# Exploratory Data Analysis

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1 Exploratory Data Analysis Johannes Schauer Institute of Statistics Graz University of Technology Steyrergasse 17/IV, 8010 Graz February 12, 2008

2 Introduction Points of action: Presence of uncertainty Variation in data Very little / too much information... Statistical methods = judgements and decisions

3 Populations and samples We focus on a well-defined collection of objects, the population. Examples: All cars produced on February 8, 2008 in factory A. All children in the European Union aged Usually - due to constraints on time, money, etc. - we only select a subset of the population, a sample. For example we might select 10 cars out of the above car population to check the exhaust emissions.

4 Variables We are interested in certain characteristics of the elements of the sample, e.g.: gender, age, weight or hair color. A variable is any characteristic that may change from one object to another. There are two types of variables: categorical (male/female, blonde/brown/other) and numerical (age=9 years, weight=35.2 kg).

5 What can we do with a sample to begin with? Exploratory Statistics: Graphical analysis Numerical summary measures With the help of statistics software packages like R such calculations can easily be done.

6 Motivating example Suppose we want to study the age of our neighbors. We get the following data: Looking at the raw data it is difficult to see any distinctive features in it. Let us apply a simple graphical feature.

7 Stem-and-Leaf Display > ages<-c(26,34,35,13,4,20,74,50,14,48,14,53,9,39,36, + 40,41,56,16,41,17,46,43,18,35,38,35,45) > stem(ages) The decimal point is 1 digit(s) to the right of the

8 Stem-and-Leaf Display - 2 easy way to organize numerical data split observations in two parts 1 stem (one or more leading digits) 2 leaf (remaining digits) no loss of information very useful for samples with observations

9 Stem-and-Leaf Display What can we see now? Our youngest neighbor is 4, our oldest is 74. The groups of people in their 30s or 40s are the largest ones. Nobody is in his 60s. There are three neighbors aged 35.

10 Stem-and-Leaf Display - 4 Information in such a display: typical value extent of spread around the typical value presence of gaps symmetry number and location of peaks outliers

11 Histogram Histogram of ages Frequency ages easy plot to see characteristics of the data more efficient than a stem-and-leaf display with larger data sets

12 Histogram - 2 Some numerical data is obtained by counting to get the value of a variable, e.g. the number of car accidents in one week or the number of customers in a shop on one day. For other numerical data the number of possible values might be finite, for example University grades 1-5 (in Austria). Variables as the ones above together with categorical variables are called discrete. The set of possible values of discrete variables is either finite or can be listed as an infinite sequence (1, 2, 3,...).

13 Histogram - 3 Other numerical data is obtained by measurements, e.g. the weight of an individual, the computation time of a program or the difference between the actual fill quantity of a beer bottle and its target fill quantity. These variables are called continuous. The possible values of continuous variables consist of an entire interval on the real line.

14 Histogram - discrete variable We look at a small sample consisting of the grades of 20 students in the statistics course To draw a histogram, we count how many times each grade has occurred and draw a bar with height=(number of occurrences) over that grade. > grades<-c(4,2,2,1,3,2,5,4,2,1, + 3,1,4,5,2,1,2,3,3,2) > hist(grades,breaks=seq(0.5,5.5,1))

15 Histogram - discrete variable - 2 Histogram of grades Frequency grades The most common grade, the mode, is a 2. There are more bars on the right side of the mode than on the left side. Therefore there is no obvious symmetry around 2.

16 Histogram - discrete variable - 3 Take the ages sample from before. We divide the ages into 8 groups of equal length: 1-10, 11-20,..., That is, we count how many observations lie in each of the groups Now we can act as in the previous example. > hist(ages)

17 Histogram - discrete variable - 4 Histogram of ages Frequency ages similar to stem-and-leaf display common ages are and two peaks gap in 61-70

18 Histogram - discrete variable - 5 The width and the positions of the bars have to be chosen. They influence the shape of the histogram. > hist(ages) > hist(ages,right=false) Histogram of ages Histogram of ages Frequency Frequency ages ages

19 Histogram - discrete variable - 6 If we put the width down to one year, there is a bar for each possible age. Histogram of ages Histogram of ages Frequency Density ages ages Instead of the actual frequency, the height of the bars can also be the relative frequency: relative frequency = number of times the value occurs number of observations in the sample.

20 Histogram - discrete variable - 7 The last histogram with relative frequencies has the property, that the total area of all bars is one. The area of the bar on top of 35 then estimates the probability that a neighbor is 35 years old. In the discrete case we assume that there is a true probability of appearance for each age. They can also be plotted similar to a histogram. The distribution of the variable is responsible for the shape of that plot. The sum over all probabilities is always one.

21 Discrete distributions Examples of distributions with their probability mass functions: Binomial distribution Poisson distribution Binomial probabilities Poisson probabilities There is not always such a characteristic in the distribution!

22 The Binomial Distribution Discrete distributions - 2 Example: The number of students out of 10 that pass the statistics test (frequency). Usually 70 % pass the test. Items in groups of size n = 10. An item can be satisfactory (success) or unsatisfactory (failure). Proportion of all items that are successes is π = 0.7. Proportion of failure is 1 π = 0.3. Therefore one observation can take values in {0, 1, 2,..., n}, that is there is a minimum and a maximum value. The average value, the mean, of such an observation is n π = = 7. The variance is n π (1 π) = = 2.1.

23 Discrete distributions - 3 The Poisson Distribution Examples: 1 The number of car accidents in Graz on one day. 2 The number of customers in a specific supermarket at 1 PM. There is no explicit maximum value. Usually used for count data. There is only one parameter λ that defines the shape of the distribution (mean=variance=λ).

24 Discrete distributions - 4 The probability mass function p k = P (X = k) is the probability that the variable has value k. p k 0 The sum over all p k is one.

25 Discrete distributions - 5 If we sum up the probabilities to each value of a discrete variable and plot the resulting step function, we get the distribution function F (x) of that random variable. P(2 successes) = P(up to 2 successes) Probability mass function Distribution function F (x) Binomial probabilities Binomial cumulative probabilities

26 Discrete distributions - 6 If we already have a sample, we can calculate the empirical distribution function. This is a step function that makes a step of equal height 1/(# of obs.) at each observation in the sample. Ages example: > plot(ecdf(ages)) Empirical distribution function of ages Fn(x) x

27 Some important measures of X Mean: Variance: Standard deviation: E(X), average value, center of mass. Var(X), measure for the variation in observed values around the mean. Var(X), the square root of the variance. Relation between the population and the sample: Population Mathematical model assumptions Sample Check of adequacy of assumptions

28 Histogram - continuous variable A power company needs information about the power demand. Therefore they study power consumption values of 90 gas-heated homes in the US. The first 20 values in ascending order are the following Again we divide the values in intervals of equal length, this time e.g. (2, 4], (4, 6],..., (18, 20], and count the number of observations in each interval. Drawing bars as high as the number of occurrences gives us:

29 Histogram - continuous variable - 2 Histogram of power Frequency The histogram would look different for another choice of intervals! power

30 Histogram - continuous variable - 3 If we divide the height of all bars by the total area of all bars, we obtain a histogram of relative frequencies: Histogram of power Density In this plot the total area of all bars is one. The bars can now be interpreted as estimators for probabilities: power The probability of a power consumption between 6 and 8 should be close to 10 %.

31 Histogram - continuous variable - 4 If we smooth such a histogram of relative frequencies we obtain a so called density estimator (red line): > lines(density(power)) Histogram of power Density For explaining the properties of a continuous variable a density estimator is more appropriate (because there are no jumps). This leads us to describing the distribution of continuous (random) variables. power

32 Continuous distributions In the continuous case variables can take all values in some interval, e.g. [10, 20]. The probability that the variable takes any fixed value, e.g. 15, is 0. Therefore we need to find another concept of describing the probability mass: the density function. The area between the density function and the x-axis is one

33 Continuous distributions - 2 Examples of distributions with their density functions: Normal distribution Exponential distribution Normal density Exponential density

34 Continuous distributions - 3 The Normal Distribution Examples: 1 weights or heights of humans 2 measurement errors Properties: most important distribution in statistics characterized by two parameters: 1 the mean µ 2 the variance σ 2 sums or averages of variables are often approximately normally distributed

35 Continuous distributions - 4 Examples of normal density functions Different means (µ) Different variances (σ 2 ) Normal densities Normal densities

36 Continuous distributions - 5 The Exponential Distribution Examples: 1 life time of a bulb 2 time between successive arrivals in a shop Properties: can take all values larger than 0 one parameter λ mean=λ variance=λ 2

37 Continuous distributions - 6 The density function usually called f(x) f(x) is defined for all values x on the real line. f(x) 0 The area between f(x) and the x-axis is one.

38 Continuous distributions - 7 To get the probability that a random variable X lies between a and b, we need to look at the area between the density function f(x) and the x-axis from a to b. For example the probability of a normal random variable X with µ = 15 and σ = 1.3 to be between 13 and 16 is the green area: P (13 X 16) =

39 Continuous distributions - 8 The distribution function If we study the probability that a random variable X is at most b, we are looking at its distribution function F (b) = P (X b). For example we look at a normal random variable X as before (µ = 15, σ = 1.3). Graphically looking at the green area is the same as P (X 16) = Normal density function Normal distribution function F(16)

40 Continuous distributions - 9 Properties of distribution functions: F (x) is defined for all values x on the real line. F (x) is a nondecreasing function. For x sufficiently small F (x) is arbitrarily close to 0. For x sufficiently large F (x) is arbitrarily close to 1. These properties apply for both continuous and discrete random variables distribution functions. The empirical distribution function, as it was introduced earlier, can also be calculated in the same way for a sample from a continuous population.

41 Histogram - application Let s go back to the power demand example and assume that the power demand is normally distributed with µ = 10 and σ = Compare the histogram of our sample with the density function of a normal (random) variable as above: Histogram of power Density estimator assumed model power

42 Histogram - shapes Unimodal: Bimodal: One single peak. Two different peaks. Symmetric: Positively skewed: Negatively skewed: The left half is a mirror image of the right half. The right tail is stretched out further than the left one. The left tail is stretched out further than the right one. These shapes are also relevant for probability mass functions and density functions.

43 Histogram - shapes - 2 Symmetric unimodal Bimodal Positively skewed Negatively skewed

44 Barchart Histogram for categorical data. Some arbitrary order. Example: Hair color of 25 children > barplot(table(hair)) black blonde brown other red

45 Piechart used for categorical data shows similar information as a barchart Example: Hair color example from before > pie(table(hair)) blonde black red brown other

46 Numerical summary measures Measures of the center 1 The sample mean x. 2 The sample median x (also called q 0.50 ). We suppose we have a sample x = (x 1,..., x n ), thus n is the number of observations.

47 The sample mean The sample mean is defined by x = x 1 + x x n. n The sample mean estimates the true mean of the population. It is the most common estimator. Problem: A single outlier (unusually large or small observation) can significantly change the sample mean!

48 The sample mean - Example Remember the ages data set: The sample mean is then x = > mean(ages) [1] = =

49 The sample median Alternative measure of the center. Resists the effects of outliers. But: the median only estimates the true mean for symmetric distributions! The sample median divides the observations in two equally big parts: Half of the observations are smaller than the sample median, half of them are larger. The "middle value" of the ordered sample is the sample median:

50 The sample median - calculation The following formula shows how to calculate the sample median x from the ordered sample: x (1) x (2)... x (n). x n+1 x = ( 2 ) ) 1 2 x ( n 2 ) + x ( n +1) 2 if n is odd if n is even. This mean, if n is odd, we simply take the middle value. If n is even, there are two middle values, so we take the average of those two.

51 The sample median - examples First look at the (already ordered) sample from before: Here n is 7 (odd) and therefore x (4) = 5.1 is the middle value and the sample median. Suppose the sample consists of one more element, e.g. 8.7: Then n = 8 (even) and the sample median is 1 2 (x (4) + x (5) ) = 5.5.

52 The sample median - ages example In the ages example we get the following sample median using R: > median(ages) [1] 35.5 Here we have x = 1 2 (x (14) + x (15) ) = 1 2 ( ).

53 Median of a distribution As we have just seen, the sample median has the property, that 50 % of all observations are smaller or equal its value, while 50 % are larger. Looking at the mathematical model, the median x 0.50 of a continuous random variable X has the same property: P (X x 0.50 ) = P (X > x 0.50 ) = The probability of X being smaller than the median is 50 %. For discrete random variables the definition is similar.

54 Theoretical quantiles As we just defined x 0.50, we can introduce x p for any 0 < p < 1 with the property P (X x p ) = p. That is, the probability of X being smaller than x p is 100 p % p x_p

55 Sample quantiles To estimate the theoretical quantiles of a random variable from a sample (x 1,..., x n ) one usually uses for 0 < p < 1 { 1 2 (x (np) + x (np+1) ) if np is an integer, q p = x ( np +1) otherwise. Note that the sample median x = q 0.50 is also included in this definition. The 25 %, 50 % and 75 % quantiles are sometimes called the 1st, 2nd and 3rd quartiles. The interquartile range (iqr) is the difference between the 3rd and the 1st quartile: iqr = q 0.75 q 0.25.

56 Sample quantiles - 2 Example: Let us calculate some quantiles of the ages data set. > quantile(ages,c(0.05,0.25,0.75,0.95),type=2) 5% 25% 75% 95% > median(ages) [1] 35.5 > quantile(ages,0.50,type=2) 50% 35.5 > IQR(ages) [1] 25.75

57 Measures of variability A measure of the center is only a partial information about a data set. Different samples may well have the same mean (or median), while they differ in other important ways. The following plot shows three different samples with the same sample mean and different variabilities (sample 1 has the largest, sample 3 the smallest amount of variability): 1: 2: 3:

58 The sample variance The variability is responsible for the spread of observations around the mean. Therefore in studying the variability of a sample, the deviations from the mean x 1 x,..., x n x are of great importance. This leads us to the sample variance, the sum of the squared deviations: s 2 = 1 n (x i x) 2. n 1 The sample standard deviation is the (positive) square root of the variance: s = s 2. i=1

59 The sample variance - 2 The scale for s is the same as the scale for each x i. If for example the observations are fill quantities of beer barrels, then we might have s = 2.0 liters. Roughly speaking this means that a typical deviation is 2.0 liters. If using another machine to fill the barrels, this could give s = 3.0, indicating a larger variability.

60 The sample variance - power demand example > mean(power) [1] > var(power) # the sample variance s^2 [1] > sd(power) # the sample standard deviation s [1] > hist(power) Histogram of power Frequency *s *s s s *s *s

61 The sample skewness The sample skewness is defined as 1 n n 1 i=1 g 1 = (x i x) 3 s 3. > skewness<-function(x){ (sum((x-mean(x))^3)/(length(x)-1))/(sd(x)^3)} > skewness(power) [1] Interpretation: g 1 0 g 1 > 0 g 1 < 0 probably symmetric distribution long tail to the right long tail to the left

62 The boxplot visual summary of data based on different quantiles and extrema 2 q 0.75 min (x (n), q iqr) [iqr = q 0.75 q 0.25 ] x = q 0.50 q 0.25 max(x (1), q iqr) Outlier x (1) < q iqr

63 The boxplot - 2 Advantages: easy overview of characteristics like the median and the range recognition of skewness or symmetry shows the length of the tails and outliers good tool to compare different samples no need of (subjective) choices of parameters

64 The boxplot - Example This is the boxplot of the ages data set: > boxplot(ages)

65 The boxplot - Example 2 Suppose we also know the sex of our neighbors (with F=female and M=male), then we might want to study and compare the ages of each group: > boxplot(ages~sex) F M

66 The Q-Q plot Q-Q plot stands for Quantile-Quantile plot. It is used to compare a sample with a theoretical population distribution. x-axis: theoretical quantiles y-axis: sample quantiles We use the i.5 n th quantiles for 1 i n, thus we compare of a possibly suitable distribution. x (i) with x i.5 n If the chosen distribution is supported by the data, the points in the plot should nearly form a line.

67 The Q-Q plot - example Let us have a look at a Q-Q plot of the power demand data. As we have already seen in its histogram, the data seems to be close to a normal distribution. > qqnorm(power) > qqline(power) Normal Q Q Plot Sample Quantiles Theoretical Quantiles The points are very close to a line, this is an indicator of a normal distribution of the power demand population.

68 The Q-Q plot - example 2 Suppose we want to compare the same data with a different distribution, say the t-distribution with parameter 2 (longer tails). t_2 Q Q Plot Sample Quantiles Theoretical Quantiles The plot does not suggest an underlying t-distribution.

69 The scatter plot used for bivariate data data pairs (x i, y i ): (14.2,5.2), (27.5,6.3),... each pair as a dot in a 2-dimensional coordinate system helps to find relationships between variables x and y Example: In a sample we have the height (x in cm) and weight (y in kg) of 20 male statistics students. Obs.: x: y: Obs.: x: y:

70 The scatter plot - 2 > plot(x,y,main="scatter plot of weight vs. height") y Scatter plot of weight vs. height We see an indication of a linear relationship between the two variables: The taller a student, the heavier he is. x

71 The scatter plot - 3 A scatter plot may also show a seemingly random distribution of points: y Random distribution of points x

72 Scatter plot matrix When looking at more than two numerical variables, we might like to study the relationships between each pair of variables. That is, we want a scatter plot of each variable pair. This is realized within a scatter plot matrix. Example: Suppose we also know the age of the 20 statistics students from before: Obs.: z: Obs.: z:

73 Scatter plot matrix - 2 > plot(data.frame(x,y,z)) x y z

74 Résumé of introduced numerical summary measures measures of the center 1 sample mean x 2 sample median x measures of variability 1 sample variance s 2 2 sample standard deviation s sample skewness g 1 sample quantiles q p

75 Résumé of plots for a first graphical analysis Stem-and-Leaf Display Histogram Barchart Piechart Boxplot Q-Q Plot Scatter Plot (Matrix)

76 Literature Devore, J., and Farnum, N. (2005): Applied Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd ed., Thomson Learning. Krämer, W. (2001): Statistik verstehen, 7th ed., Piper.

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