-1- BIOS Fall, 2009 Exam I, 18 Sept, 2008 Michael Muller, Instructor

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1 BIOS Fall, 2009 Exam I, 18 Sept, 2008 Michael Muller, Instructor Name: TA: This exam consists of 42 questions over 7 pages (the last page of which has the periodic table and Bloom s hierarchy). Please check to see that all the pages are present before you begin. There are some useful diagrams on the last page - check them out before you start taking the exam. Use a #2 pencil and bubble in all answers. Your score will be posted on the UIC Blackboard site as soon as they are in. You will gain four extra credit points if you bubble in your last name first. Good Luck! 1. How does the word theory in science differ from its use in everyday English? A. There is no difference the usages are interchangeable. B. A scientific theory is always right and never changes. C. Scientific theories are testable explanations, not speculative guesses. D. A scientific theory can be confirmed by a single experiment designed to prove its accuracy. 2. A friend of yours calls to say that his car would not start this morning. He asks for your help. You tell him the battery must be dead, and that if so, then jump-starting the car from a good battery should solve the problem. In doing so, you are. A. summarizing observations about why the car won t start. B. stating a scientific theory for why the car won t start. C. offering a specific hypothesis and associated prediction to explain why the car won t start. D. performing an experimental test of a hypothesis for why the car won t start. 3. When the atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, what type of bond results? A. hydrogen bond B. ionic bond C. polar covalent bond D. nonpolar covalent bond 4. Which of the levels of protein organization is correctly paired with the interaction that might be responsible for producing the structure? A. primary structure - ionic bonding between different amino acids B. secondary structure - hydrogen bonding between elements of the protein backbone C. tertiary structure - polar interactions between hydrophobic amino acids D. quaternary structure - disulfide bonds between different cysteine residues in the same polypeptide 5. What chemical property of RNA makes it much more likely to degrade than DNA? A. RNA molecules use the base uracil instead of thymine. B. RNA molecules cannot form secondary structures with antiparallel strands. C. RNA nucleotides have additional phosphate groups between the 5-carbon sugars. D. RNA nucleotides have a 2' hydroxyl (-OH) group. -1-

2 6. Which one of the following predictions follows from the sexual selection hypothesis for why giraffes have long necks? A. In contests over females, the best-nourished male should always, or almost always, win. B. In contests over females, the male with the longest neck should have an advantage over the other males. C. In natural populations, female neck length should decline over time. D. Young males that are given extra amounts of high-quality food should grow particularly long, strong necks. 7. Which of the following is a powerful way to test a hypothesis? A. Incorporate the hypothesis into a more general theory. B. Formulate a competing or alternative hypothesis. C. Formulate a null hypothesis. D. Perform an experiment that tests a prediction that follows from the hypothesis. 8. An atom has six electrons in its valence shell. How many single covalent bonds would you expect it to form in most circumstances? A. one B. two C. three D. six 9. The difference between a polar covalent bond and an ionic bond is that electrons are shared unequally in a polar covalent bond but completely transferred (i.e., not shared) in an ionic bond. A. True B. False 10. Which of the following true statements can be attributed to water's high specific heat? A. Oil and water do not mix well. B. Our body temperature takes a long time to change because our body is composed mostly of water. C. Ice floats on water. D. Sugar dissolves in hot tea faster than in iced tea. 11. The cities of Portland, Oregon, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, are at about the same latitude, but Minneapolis has much hotter summers and much colder winters than Portland does. Why? (Portland is near the Pacific Ocean; Minneapolis is near a number of large lakes.) A. They are not at exactly the same latitude. B. The ocean is so large that it has a highly moderating influence on temperature. C. Freshwater is more likely to freeze than saltwater. D. Minneapolis is much windier, due to its location in the middle of a continent. 12. The molecule diagramed below is an example of what type of biological molecule? A. Phospholipid B. Steroid C. Amino acid D. Nucleotide E. ATP -2-

3 13. Question #12 is asking for what type of learning? A. Lower-order learning (Knowledge & Understanding) B. Higher-order learning (Applying & Analyzing) C. Higher-order learning (Evaluating & Creating) D. None of the above 14. In which of the following molecules is the Carbon the most reduced? A. CO B. CH OH C. C H D. HCN E. C H O Why are most biologically important molecules polymers? A. Polymers are simple molecules B. Each polymer has a common bond type joining each monomer. This makes it easy to mix and match to create a large number of different molecules C. The monomers are energetically cheap to produce D. Polymers are very unstable, which makes them highly reactive Because you demanded it, matching on a diagram! Use the key on the right to properly identify the features on the diagram. A. Mitochondria - 18 B. Rough ER - 16 C. Smooth ER D. Golgi Apparatus - 17 E. Chloroplast 19. Which of the following statements (A-D) about enzymes is FALSE? If statements A-D are true, then choose E. A. Enzymes are not consumed in a reaction B. Enzymes lower the activation energy of both the forward and the reverse reactions C. Human enzymes typically operate under a narrow range of temperatures and ph s D. Substrates bind to the enzyme forming a temporary enzyme-substrate complex E. All of the above statements about enzymes are TRUE 20. Plant cells contain functional mitochondria A. True B. False -3-

4 21. The reaction of A + B >> C + D is exothermic. There is an enzyme which speeds up the reaction, but the reaction can proceed without the aid of a catalyst. Which statement below is TRUE? A. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction will release more energy than non-enzyme-catalyzed reaction B. The non-enzyme-catalyzed reaction will release more energy than enzyme catalyzed reaction C. Both the enzyme-catalyzed and the non-enzyme-catalyzed reactions will release the same amount of energy 22. The graph below on the left shows the relationship between the natural log of a mammals body mass and its temperature. Basically, as a mammals mass increases, its body temperature decreases. All mammals possess the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Based on this information, predict which enzyme corresponds to each organism in the graph on the below left. A. X = mouse, Y = human, Z = elephant B. X = mouse, Y = elephant, Z = human C. X = elephant, Y = mouse, Z = human D. X = elephant, Y = human, Z = mouse 23. Why do most biological enzymes have a ph optimum? A. The ph affects the substrate s ability to react and form the product B. Changes in ph affect the enzyme s secondary and tertiary structures, which affect enzyme activity C. ATP is destroyed when the ph is too high or too low D. Changes in ph often affect the temperature, so there is a ph optimum because there is a temperature optimum 24. Which of the following is not found in all cells? A. Nucleus B. Ribosomes C. Cytoplasm D. Plasma membrane E. All of the above are found in all cells -4-

5 25. Which cell structure is incorrectly matched with its function? A. Nucleolis storage of genetic information B. Rough ER protein synthesis C. Smooth ER lipid syntheis D. Lysosome destruction and recycling of old organelles and macromolecules E. Plant Central Vacuole storage 26. Propose a function for cells that contain extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum A. Production and processing of fatty acids and steroids B. Movement of the cell by cell crawling C. Storage of large amounts of starch D. Production of large amounts of muscle protein after exercise 27. What would happen to a cell that had a mutation in the gene which produces nuclear localization signals (NLS)? A. It would not be able to distribute proteins in the Golgi Apparatus B. It would not be able to produce lipids C. It would not be able to synthesize ribosomes D. It would not be able to produce the cytoskeleton E. It would not be able to move molecules into or out of the nucleus 28. Which of the following is NOT evidence in support of the endosymbiosis theory of the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplast? A. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have archaean ribosomes B. Mitochondria and chloroplasts divide in a process very similar to binary fission C. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are approximately the size of a prokaryotic cell D. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have naked DNA E. All of the above are evidence in support of the endosymbiosis theory of the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. 29. Cooking oil and gasoline (a hydrocarbon) are not amphipathic molecules. Why? A. They do not have a polar or charged region. B. They do not have a hydrophobic region. C. They are highly reduced molecules. D. They spontaneously form micelles or liposomes in solution. 30. Which of the following best describes a biological membrane? A. A lipid bilayer with peripheral proteins on the outside and inside surfaces B. A lipid monolayer with asymmetrical distribution of integral and peripheral proteins C. A lipid bilayer with a symmetrical distribution of integral and peripheral proteins D. A lipid bilayer with an asymmetrical distribution of integral and peripheral proteins -5-

6 31. You have just discovered an organism that lives in extremely cold environments. Which of the following would you predict to be true about the phospholipids in its membranes, compared to phospholipids in the membranes of organisms that live in warmer environments? A. The membrane phospholipids of cold-adapted organisms will have longer hydrocarbon tails. B. The membrane phospholipids of cold-adapted organisms will have more saturated hydrocarbon tails. C. The membrane phospholipids of cold-adapted organisms will have more unsaturated hydrocarbon tails. 32. What do you predict about the cholesterol levels in the membranes in the above organism when compared to a similar organism that lives in the tropics? A. The cholesterol levels will be greater in the organism that lives in the colder environments than in the organism that lives in the tropics B. The cholesterol levels will be lower in the organism that lives in the colder environments than in the organism that lives in the tropics C. The cholesterol levels will be the same in the organism that lives in the colder environments and in the organism that lives in the tropics 33. If a plasma membrane is punctured with a small object, the hole will close up and the membrane will be as good as new. Why? A. Proteins on the outer surface are responsible for membrane healing B. The cytoskeleton is responsible for membrane healing C. The amphipathic phospholipids will be moved by the water molecules and heal the membrane wound D. The Golgi apparatus will secrete versicles that will heal the wound 34. Insulin is a protein that will be produced and secreted by a pancreatic cell. Actin is a protein produced by a pancreatic cell used in formation of the the cytoskeleton. Which of the following statements about the production of these two proteins in a pancreatic cell is TRUE? A. Both the actin and the insulin proteins will be glycolated when first produced B. Both the actin and the insulin proteins will be produced in ribosomes floating free in the cytoplasm, not on ribosomes bound to the ER C. Both actin and insulin will be sorted in the Golgi Apparatus D. Only the insulin will be glycolated, the actin will not be glycolated are TRUE. 35. Which of the reasons given below was NOT given by the judge in the Kitzmiller v Dover court case for why Intelligent Design (ID) is not science? A. ID violated the centuries-old ground rules of science by invoking and permitting supernatural causation for natural phenomena B. the argument of irreducible complexity, central to ID, employs the same flawed and illogical contrived dualism that doomed creation science C. ID s negative attacks on evolution have been refuted by the scientific community D. All of ID s claims have not been scientifically demonstrated E. All of the above reasons were cited by the judge in the Kitzmiller v Dover case -6-

7 36. One reason why supernatural arguments for phenomena have not been accepted by most scientists is because you cannot see, replicate, control or test supernatural phenomena, so they lie outside of the realms of science. A. True B. False 37. What is a major difference in the extracellular matrix (ECM) between plant and animal cells? A. Plant ECM is composed primarily of proteins, whereas animal ECM is mainly carbohydrates. B. Plant ECM is primarily carbohydrate in nature, whereas animal ECM is largely protein based. C. Plant and animal ECMs are quite similar in structure and function. D. Plant ECM components are released extracellularly by the Golgi stacks, whereas lysosomes function in this capacity in animal cells. 38. Flagella and cilia bend or move, imparting mobility to cells. How do these structures move? A. The basal body at the base of the structure hydrolyzes ATP, causing a conformational change that results in movement of the cilium or flagellum. B. Two microtubules at the core of the structure serve as motor proteins. C. Axonemes are structured such that movement is constant. D. Dynein is a motor protein that hydrolyzes ATP and is responsible for movement of the cilium or flagellum. 39. Question #38 is asking for what type of learning? A. Lower-order learning (Knowledge & Understanding) B. Higher-order learning (Applying & Analyzing) C. Higher-order learning (Evaluating & Creating) D. None of the above 40. In lab, you had to prepare a series of known concentrations, measure their absorbency, and then prepare a standard curve. You could then use this standard curve to answer questions about the concentration of your unknown. This process utilizes what kind of learning? A. Lower-order learning (Knowledge & Understanding) B. Higher-order learning (Applying & Analyzing) C. Higher-order learning (Evaluating & Creating) D. None of the above 41. The FBI continues to study the behavior of serial killers and add the data to their profiles for use in predicting the behavior of future killers. The generation of this database is what kind of process? A. An inductive process B. A deductive process 42. Everyone will get credit for this one, but only if you answer (and be honest - I m collecting data). How many different lecture captures had you listened to BEFORE lecture on Wednesday? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3-4 E

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