1 Introduction to Statistics for Psychology and Quantitative Methods for Human Sciences Jonathan Marchini
2 Course Information There is website devoted to the course at marchini/phs.html This contains Course timetable/information Lecture slides (on the website before each lecture) Lecture notes (a bit more detailed than the slides) Exercise sheets (tutors may or may not use these) Formulae booklet and definitions booklet Links to past exam papers on the web PLEASE ENTER THE LECTURE THEATRE QUICKLY!
3 Lecture 1 : Outline Why we need Statistics? - The scientific process Different types of data - Discrete/Continuous - Quantitative/Qualitative Methods of looking at data - Bar charts, Histograms, Dot plots, Scatter plots, Box plots Calculating summary measures of data - Location - Mean, Median, Mode - Dispersion - SIQR, MAD, sample variance, sample standard deviation
4 The role of Statistics in the Scientific Process Examine the results of the statistical test We start with a question/hypotheis about a given population of objects/events Propose a study/experiment that aims to provide data to help test our hypothesis Collect Data i.e. take a sample from the population Use statistics to test our hypothesis based on a model of the data Study Design (How can we design our study to get the most information about our hypothesis) STATISTICS
5 An Example Psychologists have long been interested in the relationship between stress and health. A focused question might involve the study of a specific psychological symptom and its impact on the health of the population. To assess whether the symptom is a good indicator of stress we need to measure the symptom and stress levels in a sample of individuals from the population. It is not immediately clear how we should go about collecting this sample, i.e. how we should design the study. We haven t got very far before we need Statistics!
6 The general focus of this course Examine the results of the statistical test We start with a question/hypotheis about a given population of objects/events Propose a study/experiment that aims to provide data to help test our hypothesis Collect Data i.e. take a sample from the population Use statistics to test our hypothesis based on a model of the data Study Design (How can we design our study to get the most information about our hypothesis) STATISTICS
7 Datasets consist of measured variables The datasets that Psychologists and Human Scientists collect will usually consist of one more observations on one or more variables. A variable is a property of an object or event that can take on different values. Example Suppose we collect a dataset by measuring the hair colour, resting heart rate and score on an IQ test of every student in a class. The variables in this dataset would then simply be hair colour, resting heart rate and score on an IQ test, i.e. the variables are the properties that we measured/observed.
8 2 main types of variable 1 Measurement (Quantitative) Data occur when we measure things e.g. height or weight. 2 Categorical (Qualitative) Data occur when we assign objects into labelled groups or categories e.g. when we group people according to hair colour or race. (i) Ordinal variables have a natural ordering e.g. medal gold/silver/bronze (i) Nominal variables do not have a natural ordering e.g. gender
9 Discrete and Continuous Variables Discrete Data No. of students late for a lecture There are only a limited set of distinct values/categories i.e. we can t have exactly 2.23 students late, only integer values are allowed. Continuous Data Time spent studying statistics (hrs) In theory there are an unlimited set of possible values! There are no discrete jumps between possible values.
10 Summary of Data Types Types of data Quantitative (Measurement) Qualitative (Categorical) Discrete Continuous Discrete e.g. No. of students in a class e.g.height, Weight Nominal e.g. Hair colour, Race, Smoking status Ordinal e.g. League position, Medal awarded in an Olympic event
11 Plotting Data One of the most important stages in a statistical analysis can be simply to look at your data right at the start. By doing so you will be able to spot characteristic features, trends and outlying observations that enable you to carry out an appropriate statistical analysis. Also, it is a good idea to look at the results of your analysis using a plot. This can help identify if you did something that wasn t a good idea! REMEMBER Data is messy! No two datasets are the same ALWAYS LOOK AT YOUR DATA
12 The Baby-Boom dataset Forty-four babies (a new record) were born in one 24-hour period at the Mater Mothers Hospital in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, on December 18, For each of the 44 babies, The Sunday Mail recorded the time of birth, the sex of the child, and the birth weight in grams. Whilst, we did not collect this dataset based on a specific hypothesis, if we wished we could use it to answer several questions of interest. Do girls weigh more than boys at birth? What is the distribution of the number of births per hour? Is birth weight related to the time of birth? Is gender related to the time of birth? Is there an equal chance of being born a girl or boy?
13 Time Gender Weight Time Gender Weight Time Gender Weight
14 Bar Charts A Bar Chart is a useful method of summarising Categorical Data. represent the counts/frequencies/percentages in each category by a bar. We Frequency Girl Boy
15 Histograms A Bar Chart is to Categorical Data as a Histogram is to Measurement Data Frequency Birth Weight (g)
16 Constructing Histograms (an example) For the baby-boom dataset we can draw a histogram of the birth weights. To draw the histogram I found the smallest and largest values smallest = 1745 largest = 4162 There are only 44 weights so I decided on 6 equal sized categories Interval Frequency Using these categories works well, the histogram shows us the shape of the distribution and we notice that distribution has an extended left tail.
17 Too few categories Too many categories Frequency Frequency Birth Weight (g) Birth Weight (g) Too few categories and the details are lost. Too many categories and the overall shape is obscured by too many details
18 Cumulative Frequency Plots and Curves Interval Frequency Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Frequency Plot Cumulative Frequency Curve Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Frequency Birth Weight (g) Birth Weight (g)
19 Dot plots A Dot Plot is a simple and quick way of visualising a dataset. This type of plot is especially useful if data occur in groups and you wish to quickly visualise the differences between the groups. Gender Girl Boy Birth Weight (g)
20 Scatter Plots Scatter plots are useful when we wish to visualise the relationship between two measurement variables. Time of birth (mins since 12pm) Birth Weight (g)
21 Comparing Histograms
22 Summary Measures There are 3 main measures of location The Mode The Median The Mean There are 5 main measures of dispersion The Interquartile Range (IQR) and Semi-Interquartile Range (SIQR) The Mean Deviation The Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) The Sample Variance (s 2 ) and Population Variance (σ 2 ) The Sample Standard Deviation (s) and Population Standard Deviation (σ)
23 The Mode The Mode of a set of numbers is simply the most common value e.g. the mode of the following set of numbers 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13 is 3. Frequency
24 Advantage The Mode has the advantage that it is always a score that actually occurred and can be applied to nominal data. Disadvantage There may be two or more values that share the largest frequency. In the case of two modes we would report both and refer to the distribution as bimodal. Frequency
25 The Median The Median can be thought of as the middle value i.e. the value for which 50% of the data fall below when arranged in numerical order. For example, consider the numbers When arranged in numerical order we see that the median value is 8. 15, 3, 9, 21, 1, 8, 4, 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15, 21 If there were an even number of scores e.g. 1, 3, 4,8, 9, 15 then we take the midpoint of the two middle values. In this case the median is (4 + 8)/2 = 6.
26 In general, if we have N data points then the median location is defined as follows: Median Location = (N+1) 2 For example, the median location of 7 numbers is (7 + 1)/2 = 4 and the median of 8 numbers is (8 + 1)/2 = 4.5 i.e. between observation 4 and 5 (when the numbers are arranged in order). Advantage The median is unaffected by extreme scores (a point it shares with the mode). We say the median is resistant to outliers. For example, the median of the numbers 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15, is still 8. This property is very useful in practice as outlying observations can and do occur (Data is messy remember!).
27 The Mean The Mean of a set of scores is the sum 1 of the scores divided by the number of scores. For example, the mean of 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15 is = (to 3 dp) In mathematical notation, the mean of a set of n numbers x 1,..., x n is denoted by x where n i=1 x = x i x or x = (in the formula book) n n See the appendix of the notes for a brief description of the summation notation ( ) 1 The total when we add them all up
28 Advantage The mean is the most widely used measure of location. Historically, this is because statisticians can write down equations for the mean and derive nice theoretical properties for the mean, which are much harder for the mode and median. Disadvantage The mean is not resistant For example, the mean of to outlying observations. 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15, is , whereas the median (from above) is 8.
29 Sometimes discrete measurement data are presented in the form of a frequency table in which the frequencies of each value are given. We calculate the sum of the data as Data (x) Frequency (f) (2 1) + (4 2) + (6 3) + (7 4) + (4 5) + (1 6) = 82 and the number of observations as The the mean is given by = 24 x = = 3.42 (2 dp)
30 In mathematical notation the formula for the mean of frequency data is given by n i=1 x = f ix i fx n i=1 f or x = i f
31 The relationship between the mean, median and mode Symmetric mean = median = mode Positive Skew mean median mode Negative Skew mean median mode
32 IQR and SIQR The IQR is the range of the middle 50% of the data. The SIQR is simply half the IQR. Frequency IQR 25% 75%
33 We calculate the IQR in the following way: Calculate the 25% point (1st quartile) of the dataset. The location of the 1st quartile is defined to be the ( ) N+1 4 th data point. Calculate the 75% point (3rd quartile) of the dataset. The location of the 3rd quartile is defined to be the ( 3(N+1) ) 4 th data point. Calculate the IQR as IQR = 3rd quartile - 1st quartile Example 1 Consider the set of 11 numbers (which have been arranged in order) 10, 15, 18, 33, 34, 36, 51, 73, 80, 86, 92 The 1st quartile is the (11+1) 4 = 3rd data point = 18 The 3rd quartile is the 3(11+1) 4 = 9th data point = 80 IQR = = 62 SIQR = 62 / 2 = 31.
34 The Mean Deviation To measure the spread of a dataset it seems sensible to use the deviation of each data point from the mean of the distribution. The deviation of each data point from the mean is simply the data point minus the mean. small spread = small deviations large spread = large deviations
35 Data Deviations x x x = = = = = = = = = = = 44 Sum = 528 Sum = 0 x = 528 (x x) = 0 The mean is x = = 48 The Mean Deviation of a set of numbers is simply mean of deviations. In practice, the mean deviation is always zero.
36 Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) We solve the problem of the deviations summing to zero by considering the absolute values of the deviations. The absolute value of a number is the value of that number with any minus sign removed, e.g. 3 = 3. We then measure spread using the mean of the absolute deviations, denoted (MAD). This can be written in mathematical notation as n i=1 x i x n or x x n
37 Data Deviations Deviations x x x x x = = = = = = = = = = = Sum = 528 Sum = 0 Sum = 284 x = 528 (x x) = 0 x x = 284 MAD = = (to 3dp)
38 The Sample Variance (s 2 ) and Population Variance (σ 2 ) Another way to ensure the deviations don t sum to zero is to look at the squared deviations. Thus another way of measuring the spread is to consider the mean of the squared deviations, called the Variance If our dataset consists of the whole population (a rare occurrence) then we can calculate the population variance σ 2 (said sigma squared ) as n σ 2 i=1 = (x i x) 2 (x x) or σ 2 2 = n n When we just have a sample from the population (most of the time) we can calculate the sample variance s 2 as n s 2 i=1 = (x i x) 2 (x x) or s 2 2 = n 1 n 1 NB We divide by n 1 when calculating the sample variance as then s 2 is a better estimate of the population variance σ 2 than if we had divided by n.
39 Data Deviations Deviations 2 x x x (x x) = = = = = = = = = = = Sum = 528 Sum = 0 Sum = 9036 x = 528 (x x) = 0 (x x) 2 = 9036 s 2 = = 903.6
40 The Sample and Population Standard Deviation (s and σ) Notice how the sample variance in our example is much higher than the SIQR and the MAD. SIQR = 31 MAD = s 2 = This happens because we have squared the deviations transforming them to a quite different scale. We can recover the scale of the original data by simply taking the square root of the sample (population) variance.
41 Thus we define the sample standard deviation s as s = n i=1 (x i x) 2 n 1 and we define the population standard deviation σ as σ = n i=1 (x i x) 2 n Returning to Example 1 the sample standard deviation is s = = (to 2dp) which is comparable with the SIQR and the MAD.
43 A box plot consists of three main parts 1 A box that covers the middle 50% of the data. The edges of the box are the 1st and 3rd quartiles. A line is drawn in the box at the median value. 2 Whiskers that extend out from the box to indicate how far the data extend either side of the box. The whiskers should extend no further than 1.5 times the length of the box, i.e. the maximum length of a whisker is 1.5 times the IQR. 3 All points that lie outside the whiskers are plotted individually as outlying observations.
44 Plotting box plots of measurements in different groups side by side can be illustrative. For example, box plots of birth weight for each gender side by side and indicates that the distributions have quite different shapes Girls Boys
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