Tecnologie motore e combustibili alternativi: prospettive di sviluppo per la decarbonizzazione del settore trasporti in Europa

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1 Tecnologie motore e combustibili alternativi: prospettive di sviluppo per la decarbonizzazione del settore trasporti in Europa Università degli Studi di Parma - 31 Maggio 2013 A ndrea Gerini EMEA Powe rtrain Engineering R e search & Te chnology Public Funding EMEA 20 Novembre, 2010

2 Agenda Environmental & regulation trends Engine technologies evolution Alternative fuels & renewable energy sources o Natural Gas as strategic assett for lowering CO 2 emissions 2

3 A continuous reduction of tailpipe CO2 emissions All manufacturers CO 2 (g/km) Fiat Group Automobiles 3

4 A continuous reduction in tailpipe pollutant emissions Source : ACEA 4

5 5

6 Global fundamentals - towards 2040 Worldwide population growth Source : ExxonMobil The Outlook for Energy

7 Global fundamentals - towards 2040 Worldwide population growth Gross domestic product Energy demand OECD : Organisation for the Economic Co-operation and Development Europe, United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Australia, New Zeland, Israel Source : ExxonMobil The Outlook for Energy

8 Global fundamentals towards 2040 Energy demand by sector Source : ExxonMobil The Outlook for Energy

9 Global fundamentals towards 2040 Tranportation energy demand Source : ExxonMobil The Outlook for Energy

10 GHG emissions Contribution from transportation sector Current EU figure Worldwide transportation CO2 eq trend 10

11 Towards less CO2 emissions from vehicles Source : ACEA Pocket Guide

12 From voluntary basis to Regulation EC 443/2009 All manufacturers Start phase-in Compliancy with 65% new registrations CO 2 (g/km) Fiat Group Automobiles Av arege 130 g/km 100% new v ehicles 95 g/km Long-Term Target 12

13 Regulation EC 443/2009 EU new registrations, not homologations! CO 2 (g/km) Average CO target UE for new cars: 130 g/km Specific CO 2 emissions for each new passenger car = ,0457 x (M M o ) The regulation on CO 2 sets a penalty mechanism based on excess emission payments. If a manufacturer fails to meet its target in a given calendar year, it will be required to pay an excess emissions premium Car with 935 kg Average Mass 1372 kg Car with 2248 kg Mass (kg) (with driver) The premium will be calculated by multiplying the number of g CO 2 /km by which the manufacturer exceeded its target by the number of cars newly registered and by the excess emissions penalty for the year (up to 95 / exceed grams). 13

14 EU homologation test cycle Under discussion 14

15 Pollutant emissions High potential demand for individual mobility in the emerging countries 15

16 Pollutant emissions & human health effects Source : Report EEA 2013 Every breath we take 16

17 Pollutant emissions EU standards Passenger cars EMISSIONS (mg/km) GASOLINE / CNG DIESEL EURO 4 EURO 5 EURO 6 EURO 4 EURO 5 EURO 6 CO THC NMHC NOx THC+NOx PM - 5,0/4,5 (*)- (**) 4,5 (*) 25,0 5,0/4,5 (**) 4,5 PN (p/km) - - 6x10 11 (*) - 6x10 11 (**) 6x10 11 (*) Only for Direct Injection (**) Stage Euro 5b da 1 Sept new homologation da 1 Gen new registration - PM = 4,5 mg/km - PN = 6 x p/km (Diesel) 17

18 EU homologation scenario for HD applications Source : FEV 18

19 Drivers of the Powertrain Technology towards 2020 Environmental Requirements Reduction of Diesel Particulate and NO x emissions down to the gasoline levels ( Fuel neutral emissions ). Need for ultra-low emissions for urban vehicles in critical metropolitan areas. Fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions reduction under the pressure of both regulation (European CAFE) and market (fuel cost). CAFE : Corporate Average Fuel Economy Performance and driveability improvement ( fun-to-drive ) Emphasis on increase of dynamic low-rpm Torque rather than high-rpm Power.

20 Spark Ignited Engine Technologies

21 Spark Ignited Engine Technology and CO 2 Spark Ignited engines, despite their present drawbacks in terms of CO 2 emissions and fun-to-drive characteristics with respect to their Diesel counterpart, still offer two fundamental advantages : a robust and low-cost emission control technology (3-way catalyst). an intrinsic cost advantage with respect to Diesel, expected to further increase in the future. Spark Ignited engine technology will continue to be the major contributor to the CO 2 emissions reduction of the European vehicle fleet through : the continuous optimization of the new downsized / turbocharged engine platforms by means of advanced functionalities of the Valve Control coupled with Direct fuel Injection systems. the progressive exploitation of their intrinsic capability to burn low carbon content fuels ranging from Natural Gas to Hydrogen.

22 Increasing engine efficiency Parasitic losses Thermodynamic efficiency Lowering CO 2 emissions Pumping losses Auxiliaries Thermal management

23 The Multiair Technology Multiair Electronic Valve Control system, based on the electro-hydraulic actuation technology, with total flexibility in the intake valve opening schedules. It allows a fast and precise air mass control on a cylinder-by-cylinder and stroke-bystroke basis. The Multiair system optimizes combustion parameters and reduces fuel consumption and emissions in all driving conditions by increasing at the same time the fun to drive performance of the vehicle.

24 The Multiair Technology High Response Solenoid Valve (ON-OFF) Oil Reservoir Pump Piston Low Friction Tappet (RFF) High Pressure Chamber Individual Valve Actuation Assembly (Piston + Brake + Lash Adjuster) Camshaf t (Intake + Exhaust) INTAKE VALVE ACTUATION MODES SOLENOID VALVES ACTIVATION Φ1 Φ2 Φ1 Φ2 Φ1 Φ2 Φ1 Φ2Φ1 Φ2 INTAKE VALVE LIFT FULL LIFT EIVC Early Valve Closing LIVO Late Valve Opening MULTI-LIFT

25 Multiple benefits from Multiair technology BMEP D E A ENGINE START/ IDLE: LIVO IDLE RPM REDUCTION NOISE REDUCTION B NEDC CYCLE: MULTI-LIFT STABILITY COMBUSTION INCREASE CYLINDER DEACTIVATION C C PART LOAD: EIVC PUMPING LOSSES REDUCTION B D LOW END TORQUE: EIVC VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY INCREASE A E MAX POWER: FULL LIFT NO LOST MOTION F2D improvement RPM Performance increase Fuel consumption reduction (-10%) Pressure (bar) 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0, Volume (cm3)

26 First Multiair system market applications 1.4 Fire Multiair TC Euro 5 Alfa Romeo MiTo September L Twin-Cylinder Multiair TC Euro 5 Launched end 2010

27 Benefits from the 2-cyl engine platform

28 Covering a wide range of applications

29 Continuous improvement of the Multiair system

30 S.I. engine technology evolution Direct Injection MultiAir functionalities Atkinson/Miller Internal EGR Cylinder deactivation Electric boosting Advanced cooling system Low pressure EGR Thermal management

31 Diesel Engine Technologies

32 Diesel Technology and CO 2 During the last decade the Common Rail Diesel engine deployment was the major contributor to the European fleet s CO 2 emissions reduction. However, Diesel technology will be strongly focused on the achievement of Euro 6 and post Euro 6 emission standards with the lowest possible cost and CO 2 emission penalties. Therefore, no substantial contribution can be expected from the Diesel technology towards a further reduction of the CO 2 emissions of the European fleet.

33 Engine technologies for NOx reduction Combustion control INJECTION RATE PRE-MAIN ZERO DT CLOSE-COUPLED AFTER INJECTION New Common Rail Technology for Modular Injection Ultracooled & Clean EGR (Low Pressure EGR)

34 Diesel NOx aftertreatment technologies

35 Diesel NOx aftertreatment technologies

36 Alternative Fuel Engines

37 Matching engine efficiency with fuel properties lowering CO2 emissions Increase in Powertrain / Vehicle Efficiency Use of Low Carbon Fuels Use of Biofuels (Renewables) Alternative Fuels 37

38 Alternative Fuels : key issues The real diffusion of an Alternative Fuel depends on several factors beyond its technical potential: costs of production production capability (availability of raw materials) impact on other sectors (i.e. food sector) need for a dedicated distribution network safety issues (flammability, auto ignition, corrosion, etc) impact on engine & vehicle component & lay out (storage system, material compatibility, subsystem reliability) 38

39 Alternative fuel options Spark Ignited Engines (Otto cycle) Diesel Engines (Diesel cycle) LIQUID FUELS METHANOL (gas, coal) GTL (gas to liquid) LIQUID BIOFUELS 1st generation BIOETHANOL (sugar cane, corn, wheat) BIODIESEL (FAME) GASEOUS FUELS NATURAL GAS (methane) LPG (by product of crude oil) HYDROGEN (from renewables) DME - DiMethylEther (niche) LIQUID BIOFUELS 2 generation BIOETHANOL (wood, biomass) BTL (synthetic BIODIESEL) (Fischer Tropsch process of biomass) GASEOUS FUELS from biomass CBG (BIOMETHANE) BIO-DME (niche) 39

40 Liquid Biofuels: from first to second generation The worldwide consumption of the FIRST generation of LIQUID biofuels, based on vegetal oils and crops, is very limited (< 3%) due to the availability of raw materials being in conflict with the food sector Current development is focused on SECOND generation of LIQUID biofuels based on the conversion of BIOMASS coming from forestry residues, agricultural crops, wastes and manure that are not in competition with the food sector and widely available. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of production, DIESEL based on Fischer- Tropsch processes and BIOETHANOL derived from wood residues, will appear on the market at industrial scale not before

41 EU legislative framework on biofuels 41

42 Considering the fuel related CO2 emissions WTT (Well to Tank) Source : EU FP7 «Beauty» project 42

43 Which fuels for future transportation? Source : IEA Technology Roadmap - Biofuels for transport

44 Natural Gas as best near-medium term choice among alternative fuels CNG the green choice f or transportation 22 May

45 Natural Gas resources Source : ExxonMobil The Outlook for Energy

46 BIOMETHANE from renewables Anaerobic digestion Thermal gasification BIOGAS CO2 Sulphur halogenated siloxanes Synthetic BIOMETHANE BIOMETHANE

47 Natural Gas: an intrinsically clean fuel 47

48 Methane in the engines, not in the atmosphere! GWI (Global Warming Index) according to EPA Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Emissions and Sinks April 2002 GWI = CO *CH *N 2 O Under hypothesis of 10% worlwide fleet running on NG Corriere della Sera del 15/12/2010

49 New CNG Passenger cars sold in

50 Fiat CNG road map 50

51 0.9 Twinair Turbo CNG 80 HP (59 kw) 51

52 Proprietary Natural Gas technology 52

53 Proprietary Natural Gas technology 53

54 Opening to long distance transport: LNG Trade movements (data 2011) By pipelines 695 Bm3 LNG 330 Bm3

55 Opening to long distance transport: LNG Vehicle range extension

56 Natural Gas / Hydrogen blends CO2 reduction contribution due to H/C ratio 75 g CO2 / MJ % - 10% - 23% % Natural Natural Gas Gas - 32% - 32% Environmental benefits: Additional Reduction in CO2 emissions (higher H/C ratio) Reduction in THC and CO emissions (higher H/C ratio, reduction in flame quenching phenomena) 45 H/C 1,86 H/C 2,58 H/C 4,00 H/C 4,86 40 PETROL LPG (50/50) CH4 CH4 + 30% vol. H2 Impact of use of CNG/H2 blends on engine/vehicle technology: Engine performance equivalent to pure NG NG EMS & after treatment suitable Feeding system components upgrading for material compatibility to hydrogen Safety: visible flame as NG Acceptable reduction of the vehicle range compared to pure hydrogen

57 Combustion behaviour extension of lean burn capability CH4 10%H2 25%H2 50%H2 100%H2 Source : EU FP7 «INGAS» project 57

58 Powertrain electrification

59 Towards a progressive electrification of the powertrain 59

60 Towards powertrain electrification technical opportunities and sustainable solutions Current scenario is asking for enabling technologies and system to dramatically save energy, reduce CO 2 and local pollutant emissions. Powertrain electrification could play a significant role thanks to the kinetic energy recovery during deceleration phases and the progressive introduction of electrical assisted auxiliaries & systems. 60

61 Is the electric car mature enough? PROS Emissions: zero exhaust (CO 2 and pollutant emissions) Operating costs: lower compared to internal combustion engines CONS Range: limited to approx 150 km (under homologation testing conditions) does not make it a real alternative to combustion engines Charging time: long (approx 8 hours if recharging is slow, 30 minutes if recharing is fast) Purchase Price: high (approx 3 times the price of the same gasoline model) Performance: still limited due to insufficient energy capacity of batteries CO 2 Emissions WTW: real benefit if electricity based on renewable sources Infrastructure: charging in private places (preferred by users) requires proper configuration Market Potential: 2-3% till 2020

62 Energy density is mandatory! 62

63 Comparing Well to Wheel performance 63

64 Which solution? Not a unique solution, but a continuous improvement of sustainable technologies able to meet environmental, social and economical requirements

65 A comprehensive approach to sustainable mobility Customer Responsibility Powertrain Downsizing Turbo Charged Vehicle Energy Demand Vehicle weight Vehicle aerodynamic Rolling resistance Alternative Fuels & Non-conventional propulsion Transmissions MTA - DDCT Start & Stop Mini hybrid 65

66 Customer in the loop Fiat Group Automobiles in 2008 introduced a eco-technology called eco:drive to encourage environmental awareness of the driver Fiat eco:drive allows customers to collect driving data from their vehicle. These data are analyzed by specific algorithms in order to obtain personalized feedback on how to adapt driving style to achieve maximum fuel efficiency Following eco:drive advice, the customer is able to quantify the improvements on fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions deriving from the change of her/his driving style 66

67 Customer in the loop 67

68 Thank you for your attention! 68

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