A Study about Particle Filter Application on a State-of-the-Art Homogeneous Turbocharged 2L DI Gasoline Engine

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1 A Study about Particle Filter Application on a State-of-the-Art Homogeneous Turbocharged 2L DI Gasoline Engine Dr. Ingo Mikulic, Hein Koelman, Steve Majkowski, Paul Vosejpka Dow Automotive Systems 19. Aachener Kolloquium, 2010

2 Content Introduction & Background Results On Roller Chassis: Tailpipe Particle Number Emissions Gaseous Emissions & Fuel Consumption Peak Pressure Drop On-road Testing: Fuel Consumption Soot Accumulation Behavior Summary & Path Forward

3 Dow Powertrain Technologies Lubricants (Reduced Ash) Li-Ion Cell Materials DPF (CSF, SCRF) Waste Heat Recovery Li-Ion Cells & Packs (JV)

4 AERIFY TM Particulate Filters Technology Description: High porosity filters made from Acicular Mullite crystals Application Benefits of AERIFY vs competitive substrates: Low backpressure Reduced fuel penalty Downsizing Reduces needed packaging Heavy coating / system integration space & system cost High filtration efficiency Euro 6 particulate number limit

5 Objective of This Presentation State-of-the-art DI Gasoline engines produce low particulate mass emission but significant nanoparticle emission EU legislation will limit tailpipe Particulate Number (PN) tailpipe emission for Gasoline light passenger cars in timeframe (Euro 6) Current expectation is to apply the PN measurement technique and limit for Diesel light passenger cars (e.g. 6x10 11 #/km) OEM are preparing technical solutions: Via engine-in means Via usage of Gasoline Particulate Filter (): Uncoated Topic of this presentation! Coated

6 Packaging For Uncoated Baseline Close-Coupled Concept of Actual Exhaust Systems (w/o ) Engine TWC TWC Close-coupled Integration of Uncoated for Euro 6 Applications Engine TWC TWC Close-coupled Underfloor - No modification of TWC concept - Continuous soot clean-out? - underfloor in extra canning Engine TWC TWC Close-coupled - Continuous soot clean out! - close-coupled in TWC canning - TWC system must shrink. length constrained by packaging.

7 Performance Requirements Sufficient PN Filtration in Clean State (engineering target : ~3x10 11 #/km) Uncoated Ash Storage (~ km) Low p over Filter (target: ~100 mbar) Tested Samples Material Diameter, Length, inch inch Acicular Mullite Acicular Mullite Acicular Mullite Acicular Mullite Acicular Mullite Acicular Mullite Acicular Mullite Honeycomb structure DPF

8 Test Vehicle Combustion system Displacement Exhaust system Emission compliance Maximum speed Max power Curb weight Mileage at test begin Audi A5 Coupe 2L TFSI Multitronic Turbocharged homogeneous DI Gasoline engine L Close-coupled TWC Euro km/h 132 kw at rpm 1460 kg Approx.1500 km

9 Underfloor Position of TWC ~90cm (isolated) Engine Downstream Temperature Upstream Temperature Pressure Pressure Flow and canning were not optimized to deliver lowest possible backpressure

10 Tailpipe PN Emissions in NEDC Particle Number Tailpipe, #/km 2.0E E E E E E E E E E E+00 DPF 1.00 Empty L 4 L L 2 L L 4 L L Repetitions Can PN emissions measured following PMP protocol Diesel Euro 6 Engineering Target AERIFY DPF and deliver PN tailpipe emissions below the engineering target in fresh state regardless of the filter length

11 Online PN Emissions in NEDC Particle flow / -/s W/o w/o Optimized DPF, 4.66 x5 DPF; 4.66" x 5" Optimized DPF, 4.66 x4 DPF; 4.66" x 4" Optimized DPF, 4.66 x3 DPF; 4.66" x 3" Optimized, 4.66 x5 ; 4.66" x 5" Optimized, 4.66 x4 ; 4.66" x 4" Optimized, 4.66 x3 ; 4.66" x 3" Optimized, 4.66 x2 ; 4.66" x 2" Significant PN emission is formed in: Cold start Catalyst heating Rapid accelerations Veh. speed /km/h Time / s

12 NO x, CO 2 & Consumption in NEDC NOx, g/km DPF Consumption, l/100km DPF CO2, g/km DPF No negative impacts on: Tailpipe NO x Tailpipe CO 2 Fuel Consumption in NEDC.

13 Peak Backpressures 1520 Abs. Pressure upstr. TWC, mbar Δp = 178 mbar Δp = 171 mbar Δp = 188 mbar Δp = 127 mbar Δp = 88 mbar Δp = 95 mbar 1240 Original 1.00 Empty L L L L L L Can DPF Total exhaust pipe backpressure after ~80 sec in free full load acceleration. AERIFY delivers p < 100 mbar at 4 and 5 inch length.

14 Onroad Low Load Cycle Exhaust gas temperature / C Vehicle speed / km/h Upstream Downstream Time / s Standardized Cycle Average Speed Maximum Speed Cycle Length Maximum temperature upstream 22 km/h 33 km/h 10 km ~420 C No pressure drop increase observed after 532 km nonstop cruising in low load cycle. The inlet face was white or slightly grey after de-canning.

15 Onroad Fuel Consumption Cycle Exhaust gas temperature / C Vehicle speed / km/h Upstream Downstream Time / s Standardized Cycle Average Speed Maximum Speed Cycle Length Maximum temperature upstream 67 km/h 131 km/h 258 km ~720 C No pressure drop increase observed after 806 km nonstop cruising in fuel consumption cycle. The inlet face was white or slightly grey after de-canning.

16 Onroad Fuel Consumption Cycle 8.5 Optimized, 4.66 x3 ; 4.66" x 3" W/o w/o Fuel consumption / l/100km No relevant penalty #1 #2 #3 Mean value Consumed fuel measured by weighing refilled quantities. Variations may occur caused by daily traffic variations. No relevant difference in average consumption observed (w/ versus w/o ).

17 Fuel Penalties at Constant Speed 25 Optimized, 4.66 x3 ; 4.66" x 3" Fuel consumption / l/100km W/o w/o % penalty Vmax (D) Vehicle speed /km/h Vmax (S) Fuel consumption data from ECU. Increase of 2-3% found for vehicle speeds of km/h. No relevant increase at lower vehicle speeds.

18 Summary The anticipated Euro 6 PN limit of 6x10 11 #/km and its engineering target (e.g. 50%) can be safely demonstrated by application of AERIFY honeycomb filters AERIFY delivers excellent PN filtration and very low pressure drop regardless of its length No fuel consumption increase observed up to 180 km/h constant cruising with the given test vehicle No soot accumulation oberserved in standardized onroad cycles with the given test vehicle

19 Path Forward Sufficient PN Filtration in Clean State (engineering target : ~3x10 11 #/km) Uncoated Ash Storage (~ km) Low p over Filter (target: ~100 mbar) Onroad ash accumulation in progress to investigate ash production, ash storage, and pressure drop behavior over filter lifetime.

20 Thank You

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