Jing Sun Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI USA

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1 Automotive Powertrain Controls: Fundamentals and Frontiers Jing Sun Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI USA Julie Buckland Research & Advanced Engineering Ford Motor Company Dearborn, MI USA

2 Topics Modeling and Control of Automotive Powertrain Systems: A Tutorial, Jing Sun (UM), Ilya Kolmanovsky and Jeff Cook (Ford Motor Company) Challenges and Opportunities in Automotive Transmission Control, Zongxuan Sun and Kumar Hebbale, General Motors Corp. Automotive Emissions Control, Julia Buckland and Jeff Cook, Ford Motor Company Towards a Concurrent Engine System Design Methodology, Akira Ohata and Ken Butts, Toyota Motor Corp. 2

3 Modeling and Control of Automotive Powertrain Systems Introduction and motivation: Models, methods and issues (Jeffrey Cook) Gasoline direct injection engine control (Jing sun) Diesel engine control (Ilya kolmanovsky) 3

4 History: Electronic Powertrain Controls Emissions-driven technology development 980s: Decade of controls 990s: Decade of systems 2000s: Complexity and sustainable mobility 4

5 Constraints: Fuel Economy and Performance Europe: 40 g/km CO 2 by 2008 (25% reduction compared to 995 baseline) US (Federal): 27.5 mpg CAFE US (California): Air Resources Board to write rules curbing carbon dioxide and methane emissions starting with the 2009 model year Everywhere: Customers 5

6 Four Stroke Otto Cycle Engine 6

7 Sensors and Actuators Powertrain controller 32-bit MPC55xx, ~50 pin I/O connector; ~90 control features Sensors Air flow Exhaust O2 or A/F (2-3 places) Intake manifold pressure Crankshaft and camshaft position (engine speed) Throttle position Fuel rail pressure EGR position or delta Pressure Knock (accelerometer) Sensors Temperature (air, intake and exhaust manifold, engine coolant, catalyst bed) Accessory loads (A/C clutch compressor sensor, battery voltage, power steering pump) Potentially ionization, in-cylinder pressure, emissions sensors (NOx) 7

8 Sensors and Actuators Actuators Throttle Air bypass valve Fuel (pump, pressure regulator, injector timing and duration), Ignition EGR Camshaft phase (intake and/or exhaust) Wastegate Secondary air Canister purge Charge motion control Intake manifold tuning Actuators (potentially) Valve lift, Cam profile switching Electronic valve actuation Cylinder deactivation VGT Variable compression ratio Integrated starter-alternator Clutched supercharger Traction motor 8

9 Basic Engine Model Throttle Intake manifold dynamics Engine pumping and intake valve flow Torque generation Rotational Dynamics Exhaust manifold dynamics Air and fuel path delays Feedgas emissions TWC (including dynamics) Sensor and actuator dynamics (throttle, VCT, turbocharger, etc.) 9

10 0 Basic Engine Model ( ) cyl egr a i i W W W K P + = & = a i a i th a P P T P A W φ = e i e e egr egr P P T P A W φ ( )= x φ ( ) x x 2 if 2 if + > + x x ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) i i cyl T f N P N W β α + = f b e T T N J = & 30 π ( ) N F A W f T cyl b,, = ( ) f P i N f T, = Manifold Pressure Flow Equations Cylinder Air Charge Torque and Rotational Dynamics

11 Conventional Aftertreatment Systems Three-way catalytic converter Narrow window of high simultaneous conversion efficiency Conventional control objective is to regulate A/F to stoichiometry

12 HEGO Sensor Potentiometric Electrochemical sensor Electric potential related to oxygen partial pressure Standard on all US vehicles since 980 Essentially a switch 2

13 UEGO Sensor Switching-type sensor with additional electronics Amperometric sensor measures current proportional to oxygen partial pressure (lean) or hydrocarbon partial pressure (rich) 3

14 Closed-loop A/F Control Estimate cylinder air charge (including EGR) Schedule fuel to achieve stoichiometry Use HEGO/UEGO feedback to compensate for uncertainties But Accuracy in air charge estimation Transient fuel dynamics Limited feedback information when using HEGO Transport delay Injector variability Sensor variability Disturbance inputs (vapor purge) 4

15 Transient Fuel Dynamics Not all fuel injected gets into the cylinder Some fuel stays in the intake port and forms a puddle on the wall Fuel from puddle inducted in subsequent fueling events, causing AFR transient 5

16 Electronic Throttle Control Inner-loop control: move the mechanical plate to the desired position Outer-loop control: to command the ETC position to provide the desired air flow But Inner loop: Highly nonlinear with significant friction and hysteresis Resolution requirements at closed throttle Choked flow is sensitive to ambient pressure Outer loop: Inverse orifice equation for throttle position control is almost singular at WOT 6

17 Other Powertrain Control Problems Idle speed control Variable cam control EGR Air charge estimation Shift scheduling and control Evaporative emissions control Ignition control Cold start controls Catalyst temperature control Torque control (electronic throttle) Fuel pressure control Misfire detection Catalyst diagnostics Cruise control Turbo/supercharger control Knock detection Misfire detection Secondary air control Cylinder deactivation Torque converter lock-up Flex/fringe fuel detection 7

18 Fuel Economy Technologies Improved mechanical efficiency Improved thermal efficiency Reduced pumping loss 8

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