# Visualizing Data. Contents. 1 Visualizing Data. Anthony Tanbakuchi Department of Mathematics Pima Community College. Introductory Statistics Lectures

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1 Introductory Statistics Lectures Visualizing Data Descriptive Statistics I Department of Mathematics Pima Community College Redistribution of this material is prohibited without written permission of the author 2009 (Compile date: Tue May 19 14:48: ) Contents 1 Visualizing Data Frequency distributions: univariate data. 2 Standard frequency distributions Relative frequency distributions Cumulative frequency distributions Visualizing univariate quantitative data Histograms Dot plots Stem and leaf plots Visualizing univariate qualitative data Bar plot Pareto chart Visualizing bivariate quantitative data Scatter plots Time series plots Summary Visualizing Data The Six Steps in Statistics 1. Information is needed about a parameter, a relationship, or a hypothesis needs to be tested. 2. A study or experiment is designed. 3. Data is collected. 4. The data is described and explored. 5. The parameter is estimated, the relationship is modeled, the hypothesis is tested. 6. Conclusions are made. 1

2 2 of Frequency distributions: univariate data Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics. Definition 1.1 summarize and describe collected data (sample). Contrast with inferential statistics which makes inferences and generalizations about populations. Useful characteristics for summarizing data Example 1 (Heights of students in class). If we are interested in heights of students and we measure the heights of students in this class, how can we summarize the data in useful ways? What to look for in data shape are most of the data all around the same value, or are they spread out evenly between a range of values? How is the data distributed? center what is the average value of the data? variation how much do the values vary from the center? outliers are any values significantly different from the rest? Class height data Load the class data, then look at what variables are defined. R: load ( ClassData. RData ) R: l s ( ) [ 1 ] c l a s s. data R: names ( c l a s s. data ) [ 1 ] gender height [ 3 ] forearm height mother [ 5 ] c o r r e c t i v e l e n s e s h a i r c o l o r [ 7 ] t r a n s p o r t a t i o n work hours [ 9 ] c r e d i t s R: c l a s s. data \$ h e i g h t [ 1 ] Task: describe student heights 1. Determine general distribution (shape) of data. 2. Find a measure(s) of the center. 3. Find a measure of the variation. 4. Look for outliers. 1.1 Frequency distributions: univariate data Definition 1.2 Definition 1.3 Definition 1.4 univariate data. measurements made on only one variable per observation. bivariate data. measurements made on two variables per observation. multivariate data. measurements made on many variables per observation.

3 Visualizing Data 3 of 14 STANDARD FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS frequency distribution. Definition 1.5 A table listing the frequency (number of times) data values occur in each interval. Good first summary of data! Steps: 1. Choose number of classes (typically 5-20) 2. Calculate the class width: class width max value min value number of classes (1) 3. Choose starting point, typically min data value or List in table lower class limits and then upper limits 5. Tally the data in each class, can use tick marks. Given: R: c l a s s. data \$ h e i g h t [ 1 ] (min=62, max=77, n=18) Question 1. Construct a frequency table for the class heights:

4 4 of Frequency distributions: univariate data Information in a frequency distribution 1. shape 2. center 3. variation 4. outliers RELATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Definition 1.6 Relative frequency distribution. A table of relative frequency counts. Useful for comparing data. relative frequency % = class freq 100% (2) total number Example 2. Add a relative frequency column onto the student height table.

5 Visualizing Data 5 of 14 CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Cumulative frequency distribution. Definition 1.7 Table listing the total counts less than the upper class limits for each interval. Steps to construct: 1. Make a frequency distribution 2. Make a second table and change the intervals to less than [upper limit]. 3. Each frequency is the sum of all the previous frequencies. We accumulate the frequencies. Example 3. Make a cumulative frequency distribution for student heights. 1.2 Visualizing univariate quantitative data HISTOGRAMS Histogram. Definition 1.8 A bar plot of a frequency histogram table. x-axis class boundaries (or midpoints) y-axis frequency (counts) (No spaces between bars.) Histogram: hist(x) Where x is a vector of data. Example 4. Histogram of student heights R: h i s t ( c l a s s. data \$ height, main = Student h e i g h t s ) Student heights Frequency class.data\$height Example 5. Comparison of student heights versus gender:

6 6 of Visualizing univariate quantitative data R: par ( mfrow = c ( 1, 2) ) R: h i s t ( c l a s s. data \$ h e i g h t [ c l a s s. data \$ gender == MALE ], + main = Male s t u d e n t s, xlab = height ) R: h i s t ( c l a s s. data \$ h e i g h t [ c l a s s. data \$ gender == FEMALE ], + main = Female s t u d e n t s, xlab = height ) Male students Female students Frequency Frequency height height Normal Shaped Distribution Example of a normal shaped histogram (sometimes called a bell shape ). Normal Shape Histogram Density x Red Line: Ideal Normal Distribution

7 Visualizing Data 7 of 14 DOT PLOTS STEM AND LEAF PLOTS Stem and leaf plot. Definition 1.9 A character based plot similar to a histogram that breaks up data into the stem and leaf plot. Quick and easy histogram. stem like the classes of a histogram, generally the most significant digit of the data. leaf digit to the right of the stem. For each data point it s leaf value (digit) is recorded to the right of the stem. More leaves indicate more values in the stem s class. Stem and leaf plot: stem(x) Where x is a vector of data. Example 6. Stem and leaf plot of student heights R: stem ( c l a s s. data \$ h e i g h t ) The decimal p o i n t i s 1 d i g i t ( s ) to the r i g h t o f the Below is a stem and leaf plot for a small set of data stored in x. R: stem ( x ) The decimal p o i n t i s at the Question 2. Reconstruct the data set from the above plot. Other ways to visualize frequency data relative frequency histogram bar plot with vertical axis in percent rather than counts. frequency polygon just like a histogram but uses line segments instead of bars. ogive oh-jive line graph of cumulative frequencies.

8 8 of Visualizing univariate qualitative data 1.3 Visualizing univariate qualitative data Univariate qualitative data is categorical data concerning one variable. Example 7 (Univariate qualitative data). student hair color is a single variable that is qualitative. R: c l a s s. data \$ h a i r c o l o r [ 1 ] BROWN BROWN BLACK BLOND BROWN BLACK BROWN BROWN BROWN [ 1 0 ] BROWN BLOND BROWN BROWN BROWN BROWN BROWN BLACK BROWN L e v e l s : BLACK BLOND BROWN Summarizing qualitative data Frequency table: table(x) Where x is a vector of data. Example 8. Summarizing student hair color. R: t a b l e ( c l a s s. data \$ h a i r c o l o r ) BLACK BLOND BROWN We will now look at methods for visualizing these types of tables. BAR PLOT Definition 1.10 Bar plot. Like a histogram but for qualitative data frequencies. Each bar represents the count of a category. x-axis categories y-axis counts or proportions. Misleading if y-axis does not start at 0. Makes sense to put spaces between bars since data is not continuous. Bar plot: t=table(x); barplot(t) Where x is a vector of categorical data and we plot the frequency table t. Example 9. Bar plot of student hair color R: t = t a b l e ( c l a s s. data \$ h a i r c o l o r ) R: b a r p l o t ( t, main = Student Data )

9 Visualizing Data 9 of 14 Student Data BLACK BLOND BROWN PARETO CHART Pareto chart. Definition 1.11 A bar plot of categorical data frequencies sorted in decreasing frequency. Pareto chart: t=table(x); t=sort(t, decreasing=true); barplot(t) Where x is a vector of categorical data and we plot the sorted frequency table t. Example 10. Pareto chart of student hair color. R: t = t a b l e ( c l a s s. data \$ h a i r c o l o r ) R: t = s o r t ( t, d e c r e a s i n g = TRUE) R: t BROWN BLACK BLOND R: b a r p l o t ( t, main = Class Data )

10 10 of Visualizing univariate qualitative data Class Data BROWN BLACK BLOND Pie charts Definition 1.12 Pie chart. Used to display relative frequencies (or proportions) for categorical data. The area represents the relative frequency. Although widely found in the media, pie charts are no longer commonly used by statisticians since it s hard to gauge the areas visually. Pie chart: t=table(x); pie(t) Where x is a vector of categorical data and we plot the frequency table t. Example 11. Pie chart of student hair color. R: t = t a b l e ( c l a s s. data \$ h a i r c o l o r ) R: p i e ( t, main = Student Data )

11 Visualizing Data 11 of 14 Student Data BLOND BLACK BROWN 1.4 Visualizing bivariate quantitative data Bivariate quantitative data. Definition 1.13 is paired data dealing with two variables. For each measurement of the first variable there is a corresponding measurement in the second variable. Example 12 (Bivariate data). We may be interested to study the relationship between height and weight of students. For each student in our study we measure both variables, the height and weight. We will not look at ways to visualize bivariate quantitative data. SCATTER PLOTS Scatter plot. Definition 1.14 A plot of paired (x, y) data. The two variables are represented by x and y. horizontal axis x values. vertical axis y values. Scatter plot: plot(x,y) Where both x and y are ordered vectors of data. Ordered meaning the first element of x corresponds to the first element of y. Example 13. Scatter plot of student height vs forearm length. R: p l o t ( c l a s s. data \$ height, c l a s s. data \$ forearm, main = Student Data )

12 12 of Visualizing bivariate quantitative data Student Data class.data\$forearm class.data\$height TIME SERIES PLOTS Definition 1.15 Time series plot. Plots data points as a function of time. x-axis time y-axis values of measured variable. Example 14. Measure the height of a bean sprout over time. Plot the pairs of data (time, height) using a scatter diagram with x variable being time. Time series plot plot: plot(t,y, type="b") Where both t and y are ordered vectors of data. Ordered meaning the first element of t corresponds to the first element of y. The optional argument type="b" makes a plot with both points and lines. Example 15. Time series plot of Nile River flow data. R: date = 1871: 1970 R: f l o w = c (1120, 1160, 963, 1210, 1160, 1160, 813, , 1370, 1140, 995, 935, 1110, 994, 1020, + 960, 1180, 799, 958, 1140, 1100, 1210, 1150, , 1260, 1220, 1030, 1100, 774, 840, 874, + 694, 940, 833, 701, 916, 692, 1020, 1050, + 969, 831, 726, 456, 824, 702, 1120, 1100, + 832, 764, 821, 768, 845, 864, 862, 698, 845, + 744, 796, 1040, 759, 781, 865, 845, 944, 984, + 897, 822, 1010, 771, 676, 649, 846, 812, 742, + 801, 1040, 860, 874, 848, 890, 744, 749, 838, , 918, 986, 797, 923, 975, 815, 1020, + 906, 901, 1170, 912, 746, 919, 718, 714, 740)

13 Visualizing Data 13 of 14 R: p l o t ( date, flow, type = b, main = Annual f l o w o f the r i v e r N i l e at Ashwan 1871 to 1970 ) Annual flow of the river Nile at Ashwan 1871 to 1970 flow date If you want to make a time series plot, you will typical define t=1871:1970, y=c(y 1,y 2,...), then plot(t, y, type="b"). 1.5 Summary Summary Univariate quantitative data (look for shape, center, variation, outliers) 1. Frequency table: standard, cumulative, relative 2. Histogram: visual for frequency table hist(x), stem(x) Univariate qualitative data: 1. Frequency table: t=table(x) 2. Pareto chart: barplot(sort(t, decreasing = TRUE)) Bivariate data: 1. Scatter plot: plot(x, y) 2. Time series plot: plot(t, y, type="b") Additional Examples to try Example 16. Take a look at the built in morley table of data in R. This is the classical data from the Michaelson and Morley experiment that measured the speed of light (values are in km/s minus 299,000). The data consists of five experiments, each consisting of 20 consecutive runs. Make a histogram of the speed of light. What does the histogram tell you about the data? Make a stem and leaf plot of the data. How does it compare with the histogram? Are there any outliers?

14 14 of Summary What is the range of the data? What value are most of the measurements around? Example 17. Take a look at the built in women table of data in R. This data set gives the average heights and weights for American women aged 30 to 39. Make a scatter plot of height vs. weight. Are any trends visible?

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