) that is explained by the predictor variable (Independent variable). The F tells you the significance of the correlation. The predicted equation is: (B constant) + (Variable constant)(variable). Where B constant is the number in the column labeled B, in the row labeled (constant), and where Variable constant is the number in the column labeled B and in the row that has the same name as the variable [under the (constant) row].

9 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 7 of 9 Tests For Ordinal Data Remember, since this is ordinal data, you should not be predicting anything about means in your Ha and Ho. Also, you should not be reporting any means or standard deviations in your results paragraphs. Therefore, if you need to report medians and/or ranges go to Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies. Click on Statistics and then click on the boxes for median and for range. Kruskal-Wallis Analyze Nonparametric Tests K Independent Samples Make sure the Kruskal-Wallis H box (and this box only) has a check mark in it. Put the Dependent variable in the Test Variable List box and put the Independent variable in the Grouping Variable box. Click on Define Range. Type in the min and max values (if you do not know what they are you will have to go back to Utilities Variables to find out and then come back to this screen to add them in). Friedman s Test Analyze Nonparametric Tests K Related Samples Make sure that the Friedman box (and only that box) has a check mark in it. Put the variables into the Test Variables box. In the Output File: Even though it says Chi-Square, don t worry, you did a Friedman s test (as long as you had it clicked on). Spearman s Correlation (r s ) Analyze Correlate Bivariate Click on the Pearson box in order to turn it OFF! Click on the Spearman box in order to turn it ON! Choose a one or two-tailed significance depending on your hypotheses. Put variables into the Variable box.

10 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 8 of 9 Tests for Nominal Data Remember, since this is for nominal data, your hypotheses should not be predicting anything about means. In addition, you should not be reporting any means, standard deviations, medians, or ranges in your results paragraphs. In order to determine the mode go to Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies. Click on the Statistics box and then click on the mode box. Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Analyze Nonparametric Tests Chi Square Put the variable into the Test Variable List. If all of the levels in your variable are predicted to be equal, click on All Categories Equal. If there is a predicted proportion that is not all equal (i.e. 45% of the US population is male and 55% is female) then you need to click on the Values box. In order to know which value you enter in first (i.e. 45% or 55%) you need to look at which one (male or female) was coded first. To do this, go to Utilities Variables and click on the variable you are interested in. The one with the smallest number (i.e., if male was coded as 1 and female was coded as 2, males would have the smaller number) is the one whose predicted percentage gets entered first. In this case, since male was coded as one, the first value I would enter into the Values box would be 45%. The second would be 55%. Chi-Square Independence Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs Put one variable into the Rows box and one into the Columns box. It does not matter which variable is put into which box. Click on Statistics. Click on Chi-Square. In the Output File: Look at one of the two boxes that compare variable A to variable B. Ignore the box that compares variable A to variable A, and the box that compares variable B to variable B (you will know which ones these are because they have a chi-square value of 1.00 a perfect correlation because it correlated with itself). Cochran s Q Analyze Nonparametric Tests K Related Samples Click on Friedman to turn it OFF! Click on Cochran s Q to turn it ON! If there are more than two groups, and you need to tell which groups are significantly different from each other, the only way you can do this is by doing

11 SPSS Guide to Data Analysis Page 9 of 9 many Cochran s Q tests using only two groups. Therefore, you have to test every combination. For example, if there are three groups, you have to do one Cochran s Q test between group 1 and 2, one test between group 1 and 3, and one test between group 2 and 3 (so let s hope he doesn t ask you to do that!!). Cramer s V or Phi (Correlation for Nominal Data) Do a Chi-Square Independence except you need also to click on Statistics and then click on the Phi and Cramer s V box, and the Contingency Coefficient box.

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