# Regression Analysis (Spring, 2000)

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1 Regression Analysis (Spring, 2000) By Wonjae Purposes: a. Explaining the relationship between Y and X variables with a model (Explain a variable Y in terms of Xs) b. Estimating and testing the intensity of their relationship c. Given a fixed x value, we can predict y value. (How does a change of in X affect Y, ceteris paribus?) (By constructing SRF, we can estimate PRF.) OLS (ordinary least squares) method: A method to choose the SRF in such a way that the sum of the residuals is as small as possible. Cf. Think of trigonometrical function and the use of differentiation Steps of regression analysis: 1. Determine independent and dependent variables: Stare one dimension function model! 2. Look that the assumptions for dependent variables are satisfied: Residuals analysis! a. Linearity (assumption 1) b. Normality (assumption 3) draw histogram for residuals (dependent variable) or normal P-P plot (Spss statistics regression linear plots Histogram, Normal P-P plot of regression standardized ) c. Equal variance (homoscedasticity: assumption 4) draw scatter plot for residuals (Spss statistics regression linear plots: Y = *ZRESID, X =*ZPRED) Its form should be rectangular! If there were no symmetry form in the scatter plot, we should suspect the linearity. d. Independence (assumption 5,6: no autocorrelation between the disturbances, zero covariance between error term and X) each individual should be independent 3. Look at the correlation between two variables by drawing scatter graph: (Spss graph scatter simple) a. Is there any correlation? b. Is there a linear relation? c. Are there outliers? If yes, clarify the reason and modify it! (We should make outliers dummy as a new variable, and do regression analysis again.) d. Are there separated groups? If yes, it means those data came from different populations

2 4. Obtain a proper model by using statistical packages (SPSS) 5. Test the model: a. Test the significance of the model (the significance of slope): F-Test In the ANOVA table, find the f-value and p-value(sig.) If p-value is smaller than alpha, the model is significant. b. Test the goodness of fit of the model In the Model Summary, look at R-square. R-square(coefficient of determination) It measures the proportion or percentage of the total variation in Y explained by the regression model. (If the model is significant but R-square is small, it means that observed values are widely spread around the regression line.) 6. Test that the slope is significantly different from zero: a. Look at t-value in the Coefficients table and find p-vlaue. b. T-square should be equal to F-value. 7. If there is the significance of the model, Show the model and interpret it! steps: a. Show the SRF b. In Model Summary Interpret R-square! c. In ANOVA table Show the table, interpret F-value and the null hypothesis! d. In Coefficients table Show the table and interpret beta values! e. Show the residuals statistics and residuals scatter plot! If there is no significance of the model, interpret it like this: X variable is little helpful for explaining Y variable. or There is no linear relationship between X variable and Y variable. 8. Mean estimation (prediction) and individual prediction : We can predict the mean, individuals and their confidence intervals. (Spss statistics regression linear save predicted values: unstandardized)

3 Testing a model Wonjae Before setting up a model 1. Identify the linear relationship between each independent variable and dependent variable. Create scatter plot for each X and Y. ( STATA: plot Y X 1, plot Y X 2 ) ovtest, rhs graph Y X1 X2 X3, matrix avplots ) 2. Check partial correlation for each X and Y. ( STATA: pcorr Y X 1 X 2, pcorr X 1 Y X 2, pcorr X 2 Y X 1 ) After setting up a model 1. Testing whether two different variables have same coefficients. The null hypothesis is that X 1 and X 2 variables have the same impact on Y. ( STATA: test X 1 = X 2 ) 2. Testing Multicollinearity (Gujarati, p.345) 1) Detection High R 2 but few significant t-ratios. High pair-wise (zero-order) correlations among regressors graph Y X1 X2 X3, matrix avplots ) Examination of partial correlations Auxiliary regressions Eigen-values and condition index Tolerance and variance inflation factor vif ) # Interpretation: If a VIF is in excess of 20, or a tolerance (1/VIF) is.05 or less, There might be a problem of multicollinearity.

4 2) Correction: A. Do nothing If the main purpose of modeling is predicting Y only, then don t worry. (since ESS is left the same) Don t worry about multicollinearity if the R-squared from the regression exceeds the R-squared of any independent variable regressed on the other independent variables. Don t worry about it if the t-statistics are all greater than 2. (Kennedy, Peter A Guide to Econometrics: 187) B. Incorporate additional information After examining correlations between all variables, find the most strongly related variable with the others. And simply omit it. ( STATA: corr X1 X2 X3 ) Be careful of the specification error, unless the true coefficient of that variable is zero. Increase the number of data Formalize relationships among regressors: for example, create interaction term(s) If it is believed that the multicollinearity arises from an actual approximate linear relationship among some of the regressors, this relationship could be formalized and the estimation could then proceed in the context of a simultaneous equation estimation problem. Specify a relationship among some parameters: If it is well-known that there exists a specific relationship among some of the parameters in the estimating equation, incorporate this information. The variances of the estimates will reduce. Form a principal component: Form a composite index variable capable of representing this group of variables by itself, only if the variables included in the composite have some useful combined economic interpretation. Incorporate estimates from other studies: See Kennedy (1998, ). Shrink the OLS estimates: See Kennedy. 3. Heteroscedasticity 1) Detection Create scatter plot for residual squares and Y (p.368) Create scatter plot for each X and Y residuals (standardized) ( Partial Regression Plot in SPSS) ( STATA: predict rstan plot X1 rstan

5 plot X2 rstan ) White s test (p.379) Step 1: regress your model (STATA: reg Y X1 X2 ) Step 2: obtain the residuals and the squared residuals ( STATA: predict resi / gen resi2 = resi^2 ) Step 3: generate the fitted values yhat and the squared fitted values yhat ( STATA: predict yhat / gen yhat2 = yhat^2 ) Step 4: run the auxiliary regression and get the R 2 ( STATA: reg resi2 yhat yhat2 ) Step 5: 1) By using f-statistic and its p-value, evaluate the null hypothesis. or 2) By comparing χ 2 calculated (n times R 2 ) with χ 2 critical, evaluate it again. If the calculated value is greater than the critical value (reject the null), there might be heteroscedasticity or specification bias or both. Cook & Weisberg test hettest ) The Breusch-Pagan test ( STATA: reg Y X1 X2. / predict resi / gen resi2 = resi^2 / reg res2 X1 X2 ) 2) Remedial measures when variance is known: use WLS method ( STATA: reg Y* X 0 X 1 * noconstant ) cf. Y* = Y/δ, X* = X/δ when variance is not known: use white method ( STATA: gen X2r =sqrt(x), gen dx2r = 1/X2r gen Y* = Y/X2r reg Y* dx2r X2r, noconstant ) 4. Autocorrelation 1) Detection Create plot ( STATA: predict resi, resi gen lagged resi = resi[_n-1] plot resi lagged resi ) Durbin-Watson d test (Run the OLS regression and obtain the residuals compute d find d Lcritical and d Uvalues, given the N and K decide according to the decision rules)

6 dwstat ) Runs test predict resi, resi runtest resi ) 2) Remedial measures (pp ) Estimate ρ: ρ = 1 d/2 (D-W) or ρ = n 2 (1- d/2) + k 2 /n 2 k 2 (Theil-Nagar) Regress with transformed variables and get the new d statistic. Compare it with d Lcritical and d Uvalues 5. Testing Normality of residuals obtain normal probability plot (With ZY and ZX, choose Normal probability plot in SPSS) ( STATA: predict resi, resi egen zr = std(resi) pnorm zr ) 6. Testing Outliers Detection (STATA: avplot x1 / cprplot X1 / rvpplot X1) Cooksd test: Cook s distance, which measures the aggregate change in the estimated coefficients, when each observation is left out of the estimation (STATA: regress Y X1 X2 predict c, cooksd display 4/d.f. remember this cut point value! list X1 X2 c compare the values in c with the cut point value! list c if c > 4/d.f. identify which observations are outliers! drop if c > 4/d.f. If you want to drop outliers! )

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CORTEX fellows training course, University of Zurich, October 2006 Slide 1 SPSS-Applications (Data Analysis) Dr. Jürg Schwarz, juerg.schwarz@schwarzpartners.ch Program 19. October 2006: Morning Lessons