Ingenieurskunst kontra Gesetzgebung: Sind die Emissionsvorgaben Innovationstreiber oder lähmendes Korsett?

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1 Ingenieurskunst kontra Gesetzgebung: Sind die Emissionsvorgaben Innovationstreiber oder lähmendes Korsett? Dr. Dirk Bergmann, Geschäftsführer FPT Motorenforschung Arbon Switzerland

2 Overview Technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI Innovations What have we achieved with Euro VI, is there a need for further steps in reducing criteria pollutants? Paradigm change to focus on fuel efficiency and CO2 Summary and Conclusions 2

3 Overview Technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI Innovations What have we achieved with Euro VI, is there a need for further steps in reducing criteria pollutants? Paradigm change to focus on fuel efficiency and CO2 Summary and Conclusions 3

4 Emission Regulation in Europe 4

5 A challenge for the industry, a benefit for the environment 5

6 Overview Technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI Innovations What have we achieved with Euro VI, is there a need for further steps in reducing criteria pollutants? Paradigm change to focus on fuel efficiency and CO2 Summary and Conclusions 6

7 Main innovation breakthroughs First Direct Injection engine on LCVs First Common Rail engine on LCVs Introduction of SCR technology for Euro IV - V HI-eSCR on IVECO Euro VI heavy range First EGR on Diesel engines for LCVs First Common Rail engine on medium duty trucks Launch of Multijet technology 7

8 Truck Diesel Engine technology development Naturally aspirated Turbo Turbo + IC VTG, WG, IC, 2-stage TC FIE: Distributor, in-line pump, Steckpumpe UI Common Rail Mechanical control EDC, map-based EDC, model-based Non-EGR EGR No ATS Oxicat / DPF SCR / DPF IDI on small high speed diesel DI on small high speed diesel Power density hp/liter I II III IV V VI ? ? Oil drain interval km 8

9 Technology roadmap Euro 0 to Euro VI The battle between SCR and EGR is only a part of the technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI, but lead to new and innovative solutions Selective Catalytic Reduction is a simple system that treats exhaust gases with Urea to eliminate pollutants and allows to maximise engine power Exhaust Gas Recirculation recirculates exhaust back into the engine to reduce combustion peak temperature and NO x, but limits engine performance VS. 9

10 Hi-eSCR.SCR only NO x PM HC CO CO 2 N 2 H 2 O DOC NO NO 2 HC oxidation CO oxidation (PM oxidation) PASSIVE DPF PM oxidation with NO 2 PM oxidation with O 2 UREA INJECTION Thermolysis Urea HNCO + NH 3 SCR HNCO NH 3 (NH and NH 3 reduction by NH 3 ) CUC NH 3 oxidation 10

11 Hi-eSCR model-based control NO x Sensor Temperature Sensor Temp Sensor NO x Sensor NH 3 Sensor Mixer SCR SCR / Silencer unit MODEL-BASED UREA DOSING STRATEGY Urea mass flow - - NH 3 storage model ϖ Calc NO x (sensor) Exhaust mass flow NH 3 NH 3 Calc NH 3 (sensor) Estimated inlet NO / NO 2 (engine / DOC model) 11

12 Overview Technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI Innovations What have we achieved with Euro VI, is there a need for further steps in reducing criteria pollutants? Paradigm change to focus on fuel efficiency and CO2 Summary and Conclusions 12

13 Euro VI NOx in use Stop and go urban rural motorway Source: HBEFA, FPT 13

14 Euro VI NOx in use, compared to pass car Pkw Diesel Pkw Benzin Euro VI Truck 40t One Euro VI 40t truck-trailer has same NOx emissions as an average Euro 5/6 passenger car (g/km) Quelle: TU Graz, HBEFA 3, FPT 14

15 Euro VI in use emission summary On-road emissions of Euro VI heavy duty trucks (fully loaded) are on the level of a single passenger car. (in g/km) Criteria Pollutants in the exhaust are within max workplace conentration limits (ppm) The PEMS requirements will guarantee that emissions remain within the limits over the useful life of the vehicle There is no need for further reduction of criteria pollutatns Euro VI = near zero emission truck 15

16 Fuel consumption development 16

17 Overview Technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI Innovations What have we achieved with Euro VI, is there a need for further steps in reducing criteria pollutants? Paradigm change to focus on fuel efficiency and CO2 Summary and Conclusions 17

18 Industrial diesel technology main drivers Innovation driven by emissions legislation NO x / PM Maintaining or improving fuel consumption / CO 2 and operating cost Improving cost, reliability and weight 18

19 Industrial diesel technology main drivers Innovation driven by emissions legislation NO x / PM Innovation driven by fuel consumption / CO 2 and operating cost Maintaining or improving fuel consumption / CO 2 and operating cost Maintaining low NO x / PM emission level Improving cost, reliability and weight Improving total cost of ownership, reliability and weight 19

20 Diesel engine efficiency in the past FIRST DIESEL ENGINE FIRST TURBOCHARG ED HEAVY DUTY ENGINE ADVANCED AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS EURO VI HI-eSCR ENGINES 20

21 Future Thermal Efficiency (BTE) Targets 60% 50% 40% 30% 2011 DIESEL ENGINES EFFICIENCY RATE 2020 DIESEL ENGINES EFFICIENCY RATE 21

22 FPT INDUSTRIAL future innovation scenario HOW TO ADDRESS FUEL CONSUMPTION ISSUE? ENGINE EVOLUTION ENERGY MANAGEMENT ENERGY RECOVERY Combustion efficiency FC-optimised gear shifting Air handling Thermal management Auxiliary management Friction reduction Advanced turbo systems Waste-heat recovery Brake-energy recovery 22

23 Efficiency [%] Fuel Energy Brake Thermal Efficiency Heat rejection (CAC & ports) Wall heat Friction Exhaust Auxiliaries Gas exchange Thermal efficiency today LOSSES 46 %

24 Todays feasible version Efficiency [%] % Gas exchange Auxiliaries Friction Combustion >50 % IMPROVEMENTS Waste heat recovery >55 % Resulting in the need for more advanced development methodologies Brake Thermal Efficiency Brake Thermal Efficiency WHR 24

25 «FPT Virtual Development» FPT VIRTUAL DEVELOPMENT VIRTUAL VALIDATION MODEL BASED CALIBRATION MODEL BASED CONTROLS INTEGRATED ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 25

26 Energy management system Cooling system Engine Auxiliaries Gearbox Energy storage Managed with one integral model based control system After treatment (Thermal Management) 26

27 HD CO2 European Simulation based approach 27

28 Overview Technological development from Euro 0 to Euro VI Innovations What have we achieved with Euro VI, is there a need for further steps in reducing criteria pollutants? Paradigm change to focus on fuel efficiency and CO2 Summary and Conclusions 28

29 Summary and Conclusions Euro VI Nutzfahrzeuge have reached near zero emission status. The European emission legislation was a good guide line to direct the on-road heavy truck industry to this success. Now a paradigmen change is needed. Staying at the reached near zero emission level and focussing on efficiency improvements with reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emission. With the introduction of a CO2 directive no further decrease of the already existing emission limits is nesseccary to avoid over-regulation. 29

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