Lesson 19. Introduction. Standards

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1 Lessn 19 Intrductin In this lessn, students read Wmen, a pem by the cntemprary writer, Alice Walker. Students wrk in pairs t analyze Walker s pem befre wrking in small grups t cnsider hw the pem develps ideas similar t thse that Martin Luther King, Jr. develped in his Letter frm Birmingham Jail. After a brief, whle-class discussin, teachers assess student learning via a Quick Write n the fllwing prmpt: Hw des Walker develp a central idea als present in King s letter? Fr hmewrk, students review the texts they have read ver the curse f this mdule, as well as their ntes and anntatins, t find evidence f a central idea that all f the authrs develp in their wrk. Standards Assessed Standard(s) RL Addressed Standard(s) W a SL a-e Determine a theme r central idea f a text and analyze in detail its develpment ver the curse f the text, including hw it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; prvide an bjective summary f the text. Draw evidence frm literary r infrmatinal texts t supprt analysis, reflectin, and research. a. Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards t literature (e.g., Analyze hw an authr draws n and transfrms surce material in a specific wrk [e.g., hw Shakespeare treats a theme r tpic frm Ovid r the Bible r hw a later authr draws n a play by Shakespeare] ). Initiate and participate effectively in a range f cllabrative discussins (ne-n-ne, in grups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners n grades 9 10 tpics, texts, and issues, building n thers ideas and expressing their wn clearly and persuasively. a. Cme t discussins prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw n that preparatin by referring t evidence frm texts and ther research n the tpic r issue t stimulate a thughtful, well-reasned exchange f ideas. b. Wrk with peers t set rules fr cllegial discussins and decisin-making (e.g., infrmal cnsensus, taking vtes n key issues, presentatin f alternate views), clear gals and deadlines, and individual rles as needed. 1

2 c. Prpel cnversatins by psing and respnding t questins that relate the current discussin t brader themes r larger ideas; actively incrprate thers int the discussin; and clarify, verify, r challenge ideas and cnclusins. d. Respnd thughtfully t diverse perspectives, summarize pints f agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify r justify their wn views and understanding and make new cnnectins in light f the evidence and reasning presented. e. Seek t understand ther perspectives and cultures and cmmunicate effectively with audiences r individuals frm varied backgrunds. L a, b L a Determine r clarify the meaning f unknwn and multiple-meaning wrds and phrases based n grades 9 10 reading and cntent, chsing flexibly frm a range f strategies. a. Use cntext (e.g., the verall meaning f a sentence, paragraph, r text; a wrd s psitin r functin in a sentence) as a clue t the meaning f a wrd r phrase. b. Identify and crrectly use patterns f wrd changes that indicate different meanings r parts f speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advcate, advcacy). Demnstrate understanding f figurative language, wrd relatinships, and nuances in wrd meanings. a. Interpret figures f speech (e.g., euphemism, xymrn) in cntext and analyze their rle in the text. Assessment Assessment(s) Student learning is assessed via a Quick Write at the end f the lessn. Students respnd t the fllwing prmpt, citing textual evidence t supprt analysis and inferences drawn frm the text. Hw des Walker develp a central idea als present in King s letter? High Perfrmance Respnse(s) A High Perfrmance Respnse shuld: Identify a central idea in Walker s pem (e.g., wmen fighting fr a place (line 21), including educatin, fr the next generatin in rder t have mre equal pprtunities; the need fr educatin t participate in sciety fully; curage; the struggle fr human rights; etc.). Explain hw Walker develps this idea (e.g., Walker develps the idea f wmen fighting t gain a place fr us by describing the wmen with military imagery, such as Headragged generals (line 14), mined / Fields, and Bby-trapped / Ditches (lines 15 18); she als uses vilent imagery, 2

3 including her descriptin f the wmen s fists (line 5) and hw they battered dwn / Drs (lines 7 8); she describes the wmen s struggles t find A place fr us (line 21) when she describes Hw they knew what we / Must knw / Withut knwing a page / Of it / Themselves (lines 22 26); etc.). Explain hw King develps the same idea in his letter (e.g., King als depicts strng heric wmen wh might nt have been educated but wh knew hw t struggle fr a place when he mentins the ld, ppressed, battered Negr wmen, symblized in a seventy-tw-year-ld wman... wh rse up with a sense f dignity... and respnded... with ungrammatical prfundity, My feets is tired, but my sul is rested (par. 37); etc.). Vcabulary Vcabulary t prvide directly (will nt include extended instructin) starched (adj.) made clthing stiff by using a pwder r liquid substance called starch Vcabulary t teach (may include direct wrd wrk and/r text-dependent questins) husky (adj.) harsh, gruff, rasping, thraty stut (adj.) bld r brave headragged (adj.) having a piece f clth cvering the head Lessn Agenda/Overview Student-Facing Agenda Standards & Text: Standards: RL , W a, SL a-e, L a, b, L a Text: Wmen by Alice Walker ( and Letter frm Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr. Learning Sequence: 1. Intrductin f Lessn Agenda 2. Hmewrk Accuntability 3. Masterful Reading 4. Reading and Discussin 5. Small Grup Discussin 6. Quick Write 7. Clsing % f Lessn 1. 5% 2. 10% 3. 10% 4. 20% 5. 40% 6. 10% 7. 5% 3

4 Materials Cpies f the pem Wmen by Alice Walker fr each student (with lines numbered 1 26) Student cpies f the Shrt Respnse Rubric and Checklist (refer t Lessn 1) Cpies f the Evidence Cllectin Tl fr each student Cnsider numbering the lines f Wmen befre the lessn. Learning Sequence Hw t Use the Learning Sequence Symbl Type f Text & Interpretatin f the Symbl 10% Percentage indicates the percentage f lessn time each activity shuld take. n symbl Plain text indicates teacher actin. Bld text indicates text dependent questins. Italicized text indicates a vcabulary wrd. Indicates student actin(s). Indicates pssible student respnse(s) t teacher questins. Indicates instructinal ntes fr the teacher. Activity 1: Intrductin f Lessn Agenda 5% Begin by reviewing the agenda and the assessed standard fr this lessn: RL In this lessn students read Wmen, a pem by Alice Walker, and analyze the text in pairs befre wrking in small grups t cnsider hw Walker and King develp similar ideas. Students lk at the agenda. Activity 2: Hmewrk Accuntability 10% Instruct students t talk in pairs abut hw they applied their fcus standard t their text. Lead a brief share ut n the previus lessn s AIR hmewrk assignment. Select several students (r student pairs) t explain hw they applied their fcus standard t their AIR text. Students (r student pairs) discuss and then share hw they applied their fcus standard t their AIR text. 4

5 Instruct students t share and cmpare the facts they fund abut Alice Walker and their ideas abut hw these facts might influence her writing. Student respnses may include: Walker was brn befre the civil rights mvement tk place, s she might be influenced by experiences f prejudice and bigtry. She was blind in ne eye and gt a schlarship fr the disabled, s she might be sensitive t peple wh experience challenge. She is an African American civil rights activist, s she might write abut the civil rights mvement. She is a feminist, s she may write abut issues f pwer r grups f peple wh d nt have pwer. Activity 3: Masterful Reading 10% Have students listen t a Masterful Reading f Wmen, by Alice Walker. Ask students t fllw alng and listen fr Walker s use f pwerful images. Students fllw alng, reading silently. Instruct students t frm pairs and share ideas they nted. Student respnses may include: Wmen s fists battered dwn / Drs (lines 7 8). Wmen irning starched white / Shirts (lines 10 11). Wmen in headrags leading armies acrss mined fields (lines 15 16). Classrms full f desks and bks (lines 19 20). Activity 4: Reading and Discussin 20% Explain t students that thrughut the discussin, they are t stp and take ntes abut what has been discussed in preparatin fr a Quick Write assessment at the end f the lessn. Instruct students t take ntes in their ntebks r add t their text anntatins. Students listen. This fcused anntatin supprts students engagement with W a, which addresses the use f textual evidence in writing. Instruct students t frm pairs. Pst r prject each set f questins belw fr students t discuss. 5

6 Instruct student pairs t reread the pem and answer the fllwing questins befre sharing ut with the class. What d yu ntice abut the length f stanza(s) and lines in the pem? Student respnses shuld include: The pem cnsists f nly ne stanza. The lines are very shrt. Sme lines cnsist f a single wrd. What d yu ntice abut Walker s use f punctuatin and capital letters? Student respnses shuld include: Walker uses nly a single perid at the end f the pem. Walker uses capital letters at the beginning f each line. Hw des the structure f Walker s pem (line lengths and punctuatin) relate t its cntent? The structure is simple and direct, like the wmen Walker describes. Lead a brief whle-class discussin f student respnses. Instruct students t answer the fllwing questins befre sharing ut with the class. What r whm is the subject f Walker s pem? Walker s pem is abut the wmen f the speaker s mama s generatin (line 2). Hw des the speaker describe the wmen? Student respnses shuld include: They were husky f vice (line 3). They were stut f / Step (lines 3 4). They were headragged (line 14). Differentiatin Cnsideratin: If students struggle with the wrd headragged, suggest they break it int recgnizable wrds and use thse wrds t define the whle. The wrds head and rag shw that the wrd headragged means wearing a rag r piece f clth n the head. 6

7 Cnsider drawing students attentin t their wrk with L b as they use wrd parts t determine the meaning f a wrd. Hw des Walker describe the wmen s actins? Student respnses shuld include: They battered dwn / Drs (lines 7 8). They irned / Starched white / Shirts (lines 9 11). [T]hey led / Armies... Acrss mined / Fields (lines 12 16). They discver[ed] bks / Desks / A place fr us (lines 19 21). Prvide students with the fllwing definitin: starched means made clthing stiff by using a pwder r liquid substance called starch. Students write the definitin f starched n their cpy f the text r in a vcabulary jurnal. Hw des Walker use metaphr t develp her prtrait f the wmen? Walker uses a military metaphr, cmparing the wmen t headragged generals (line 14) and the fields t bby-trapped ditches (lines 17 18) t emphasize the wmen s curage and leadership and t depict the dangerus aspects f their effrts. Differentiatin Cnsideratin: If students have difficulty answering this questin, cnsider first asking the fllwing questins: T what des Walker cmpare the wmen in line 14? Walker cmpares the wmen t headragged generals (line 14). T what des Walker cmpare the fields where the wmen wrk in lines 17 18? Walker cmpares the fields t bby-trapped ditches (lines 17 18). Cnsider drawing students attentin t their applicatin f standard L a thrugh the prcess f interpreting figures f speech and analyzing their rle in the text. What is the rle f the imagery in lines f the pem? The imagery emphasizes the danger f the wmen s effrts and their curage. If necessary, remind students f their wrk with imagery in Mdule 10.1 and thrughut , reminding them that imagery is the use f figurative r sensry language t create a mental picture r feeling. 7

8 What is the cumulative impact f Walker s descriptins f the wmen and their actins n the meaning and tne f the pem? Student respnses may include: The wrds Walker uses t describe the wmen makes them sund traditinally masculine; the descriptins make it clear that these are strng, tugh wmen. The wmen are active and strng; mst f the activities sund adventurus r military. The wmen are active participants wh fight t imprve the lives f their children. Based n yur respnses t the previus questin, what can yu infer abut the meaning f husky f vice and stut f step in lines 3 4? Husky f vice (line 3) prbably means that the wmen had deep, rugh vices and stut f step (lines 3 4) means the wmen walked with strng steps. Sme students may ntice that these phrases have slightly masculine cnntatins. Cnfirm crrect student understandings and define husky as harsh, gruff, rasping, thraty and stut as bld r brave. Students write the definitins f husky and stut n their cpy f the text r in a vcabulary jurnal. Cnsider drawing students attentin t their applicatin f standard L a thrugh the prcess f determining wrd meaning thrugh cntext. Hw des Walker use these physical characteristics t depict inner qualities f the wmen she describes? The physical qualities suggest that the wmen have strength. Walker uses these images f strength t prtray the wmen as strng, bth in bdy and in character. What reasn des the speaker give fr the wmen s actins? The wmen wanted t discver bks / Desks / A place fr us (lines 19 21). What is the wmen s gal? The gal f the wmen is t prvide their children with better pprtunities fr educatin: bks / Desks (lines 19 20) and fr participating fully in sciety: A place fr us (line 21). Differentiatin Cnsideratin: If students struggle t answer this questin, cnsider asking the fllwing questin: What d the physical bjects f bks / Desks / A place represent? 8

9 The bks / Desks / A place fr us (lines 19 21) represent the larger gals f access t educatin fr their children and a place nt just in schl, but als in sciety. What is the impact f repetitin in the final fur lines f the pem? Walker uses variatins f the wrd knw (knew, knw, knwing, lines 22 24) t emphasize bth the wisdm f the wmen she describes and the value they placed n educatin and access fr their children. Differentiatin Cnsideratin: If students struggle t answer this questin, cnsider asking the fllwing questins: What did the wmen knw, accrding t the speaker f the pem? Accrding t the speaker, they knew what we / Must knw (lines 22 23). What inference can yu make abut the wmen based n this infrmatin? The wmen knew that their children must be educated; have access t the desks and bks they are discvering. What did the wmen nt knw? They did nt knw a page / Of it / Themselves (lines 24 26). What inference can yu make abut the wmen based n this infrmatin? Many f the wmen were uneducated themselves. Hw des this infrmatin impact the meaning f the pem? Because the wmen wrked s hard t get bks and desks fr their children, even thugh they culdn t read themselves, it is clear that the wmen valued educatin and wanted smething better fr their children. What central idea des Walker develp in this pem? Student respnses may include: African American wmen f the past wrked hard t get a better future fr their children. The wmen f the pem were heric. Educatin is necessary fr finding a place in sciety. Lead a brief whle-class discussin f student respnses t establish student understanding f the cntent and style f Walker s pem. 9

10 Activity 5: Small Grup Discussin 40% Instruct students t frm small grups. Pst r prject each set f questins belw fr students t discuss in small grups. Cnsider reminding students that this is an pprtunity t apply standard SL a-e. Hw des the structure f King s letter as a whle differ frm the structure f Walker s pem? Student respnses may include: King s letter has many paragraphs, but Walker s pem is a single stanza. King s letter uses many lng sentences, alng with shrter sentences, and high-level vcabulary, while Walker s pem uses shrt lines and mre basic vcabulary. In what ways are King s letter and Walker s pem similar? Student respnses may include: Bth texts describe peple vercming difficulties t achieve a better future. Bth texts describe struggles fr access t freedm r a better place. What is a purpse evident in bth King s letter and Walker s pem? Bth King and Walker wrte texts with the purpse f advancing the rights f peple wh had limited access t pprtunities in sciety. Instruct students t reread King, paragraph 11 (frm We knw thrugh painful experience t ur legitimate and unavidable impatience ) alng with their ntes and anntatins and answer the fllwing questins befre sharing ut with the class. Identify ideas that King develps and refines in paragraph 11. Student respnses may include: King develps the idea that the ppressr never vluntarily gives freedm t the ppressed. King describes the ppressin that African Americans have experienced while waiting fr freedm. King describes the struggle against a degenerating sense f nbdyness (par. 11) In what ways des Walker s pem develp ideas similar t thse that King develps in this paragraph? Student respnses may include: Walker develps the image f wmen leading a fight fr freedm f educatin. Walker describes the hard wrk f an earlier generatin. Walker describes wmen wh have nt lst the struggle against a sense f nbdyness. 10

11 Lead a brief whle-class discussin f student respnses. Instruct students t reread King, paragraph 22 (frm Yu spke f ur activity in Birmingham t t a frightening racial nightmare ) alng with their ntes and anntatins and answer the fllwing questins befre sharing ut with the class. What tw frces des King describe in this paragraph? Student respnses shuld include: [A] frce f cmplacency made up f Negres wh... have been s cmpletely drained f self-respect and a sense f smebdyness that they have adjusted t segregatin (par. 22). A frce f bitterness and hatred and cmes perilusly clse t advcating vilence... It is made up f peple wh have lst faith in America (par. 22). What evidence des Walker prvide t suggest that the wmen she describes are similar t r different frm what King refers t as a frce f cmplacency? Student respnses may include: The wmen are different frm King s frce f cmplacency (King, par. 22) because Walker describes them as stut f / Step (Walker, lines 3 4) and as Headragged generals (Walker, line 14) wh led / Armies, (Walker, lines 12 13) s they are nt drained f selfrespect and a sense f smebdyness (King, par. 22). The wmen are different because they are still fighting ppressin, s they have nt adjusted t segregatin (King, par. 22). What evidence des Walker prvide t suggest that the wmen she describes are similar t r different frm King s frce f bitterness and hatred? Student respnses may include: The wmen are different frm this frce because the vilence is figurative, nt literal. The wmen are different because the wmen have nt lst faith in America (King, par. 22). They are wrking t gain A place fr us (Walker, line 21). Lead a brief whle-class discussin f student respnses. Instruct students t reread King, paragraph 34 (frm I hpe the church as a whle t in ur eching demands ) alng with their ntes and anntatins and answer the fllwing questin befre sharing ut with the class. 11

12 In what ways d the wmen Walker describes belng t the destiny f America that King describes? Student respnses may include: The wmen are described as active and strng, with stut f / Step in lines 3 4 and leading armies in lines 12 18; King describes the bttmless vitality f African-Americans as they cntinue t thrive and develp (King, par. 34). King describes the freparents f the demnstratrs as peple wh labred here withut wages (King, par. 34). The wmen in Walker s labr by irning Starched white / Shirts (Walker, lines 10 11) and in fields. Lead a brief whle-class discussin f student respnses s that students can identify ways in which King and Walker treat similar ideas. Activity 6: Quick Write 10% Instruct students t respnd briefly in writing t the fllwing prmpt: Hw des Walker develp a central idea als present in King s letter? Instruct students t lk at the pem alng with their ntes and anntatins t find evidence. Ask students t use this lessn s vcabulary wherever pssible in their written respnses and t establish and maintain a frmal style and bjective tne. Remind students t use the Shrt Respnse Rubric and Checklist t guide their written respnses. Display the prmpt fr students t see, r prvide the prmpt in hard cpy. Students independently answer the prmpt using evidence frm the text. See the High Perfrmance Respnse at the beginning f this lessn. Activity 7: Clsing 5% Display and distribute the hmewrk assignment. Fr hmewrk, instruct students t review Letter frm Birmingham Jail, alng with their ntes, tls, Quick Writes, and anntatins t identify the claims King makes in his letter. Then, students use the Evidence Cllectin Tl t identify three imprtant claims King makes and analyze hw he develps and refines these claims acrss the letter. Students fllw alng. 12

13 Hmewrk Review Martin Luther King, Jr. s Letter frm Birmingham Jail, alng with yur tls, ntes, Quick Writes, and anntatins. Use the Evidence Cllectin Tl t identify three imprtant claims King makes and analyze hw he develps and refines these claims acrss the letter. 13

14 Evidence Cllectin Tl Name: Class: Date: Directins: Review Martin Luther King, Jr. s Letter frm Birmingham Jail, alng with yur tls, ntes, Quick Writes, and anntatins. Identify three imprtant claims King makes and analyze hw he develps and refines these claims acrss the letter. In clumn 1, recrd the claims. In clumn 2, recrd the evidence and reasning that supprts the claims. In clumn 3, recrd yur analysis f hw King develps and refines the claims. Claim Supprt Cmments 14