Daimler s Super Truck Program; 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency

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1 Daimler s Super Truck Program; 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency 2012 Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference Marc Allain, David Atherton, Igor Gruden, Sandeep Singh, Kevin Sisken Detroit Diesel Corporation Daimler Trucks North America

2 Super Truck Technology Elements Optimized Aftertreatment Advanced Transmission Concepts Waste Heat Recovery Super Truck Clutch Motor Optimized Combustion Enhanced High Pressure Fuel Injection System Aerodynamics T/ M Engine Inverter Battery Hybrid Concepts Predictive Torque & Auxiliary Management Next Generation Controller Daimler Trucks North America 2

3 Super Truck Core Engine Development +1.3 % Demonstrate 50% brake thermal efficiency via: Engine downsizing (higher BMEP) Higher compression ratio Improved combustion system Air system optimizations, reduced EGR Reduced parasitic Waste heat recovery Daimler Trucks North America 3

4 Engine Down-Sizing and Down-Speeding Lower road load horsepower due to vehicle improvements 6-8% lower BSFC R PM V d HP (80,000 lbs) Vehicle C d Road load BHP Down-sized engine to raise road load BMEP Down-speeding for friction reduction BSFC reduction 6-8% Baseline liter Super Truck 11-liter Daimler Trucks North America 4

5 Combustion Efficiency Daimler Trucks North America 5

6 Air System Optimization Leveraging higher efficiency aftertreatment to reduce EGR rates Focus on turbocharger efficiency at cruise conditions Reducing pumping losses by adjusting turbine asymmetry NOx Daimler Trucks North America 6

7 Engine Parasitic Reduction via Downsizing 40% motoring power reduction at cruise RPM Higher BMEP at road load Cylinder Deactivation Cylinder deactivation as a way to increase BMEP Measurable BSFC benefit at low loads Limiting factors (namely exhaust temperature and airflow) necessitate turbocharger rematch. Daimler Trucks North America 7

8 Engine Auxiliary Load and Friction Reduction Variable speed water pump Clutched air compressor Reduced tension oil control rings Miscellaneous related to pistons, liners, bearings Low viscosity oil Daimler Trucks North America 8

9 High Efficiency Aftertreatment Example - BSFC gains vs. baseline ( EGR) Motivation: Reduced EGR rates with turbocharger rematch enable higher thermal efficiency Secondary benefit high NOx-PM ratio for DPF passive regeneration Design Features: SCR w/ high efficiency for higher NOx flux design challenges include packaging, backpressure, catalyst material Thin wall DPF for backpressure reduction Engine thermal management for good aftertreatment temperatures Daimler Trucks North America 9

10 Neural Network Based Engine Controls Develop a predictive engine controller Include a fuel efficiency optimizer Integrate predictive vehicle information Extensive engine mapping is used in neural network model training Reduce calibration complexity Emissions & fuel economy models enable on-board BSFC optimization Predictive Hill Detection Predictive route information (GPS, terrain, traffic, etc.) to leverage the engine controller s ability to optimize the engine in real-time Calibration Constraints Drivability Durability Fuel economy Life-cycle cost NOx / PM / NMHC / CO 2 OBD Exhaust temperature GPS / Route / Traffic info. Daimler Trucks North America 10

11 Neural Network Controller Evaluation Evaluated controller on Super Truck routes (20 and 40-minute dynamometer cycles) Demonstrated controller s ability to modulate NOx in real-time 5% lower BSFC over highway ST cycle Similar gains over urban ST cycle NOx (ppm) Daimler Trucks North America 11

12 Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) Waste heat recovery on a heavy duty truck may become essential to meet long term efficiency goals Rankine cycle has the most potential among available options FE improvement targets in the range of 5 to 10%to make it a viable technology Waste Heat Sources Quality Quantity Exhaust High High EGR High Low CAC Low Low Coolant Low High Acceleration & Inertia, 3% Rolling Resistance, 10% Grade, 6% Radiator (incl. EGR), 22% Aerodynamic Losses Auxiliary Loads Aerodynamic, 18% Exhaust, 22% Drivetrain, 3% Auxillaries, 3% Ambient and Residual, 5% Charge Air Cooler, 8% Rolling Resistance Drivetrain Losses Waste Heat Daimler Trucks North America 12

13 WHR Heat Engine Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) EGR generator expander power turbocharger pump condenser ATD boiler Daimler Trucks North America 13

14 WHR Modeling & Testing for System Optimization Modeling of ORC at system level for both component sizing and overall system optimization Test bed representative of vehicle implementation in development Daimler Trucks North America 14

15 WHR Power Feedback Mechanical Electrical Vaporizer Expander Vaporizer P mech Expander Generator P el Pump Diesel Engine Transmission Pump Diesel Engine E-Motor/ Generator Transmission Condenser Exhaust Aftertreatment Condenser Exhaust Aftertreatment Battery Pros: Low power loss by direct mechanical connection No batteries or e-motor required Cons: No energy storage method Energy produced may not match power demand Slower expander or transmission required Pros: Energy storage possible (with battery) Energy feedback according to vehicle power demand (if energy storage is possible) Cons: Losses converting mechanical power to electrical and back. Requires e-motor Daimler Trucks North America 15

16 ORC Working Fluid Selection ORC fluid selection is the primary step other design factors cascade from it Ethanol is a good candidate. Other choices include R245fa, water, Novec 649 Definition of desired ideal ORC fluid and collaboration with chemical industry Selection criteria Thermodynamic efficiency Fluid & system cost GWP, ODP Thermal Stability Toxicity Wet Vs. Dry Fluid Daimler Trucks North America 16

17 WHR Vehicle Integration System & component design and efficiency Working fluid choice Efficiency Gain Vehicle tradeoffs - Cooling burden, aero penalty Optimization and operating parameters Freight efficiency Component weight & packaging Daimler Trucks North America 17

18 Summary Engine technologies which translate to over the road freight efficiency improvements are crucial for future customer and regulatory demands Freight efficiency improvements require advancements in engine, power train, vehicle, and optimized system integration put together this yields a Super Truck. Daimler Trucks North America 18

19 Collaboration and Support Department of Energy Head Quarters Gurpreet Singh Roland Gravel National Energy Technology Laboratory Carl Maronde Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste heat recovery system Massachusetts Institute of Technology Low friction technologies Atkinson LLC Advanced engine controls Daimler Trucks North America 19

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