# Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

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1 Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions This curve is kind of a big deal. It shows the distribution of a set of test scores, the results of rolling a die a million times, the heights of people on Earth, the battery life of cell phones, and the fuel efficiency of hybrid cars..1 Recharge It! Normal Distributions #I monline The Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions Below the Line, Above the Line, and Between the Lines Z-Scores and Percentiles You Make the Call Normal Distributions and Probability

2 Chapter Overview The first lesson of this chapter leverages student knowledge of relative frequency histograms to introduce normal distributions. Students explore the characteristics of normal distributions. In the second lesson, students build their knowledge of normal distributions using the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions. Students use the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions to determine the percent of data between given intervals that are bounded by integer multiples of the standard deviation from the mean. In the third lesson, students use a z-score table and a graphing calculator to determine the percent of data in given intervals that are bounded by non-integer multiples of the standard deviation from the mean. In the last lesson, students use their knowledge of probability and normal distributions to analyze scenarios and make decisions. Lesson CCSS Pacing Highlights Models Worked Examples Peer Analysis Talk the Talk Technology This lesson introduces normal distributions..1.2 Normal Distributions The Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions S.ID.1 S.ID.2 S.ID.4 S.ID.1 S.ID In the context of a cell phone battery life scenario, questions guide students through building a normal distribution based on the concepts of continuous data and relative frequency histograms. Students explore and identify characteristics of normal distributions. In this lesson, students use normal curves and relative frequency histograms of the cell phone battery scenario to build conceptual understanding of the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions. The standard normal distribution is introduced. Students compare and contrast a box-and-whisker plot with a normal distribution. Using contextual and non-contextual scenarios, questions ask students to use the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions to estimate the percentage of data in a given interval for normal distributions and for standard normal distributions. X X 1071A Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

3 Lesson CCSS Pacing Highlights Models Worked Examples Peer Analysis Talk the Talk Technology Using the contexts of hybrid car gas mileage and teen texting, this lesson focuses on determining the percent of data below any given data value, above any given data value, and between any two data values of a normal distribution..3.4 Z-Scores and Percentiles Normal Distributions and Probability S.ID.4 2 S.MD.6(1) S.MD.7(1) 1 Questions ask students to determine the percent of data in a given interval using a z-score table and using a graphing calculator. The lesson culminates with questions that ask students to determine data values that represent given percentiles, using a z-score table and a graphing calculator. In this lesson, students will use their knowledge of normal distributions and probability to analyze situations and make informed decisions. The context of the scenarios are teen texting, pizza delivery times, and prize-winning tomatoes. X X X X X Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions 1071B

4 Skills Practice Correlation for Chapter Lesson Problem Set Objectives Vocabulary 1 6 Label data as either continuous or discrete.1 Normal Distributions 7 12 Sketch a relative frequency histogram for a distribution and determine if it is a normal or non-normal distribution.2.3 The Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions Z-Scores and Percentiles Identify the mean and standard deviation for normal distributions Draw a curve on the same axes as a given curve with new properties Vocabulary 1 8 Shade the corresponding region under a standard normal curve 9 16 Estimate the percent of data within specific intervals of a normal distribution, shade the corresponding region, and label the distribution Vocabulary 1 6 Calculate a percent using a z-score table given a normal distribution 7 12 Determine a percent using a graphing calculator given a normal distribution Calculate a percentile using a z-score table given a normal distribution Determine a percentile using a graphing calculator given a normal distribution.4 Normal Distributions and Probability 1 6 Calculate probabilities given a normal distribution 7 12 Calculate probabilities given a mean and a standard deviation Answer questions given a mean and a standard deviation 1072 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

5 recharge it! normal distributions.1 learning goals KEy terms In this lesson, you will: Differentiate between discrete data and continuous data. Draw distributions for continuous data. Recognize the difference between normal distributions and non-normal distributions. Recognize and interpret properties of a normal curve and a normal distribution. Describe the effect of changing the mean and standard deviation on a normal curve. discrete data continuous data sample population normal curve normal distribution mean (m) standard deviation (s) ESSEntiAl ideas A discrete graph is a graph of isolated points. A continuous graph is a graph of points that are connected by a line or a smooth curve on the graph. Discrete data is data whose possible values are countable and often finite. Continuous data are data which can take any numerical value within a range. A sample is a subset of data selected from a population. A population represents all the possible data that are of interest in a study or survey Relative frequency is a ratio of occurrences within a category to the total number of occurrences. A relative frequency histogram displays data values on one axis and the relative frequency on the other axis. A normal curve is a bell shaped curve that is symmetric about the mean of the data set. A data set that can be modeled using a normal curve has a normal distribution. The mean is the number along the number line that is aligned with the peak of the curve. Each tick mark to the left and right of the mean represents one standard deviation from the mean. COmmOn COrE StAtE StAndArdS for mathematics S.ID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable 1. Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). 2. Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. 1073A

6 4. Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve. Overview Data sets are given and students calculate the relative frequency which is used to create relative frequency histograms within the context of a situation. They explore how the relative frequency histograms begin to resemble a bell-shaped curve when the sample size increases and the interval size of the bars decrease. The terms mean, normal curve, normal distribution and standard deviation are defined. Sets of normal curves are given and students identify the mean and standard deviation related to each curve. 1073B Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

7 Warm Up Determine whether each situation is best modeled by a discrete graph or a continuous graph. 1. The temperature of an oven when using it to cook food. The data is best modeled by a continuous graph because the oven temperature can be any numerical value between zero and the highest temperature used to cook the food. 2. The test scores on the math test in Ms. Brown s class. The data is best modeled by a discrete graph because test scores are commonly reported as whole numbers. 3. The amount of water in a bathtub as the tub fills, is used, and then drains. The data is best modeled by a continuous graph because the amount of water can be any numerical value between zero and the maximum amount of water contained by the tub. 4. The number of cookies in a box of cookies. The data is best modeled by a discrete graph because the number of cookies is a whole number..1 Normal Distributions 1073C

8 1073d Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

9 Recharge It! Normal Distributions.1 LeARNINg goals In this lesson, you will: Differentiate between discrete data and continuous data. Draw distributions for continuous data. Recognize the difference between normal distributions and non-normal distributions. Recognize and interpret properties of a normal curve and a normal distribution. Describe the effect of changing the mean and standard deviation on the normal curve. KeY TeRMs discrete data continuous data sample population normal curve normal distribution mean (m) standard deviation (s) Imagine carrying around a cell phone that weighed 80 pounds, provided 30 minutes of talk time on a 100% charged battery, needed 10 hours to fully recharge the battery, and worked in only one assigned local calling area! That s a snapshot of a cell phone in the 1950s. Cell phones have come a long way since then. Today s cell phone users send and receive texts, s, photos and videos, they surf the web, play games, use GPS, listen to music, and much more all on a device that fits in the palm of your hand _A2_Ch_ indd /11/13 1:48 PM.1 Normal Distributions 1073

10 Problem 1 Battery life data of cell phones from two different companies are given. Students calculate relative frequencies and create relative frequency histograms for each phone company. They compare the spread and shape of each histogram and explore how the relative frequency histograms change when the sample size increases and when the interval size of the histogram bars decrease. Increasing the sample size and decreasing the interval size of the histogram bars transforms the data distribution into a bell-shaped, symmetrical curve. Problem 1 Low Battery Recall that a discrete graph is a graph of isolated points and a continuous graph is a graph of points that are connected by a line or smooth curve on the graph. Data can also be discrete or continuous. Discrete data are data whose possible values are countable and often finite. The scores of baseball games are examples of discrete data, because a team s score must be a positive whole number or zero. Continuous data are data which can take any numerical value within a range. Heights of students, times required to complete a test, and distances between cities are examples of continuous data. Suppose that two cell phone companies, E-Phone and Unlimited, claim that the cell phones of two of their comparable models have a mean battery life of 10 hours. 1. Are the durations of the cell phone batteries examples of discrete data or continuous data? Explain your reasoning. The durations are examples of continuous data. A possible value for a battery life can be a fraction of an amount of time. These values are not countable. grouping Ask a student to read the information and definitions. Discuss as a class. Have students complete Questions 1 and 2 with a partner. Then have students share their responses as a class. Ask a student to read the information and definitions before Question 3. Discuss as a class. Have students complete Questions 3 through 5 with a partner. Then have students share their responses as a class. guiding Questions for Share Phase, Questions 1 and 2 If the average battery life is 10 hours, can some phones have a battery life of 9 hours? 1074 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions If the average battery life is 10 hours, can some phones have a battery life of 11 hours? For every cell phone that has a battery life of 8 hours, it is likely that there is another cell phone that has a battery life of how many hours? For every cell phone that has a battery life of 12 hours, it is likely that there is another cell phone that has a battery life of how many hours? _A2_Ch_ indd If the mean battery life is 10 hours, does that indicate that all of E-Phone s phones and all of Unlimited s phones have a 10-hour battery life? Explain your reasoning. No. It is possible but unlikely for all E-Phone phones and all Unlimited phones to have a 10-hour battery life. It is more likely that some phones will have a battery life greater than 10 hours, some phones will have a battery life equal to 10 hours, and some phones will have a battery life less than 10 hours. 28/11/13 1:48 PM 1074 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

11 guiding Questions for Share Phase, Question 3 How is the relative frequency determined for each interval of time? What is the total number of occurrences in this situation? What is the sum of all of the relative frequencies for E-Phone? What is the sum of all of the relative frequencies for Unlimited? Why is the sum of the relative frequencies for each company equal to 1, or 100%? Explain. Is it possible for the sum of the relative frequencies to equal a value other than 1, or 100%? Explain. One way to display continuous data is by using a relative frequency table. The relative frequency tables shown display the battery lives of a sample of 100 E-Phone cell phones and 100 Unlimited cell phones. A sample is a subset of data selected from a population. A population represents all the possible data that are of interest in a study or survey. The battery lives are divided into intervals. Each interval includes the first value but does not include the second value. For example, the interval includes phones with battery lives greater than or equal to 8 hours and less than 8.5 hours. 3. Complete the tables by calculating the relative frequency of phones in each interval. Explain how you determined the relative frequencies. Battery Life (hours) E-Phone Number of Phones Relative Frequency Battery Life (hours) Recall that relative frequency is the ratio of occurrences within an interval to the total number of occurrences. Unlimited Number of Phones Relative Frequency I divided the number of phones in each interval by the number of phones in the sample, 100, to determine each relative frequency _A2_Ch_ indd Normal Distributions /11/13 1:48 PM.1 Normal Distributions 1075

12 guiding Questions for Share Phase, Question 4 How was the information in the tables used to create the graphs? What is the difference between a histogram and a bar graph? How did you determine which data values to place on the x-axis of the histogram? Relative Frequency For continuous data, a relative frequency histogram displays continuous intervals on the horizontal axis and relative frequency on the vertical axis. 4. Create a relative frequency histogram to represent the battery lives of the 100 cell phones in each sample. E-Phone (100 phones) Battery Life (hours) 0.45 Unlimited (100 phones) Relative Frequency Battery Life (hours) Recall that the shape of a data distribution can reveal information about the data. Data can be widely spread out or packed closer together. Data distributions can also be skewed or symmetric Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions _A2_Ch_ indd /11/13 1:48 PM 1076 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

13 guiding Questions for Share Phase, Question 5 Do both histograms have a peak near the middle? What is the mean value on the histograms? Do both histograms have a peak near the mean of 10.0 hours? Which histogram appears a little more spread out? What histogram seems taller in the center? grouping Have students complete Questions 6 through 8 with a partner. Then have students share their responses as a class. Relative Frequency Describe the shape and spread of the histograms. What might these characteristics reveal about the data for each company? Answers will vary. Both histograms have a peak near the middle, near the mean of 10.0 hours. E-Phone s histogram is a little more spread out, and Unlimited s histogram is a little taller in the center. E-Phone s wider distribution of data indicates that its cell phones battery lives are less consistent with the mean battery life of 10 hours than are the battery lives of Unlimited s phones. Both data distributions appear to be close to symmetric. 6. The relative frequency histograms shown represent samples of 10,000 phones from each of the two companies. Compare the histograms created from a sample of 10,000 cell phones to the histograms created from a sample of 100 cell phones. How does increasing the sample size change the appearance of the data distributions? E-Phone (10,000 phones) Battery Life (hours) guiding Questions for Share Phase, Question 6 Which histograms are more symmetrical, the graph created using a sample space of 100 cell phones, or the graph created using a sample size of 10,000 cell phones? Which histograms have a more definite center, the graph created using a sample space of 100 cell phones, or the graph created using a sample size of 10,000 cell phones? As the sample size increases, does the shape of the relative frequency histogram change? Relative Frequency Unlimited (10,000 phones) Battery Life (hours) Answers will vary. The histograms for the 10,000 phones show more of the data closer to the mean of 10 hours than the histograms with 100 phones..1 Normal Distributions 1077 As the sample size increases, does the shape of the relative frequency histogram approach a bell-shaped curve? As the sample size increases, does the shape of the relative frequency histogram approach a symmetrical distribution? _A2_Ch_ indd /11/13 1:48 PM.1 Normal Distributions 1077

14 guiding Questions for Share Phase, Questions 7 and 8 How do the intervals change? Do the number of bars in the histogram increase? Is the path across the top of the bars smoother? As the bars get thinner, will the top of the distribution get closer? Will the top of the bars eventually form a smooth curve if the bars are extremely thin? What information on the histogram provides information about the mean? What information on the histogram provides information about the standard deviation? Where on the graph is the mean located? Which cell phone has a mean battery life of 10 hours? Which cell phone has a standard deviation of 0.5 hours? Which cell phone has a standard deviation of 0.4 hours? Is the data distribution bell-shaped? Is the data distribution symmetrical? Relative Frequency Relative Frequency The histograms shown represent the same samples of 10,000 phones, but now the data have been divided into intervals of 0.1 hour instead of 0.5 hour. Compare these histograms with the histograms from the previous question. How does decreasing the interval size change the appearance of the data distributions? Answers will vary. There are more bars in each histogram, which gives a more distinct path across the top of the bars. E-Phone (10,000 phones) Battery Life (hours) Unlimited (10,000 phones) Battery Life (hours) 1078 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions _A2_Ch_ indd Explain why the scale of the y-axis changed when the interval size increased. For each histogram, there are more data in intervals of larger size, so when the interval size decreased, the amount of data in each interval decreased as well. 28/11/13 1:48 PM 1078 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

15 grouping Ask a student to read the information and definitions. Discuss as a class. As the sample size continues to increase and the interval size continues to decrease, the shape of each relative frequency histogram will likely start to resemble a normal curve. A normal curve is a bell-shaped curve that is symmetric about the mean of the data. A normal curve models a theoretical data set that is said to have a The vertical axis for a graph of a normal curve represents relative frequency, but normal curves are often displayed without a vertical axis. normal distribution. The normal curves for the E-Phone and Unlimited cell phone battery lives are shown. In order to display normal curves for each data set, different intervals were used on the horizontal axis in each graph. E-Phone Unlimited Although normal curves can be narrow or wide, all normal curves are symmetrical about the mean of the data. Normal Distributions Not Normal Distributions _A2_Ch_ indd Normal Distributions /11/13 1:48 PM.1 Normal Distributions 1079

16 Problem 2 Two sets of normal curves are given and students compare the means, and standard deviations in each set. They also discuss what could account for differences in the graphs. grouping Ask a student to read the information and definitions. Discuss as a class. Have students complete Questions 1 and 2 with a partner. Then have students share their responses as a class. Problem 2 Deviating slightly You already know a lot about the mean. With normal curves, the mean of a population is represented with the symbol m. The mean of a sample is represented with the symbol x. The standard deviation of data is a measure of how spread out the data are from the mean. The symbol used for the standard deviation of a population is the sigma symbol (s). The standard deviation of a sample is represented with the variable s. When interpreting the standard deviation of data: A lower standard deviation represents data that are more tightly clustered near the mean. A higher standard deviation represents data that are more spread out from the mean. 1. Normal curves A, B, and C represent the battery lives of a population of cell phones of comparable models from three different companies. A The symbol for mean, m, is spelled mu and pronounced myoo. guiding Questions for Share Phase, Question 1 Is the mean value the same or different for all three companies? If all three companies have a common peak value, does that result in the same mean value? Does a higher curve result in a larger mean value? Is the mean value related to the height of the curve? How is the mean value related to the height of the curve? Is the standard deviation the same or different for all three companies? Does a higher curve result in a greater or smaller standard deviation? Is the standard deviation related to the height of the curve? 1080 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions How is the standard deviation related to the height of the curve? Which company is associated with a battery life that is more consistent and closer to the mean? _A2_Ch_ indd 1080 Why does Company A appear more efficient? Which company is associated with a battery life that is most inconsistent and varies the most from the mean? Why does Company C appear less efficient? B C The normal curves represent distributions with standard deviations of s 5 0.1, s 5 0.4, and s Match each standard deviation value with one of the normal curves and explain your reasoning. For Normal Curve A, s The data are the least spread out from the mean in this normal curve, so the least standard deviation value matches this curve. For Normal Curve C, s The data are the most spread out from the mean in this normal curve, so the greatest standard deviation value matches this curve. For Normal Curve B, s The data are spread out more than in Graph A and less than in Graph C, so the middle value for the standard deviation matches this curve. 28/11/13 1:48 PM 1080 Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

17 guiding Questions for Share Phase, Question 2 If all three companies have different centers, does that result in different mean values? Why does Company A have the smallest mean? Why does Company C have the greatest mean? Is the shape of the normal curves the same? Is the shape of the normal curve related to its standard deviation? How is the shape of the normal curve related to its standard deviation? Which company could represent a company that uses older battery technology? Which company is associated with a shorter mean battery life? Which company could represent a company that uses newer battery technology? Which company is associated with a higher mean battery life? 2. Normal curves A, B, and C represent the battery lives of cell phones from three different companies. A B C Mean Mean Mean a. Compare the mean of each company. Company A has the smallest mean. Company C has the greatest mean. Company B s mean is between the mean of Companies A and C. b. Compare the standard deviation of each distribution. The standard deviation is the same for all three companies because the shape of the normal curves is the same. Be prepared to share your solutions and methods _A2_Ch_ indd Normal Distributions /11/13 1:48 PM.1 Normal Distributions 1081

18 Check for Students Understanding The standardized test scores at Washington Elementary School produced a bell-shaped curve. The mean score was 83 and the standard deviation was 4 points. The standardized test scores at Hoover Elementary School produces a bell-shaped curve. The mean score was 85 and the standard deviation was 2 points. Analyze both graphs and describe their similarities and differences Hoover Test Scores Washington Test Scores Answers will vary. Hoover s test scores form a narrower and taller curve. Washington s test scores form a flatter and shorter curve Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

19 #i monline the Empirical rule for normal distributions.2 learning goals KEy terms In this lesson, you will: Recognize the connection between normal curves, relative frequency histograms, and the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions. Use the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions to determine the percent of data in a given interval. standard normal distribution Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions ESSEntiAl ideas The standard normal distribution is a normal distribution with a mean value of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. Positive integers represent standard deviations greater than the mean and negative integers represent standard deviations less than the mean. The Empirical Rule of Normal Distributions states: Approximately 68% of the data in a normal distribution is within one standard deviation of the mean. Approximately 95% of the data in a normal distribution is within two standard deviations of the mean. Approximately 99.7% of the data in a normal distribution is within three standard deviations of the mean. The Empirical Rule of Normal Distributions can be used to estimate the percent of data within specific intervals of a normal distribution. COmmOn COrE StAtE StAndArdS for mathematics S.ID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable 1. Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). 4. Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve. 1083A

20 Overview Two histograms from the previous lesson are used again. Students estimate the percent of data within each standard deviation on the histograms, which leads to the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions. The Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions is depicted with an illustration of a normal curve. In different problem situations, students use the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions to estimate the percent of data within specific intervals. 1083B Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

21 Warm Up 1. Describe the similarities and differences between two normal curves that have the same mean but different standard deviations. The center of each normal curve will have the same value because their means are equal. The distribution with the smaller standard deviation will form a narrower and taller curve. The distribution with the larger standard deviation will form a flatter and shorter curve. 2. Describe the similarities and differences between two normal curves that have the same standard deviation but different means. The center of each normal curve will have a different value because their means are different. The shape of both curves will be the same because their standard deviations are equal..2 The Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions 1083C

22 1083d Chapter Interpreting Data in Normal Distributions

23 #I monline The empirical Rule for Normal Distributions.2 LeARNINg goals In this lesson, you will: Recognize the connection between normal curves, relative frequency histograms, and the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions. Use the Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions to determine the percent of data in a given interval. KeY TeRMs standard normal distribution Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions On October 19, 1987, stock markets around the world fell into sharp decline. In the United States, the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 508 points a 22% loss in value. Black Monday, as the day came to be called, represented at the time the largest one-day decline in the stock market ever. According to some economic models, the crash that occurred on Black Monday represented an event that was 20 standard deviations away from the normal behavior of the market. Mathematically, the odds of a Black Monday type event occurring were 1 in _A2_Ch_ indd /11/13 1:48 PM.2 The Empirical Rule for Normal Distributions 1083

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