Why hot water freezes faster than cold water

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Why hot water freezes faster than cold water"

Transcription

1 Why hot water freezes faster than cold water By Daniel Muthukrishna Undergraduate Engineering/Physics Student at the University of Queensland Images also produced by Daniel Muthukrishna

2 Some of the main proposed explanations for the Mpemba effect have been that hotter water loses some of its mass to evaporation and that hot and cold water differ in their gas content causing a difference in freezing times. However, although both of these parameters do have an effect, they are not substantial enough to explain the distinct results. According to Osborne (1979) the amount of mass lost to evaporation is insufficient to explain the results. Additionally, Wojciechowski et al. observed the Mpemba effect in a closed container, which suggests that evaporative cooling is not the sole cause of the effect (Wojciechowski, Owczarek & Bednarz 1988). Furthermore, although hot water can hold less dissolved gas than cold water, causing a disparity in the gas content (Jeng 2005) and thus a difference in the enthalpy of freezing, Mpemba and Osborne s original experiments as well as several other experiments observed the Mpemba effect with recently boiled water, to remove dissolved air (Jeng 1998). These experiments suggest that dissolved gasses are not necessary to the Mpemba effect. Therefore, I will argue that the primary cause of the Mpemba effect is the temperature distribution of the water. As the water cools it develops temperature gradients and convection currents. For most temperatures the density of water decreases as the temperature increases. So over time, as the water cools a hot top will develop, where the surface of the water will be warmer than the bottom. Since the water loses heat primarily through the surface, the water should lose heat faster than one would expect based just on looking at the average temperature of the water (Jeng 1998). Therefore, when the hot water cools down to a colder temperature, it will lose heat faster than a body of water uniformly at that colder temperature because of its hot top. This theory is Figure 1 Convection currents supported by the fact that Deeson (1971) found that gentle stirring substantially raised the time of freezing. This could explain the Mpemba effect because the initially hot water will cool rapidly, and quickly develop convection currents and so the temperature of the water will vary greatly from the top of the water to the bottom. On the other hand, the initially cool water will have a slower rate of cooling, and will thus be slower to develop significant convection currents. Thus, if we compare the initially hot water and initially cold water at the same average temperature, it seems reasonable to believe that the initially hot water will have greater convection currents, and thus have a faster rate of cooling (Jeng 1998). It should also be noted that the density of water reaches a maximum at 4 C. Therefore, below 4 C the density of water actually decreases with decreasing temperature, and a cold top is instead formed. The reason that the water is most dense at 4 C (Robson & Marshall 2010) is most simplistically related to the fact that ice has a lower density than water, which is in fact uncommon for solids. The primary reason for this is because of hydrogen bonding. When water becomes solid, the H 2 O molecules spread apart to form a tetrahedral structure because of the hydrogen bonds. This is because it is more energetically favourable for the molecules to spread apart and for the ice to have a lower density than for the molecules to become more compact. When water falls below 4 C the molecules begin to spread out to make best use of the hydrogen bonds, and thus the density decreases. Figure 2 Convection Currents occur in the opposite direct (colder water rises) when the water falls below 4 C

3 As shown in the figure 1 convection currents mean that a cycle is created whereby the hotter water rises and the colder water sinks. This occurs because hot water is less dense and therefore rises. However, one way to limit the convection currents is by placing baffles in the beaker of water. In this case a baffle (figure 3) is made out of a hard plastic or metal that forms a cross section to separate the water into four sections (figure 4). This means that only small convection currents can occur in each of the quarters. These smaller convection currents would not be able to have as great an effect on creating temperature gradients as the full convection currents shown in figure 1. Therefore, if convection currents have an effect on the freezing time of water, when the baffles are put in the freezing times should increase. Figure 3 Baffle I conducted an experiment which limited the other potential parameters such as frosting, evaporation and dissolved gases. I did this by using a frost-free freezer to eliminate frosting, covered a 250mL plastic beaker with a layer of plasticine to limit evaporation and used recently distilled water to ensure both the cold and hot water were identical in every way except for their initial temperature. I made use of a sofware called DataStudio and three temperature probes at different heights (top, middle and bottom) connected to a laptop to record the temperature change over time and the freezing time (An example data set is shown in Appendix A). I compared water at nine different temperatures between 10 C and 90 C one set with full convection currents, and the other set with limited convection currents using baffles. Figure 4 Convection currents in beaker of water with baffles The next four graphs illustrate the results. Figure 5 Diagram of the beaker put to freeze

4 Freezing Time (minutes) Full Convection Limited Convection - Baffles Initial Temperature ( C) Figure 4.2 Final Freezing time of the water The above graph (Figure 4.2) illustrates the time taken for each of the experiments to completely freeze. The final freezing time is the time for the entire body of water to solidify. This was when all of the probes indicated temperatures below 0 C.

5 Freezing Time (minutes) Freezing Time (minutes) 350 Top Full Convection Limited convection - Baffles Initial Temperature ( C) Figure 4.3 Freezing time of the top section of the water 400 Middle Full Convection Limited Convection - Baffles Initial Temperature ( C) Figure 4.4 Freezing time of the middle section of the water

6 Freezing time (minutes) 400 Bottom Full Convection Limited Convection - Baffles Initial Temperature ( C) Figure 4.5 Freezing time of the bottom section of the water The above three graphs indicated the freezing time (the time taken for the probes to fall below 0 C) for the top, middle and bottom section of the water. These indicate that a temperature gradient exists within each of the bodies of water.

7 The results firstly indicated that the Mpemba effect occurs in distilled water. Although it is not simply a linear trend, where higher temperatures have shorter freezing times as evidenced by the highest freezing time occurring at water with an initial temperature of 50 C, it was clear that much higher temperatures had freezing times shorter than or comparable to much lower temperatures. For example, in graph 1 (blue line full convection beaker) it is evident that the water with an initial temperature of 90 C, had a freezing time much shorter than the water starting at room temperature (20 C). This phenomenon can be explained by convection currents. Firstly, by comparing the two sets of data in figure 5.1 (the red line representing the water with baffles that limited the effect of convection currents, and the blue line representing the water with full convection) it is clear that convection currents have a significant impact on the freezing time. This is evidenced by the fact that all of the data points that had limited convection currents had a much higher freezing time when compared with the water with full convection currents of similar temperatures. However, this does not substantiate that convection currents cause hotter water to freeze first, but only that convection currents influence the freezing time of water. To support the hypothesis that they cause hot water to freeze first, there needs to be a clear indication that the water at higher temperatures are affected to a greater extent by the presence of baffles than the water at lower temperatures. The maximum difference in freezing time when comparing full convection to limited convection occurred in water at an initial temperature of 90 C. By examining the freezing times of the top of the water and comparing the beakers with full and limited convection currents, it is clear that the water with full convection currents froze much faster. The red line is clearly always above the blue, indicating that the freezing times of the top of the water are affected by convection currents. But what really supports my point is the fact that the water at higher temperatures was far more affected by the baffles than the water at the lower temperatures. This is evidenced by the hotter temperatures in the full convection beakers such as 90 C, 80 C etc. all having much quicker freezing times than their corresponding limited convection beakers. Moreover, at 10 C and 20 C, it is clear that the effect of convection currents is minimal and barely affects the freezing Figure 5.1 Copy of figure 4.2 Final freezing time of the water Figure 5.2 Copy of figure 4.3 Freezing time of the top of the water times. This means that convection currents greatly influence the fact that hot water freezes faster than cold water at the top of the body of water. Furthermore, the freezing times of the water at the bottom of the beaker (figure 4.5) present the opposite of the freezing times of water at the top (figure 5.2). The graph shows that the water with limited convection currents has a far shorter freezing time than the water with full convection currents in most cases. This is because convection currents cause the bottom to freeze last. When the temperature of water falls below 4 C, the water becomes less dense. Therefore, the colder water begins to rise (as it is less dense) while the slightly hotter water begins to sink. This causes the top to freeze first and the bottom to freeze last. In the water with baffles, this does not occur

8 because the convection currents do not play a large role. In fact, as represented in Table 5.1, in almost every case in the water with full convection the top froze first; while in nearly every case of the water with baffles, the bottom froze first. This explains why the freezing time of the bottom of the water was quicker for the water with limited convection. Additionally, by examining each of the graphs of each experiment it is clear that water maintains a hot top whilst cooling until it reaches about 4 C (see Appendix C). At this point the Bottom and middle sections plateau for a while, but the top appears to increase its gradient, and cool even faster. Before this point the bottom had the steepest gradient and was losing heat the fastest. The reason that the water plateaus at 4 C is because of hydrogen bonding. Unlike most other substances water s solid state is less dense than its liquid state (as seen by the fact that ice floats on water). This is because the water molecules form tetrahedral structures to make best use of the hydrogen bonding in its solid state (Robson & Marshall 2010). It is more energetically favourable for the water molecules to form this structure which actually spreads apart the molecules and causes it to be less dense. When water falls below 4 C, it begins to form these tetrahedral structures and its density decreases. To form these structures, it requires energy. Therefore, while it is cooling, instead of expending its energy on reducing its temperature it expends it on forming these structures. Therefore, it halts at 4 C for a few minutes while this occurs. But it is at this 4 C that the top of the water increases its gradient quite significantly and freezes first. This is because of its hot top. When it falls below 4 C, the density begins to decrease and thus the cold water begins to rise. This means that it must now have a cold top. This cold top means that the top will freeze first. From all of this, it can be concluded that because of the hot top of water, caused by convection currents, hotter water tends to freeze faster than colder water as supported by Deeson s results (Deeson 1971). This is because the hot top and the temperature gradient are most exaggerated in water at higher temperatures. And since heat is lost most readily through the surface (Jeng 2005), these hot tops allow the water to lose heat rapidly upwards, so that the lower layers cool more quickly. In further support of this, according to Deeson (1971) stirring the water while it was cooling significantly increased the freezing time. This was because the convection currents would be disturbed. In conjunction with the convection current explanation of the Mpemba effect it is possible that the difference in internal energy of the hot water and the cold water can explain the effect. Since hot water has more internal energy, it may be able to use that extra energy to create hydrogen bonds quicker and overcome the latent heat of fusion faster in the freezing process. It is clear that convection currents cause water to freeze faster and also that the convection current s effect on the freezing time was much greater for water at initially higher temperatures. Furthermore, the hot top was much more exaggerated in the water at initially higher temperatures. Since the heat is most readily lost through the surface, the exaggerated hot top in the water at initially higher temperatures allowed it to freeze at a faster rate than the water at initially lower temperatures. In many cases this increased rate allowed the hotter water to freeze first.

9 Appendix A

10 Appendix B Water with full convection currents Initial Temperature ( C) Freezing Time (minutes) Steepest gradient Time to reach 0C Top Middle Bottom Average Top Middle Bottom Order of Freezing Final Freezing time Order before 5 C Top Middle Bottom Max time to reach 0 C Order to hit 0C Top, Bot, Mid 241 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Top, Mid, Bot 309 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Top, Bot, Mid 285 bot, mid, top top, bot, mid Bot, Top, Mid 279 bot, mid, top top, bot, mid Top, Bot, Mid 357 bot, mid, top top, mid,bot Top, Mid, Bot 300 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Top, Bot, Mid 328 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Top, Bot, Mid 295 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Top, Mid, Bot 278 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Water with baffles - Limited Convection Currents Initial Temperature ( C) Freezing Time (minutes) Steepest gradient Time to reach 0 C Top Middle Bottom Average Top Middle Bottom Order of Freezing Final Freezing time Order before 5 C Top Middle Bottom Max time to reach 0 Order to reach 0 C Top, Bot, Mid 263 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Bot, Top, Mid 341 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot Bot, Top, Mid 308 bot, mid, top top, mid, bot bot, mid, top 289 bot, top, mid top, bot, mid Bot, Top, Mid 328 bot, mid, top top, bot, mid mid, top, bot 322 bot, top, mid top, mid, bot Bot, Top, Mid 354 bot, mid, top bot, mid, top bot, mid, top 300 bot, top, mid top, mid, bot top,mid,bot 351 bot, top, mid top, mid, bot Figure 4.1 Data from all experiments This table provides a comprehensive display of most of the important elements of each of the experiments. The top section shows relevant data for the beakers without baffles and therefore full convection currents, while the bottom section displays the relevant data for the beakers of water with the baffles and therefore limited convection currents. The table firstly states the initial temperatures of each of the experiments therefore each row is a different experiment. It then displays the freezing time for the top, middle and bottom section of the beakers. The next column illustrates the order of freezing. It can be seen that in the Water with full convection currents, the top almost always froze first, while in the water with limited convection currents the bottom mostly froze first. It then displays the final freezing time, which is taken as the time for all of the probes to indicate temperatures below 0 C therefore implying that they had all frozen. The next column indicates that before 5 C that is before water reaches its most dense state the bottom is always cooling the fastest, followed by the middle and then the top in almost all cases. The next columns illustrate the time taken for each section of the beaker to reach 0 C. The max time to reach 0 C is the time taken for all the probes to be at 0 C at the same time. The last column indicates that for all experiments, the top reached 0 C first, followed by the middle and then the top in almost all cases.

11 Appendix C Example of hot top The above graph is an example of water maintain a hot top whereby the top of the beaker cools at the slowest rate until about 4 C, where the hotter water is no longer less dense than the cooler water

12 Bibliography Concetto, G 2007, 'An easy classroom experiment on', Phys. Educ., vol 42, no. 3, pp Deeson, E 1971, 'Cooler-lower down', Phys. Educ., vol 6, pp Freeman, M 1979, 'Cooler still - an answer?', Phys. Educ., vol 14, pp Jeng, M 1998, Can hot water freeze faster than cold water?, viewed 10 July 2011, <http://www.desy.de/user/projects/physics/general/hot_water.html>. Jeng, M 2005, Hot water can freeze faster than cold??, viewed 20 May 2011, <http://www.vnc.qld.edu.au/physics/physproj/mpemba/jeng.pdf>. Mpemba, E & Osborne, D 1969, 'Cool?', Phys. Educ., vol 4, pp Nave, C 2010, Hot Water Freezing?, viewed 18 August 2011, <http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/freezhot.html#c1>. Olson, A 2007, Investigating the 'Mpemba Effect': Can Hot Water Freeze Faster than Cold Water?, viewed 5 June 2011, <http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fairprojects/project_ideas/phys_p032.shtml?fave=no&isb=cmlkojewmta0odi0lhnpzdowlha6nsxpytpqa Hlz&from=TSW>. Osborne, D 1979, 'Mind on Ice', Phys. Educ, vol 14, pp Robson, D & Marshall, M 2010, The many mysteries of water, viewed 5 June 2011, <http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18473-the-many-mysteries-of-water.html?full=true>. Wojciechowski, B, Owczarek, I & Bednarz, G 1988, 'Freezing of Aqeous Solutions Containing Gases', Cryst. Res. Technol., vol 23, no. 7, pp

Mpemba effect from a viewpoint of an experimental physical chemist. by Nikola Bregović

Mpemba effect from a viewpoint of an experimental physical chemist. by Nikola Bregović Mpemba effect from a viewpoint of an experimental physical chemist by Nikola Bregović Introduction Checking my email a few weeks ago, I found a message from my close friend with the title This seams like

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 3 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 3. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

More information

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Kenny Gotlieb, Sasha Mitchell and Daniel Walsh Physics Department, Harvard-Westlake School 37 Coldwater Canyon, N. Hollywood, CA 9164 Introduction

More information

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

More information

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer. Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Topic Page Contents Page

Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy (11-16) Contents Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy and temperature 3 Latent heat energy 15 Interesting temperatures 4 Conduction of heat energy 16 A cooling curve 5 Convection 17 Expansion

More information

Hot Leaks. See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow.

Hot Leaks. See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow. P h y s i c s Q u e s t A c t i v i t i e s Activity 2 1 Hot Leaks See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow. Safety: This experiment requires using the hot water tap and straight pins.

More information

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature: Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

More information

Chapter 3 Student Reading

Chapter 3 Student Reading Chapter 3 Student Reading If you hold a solid piece of lead or iron in your hand, it feels heavy for its size. If you hold the same size piece of balsa wood or plastic, it feels light for its size. The

More information

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving

More information

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

More information

Project TECHNOcean Lesson/Activity Plan

Project TECHNOcean Lesson/Activity Plan Heat Transfer Hayley Vatcher Anna Reh-Gingerich Murray Middle, 7th Objective: Students should be able to: Define and describe conduction Define and describe convection List some good conductors, and poor

More information

REASONING AND SOLUTION

REASONING AND SOLUTION 39. REASONING AND SOLUTION The heat released by the blood is given by Q cm T, in which the specific heat capacity c of the blood (water) is given in Table 12.2. Then Therefore, T Q cm 2000 J 0.8 C [4186

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

More information

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

More information

Specific Heat (slope and steepness)

Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 1 Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 10 pages. According to the Physical Science text book, the Specific Heat of a material is DEFINED as the following: Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required

More information

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

More information

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics 1. An electrical heater is used to heat a 1.0 kg block of metal, which is well lagged. The table shows how the temperature of the block increased with time. temp/ C 20.1 23.0 26.9 30.0 33.1 36.9 time/s

More information

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator SHPE Jr. Chapter May 2015 STEM Activity Instructor Resource Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator Students learn about the three ways heat can be transferred from one object to another. They also learn what

More information

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

More information

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

More information

Temperature s Effect on Reaction Rates MS. THOMPSON PERIOD: A1 NOVEMBER 23, 2015

Temperature s Effect on Reaction Rates MS. THOMPSON PERIOD: A1 NOVEMBER 23, 2015 Temperature s Effect on Reaction Rates MS. THOMPSON PERIOD: A1 NOVEMBER 23, 2015 Abstract: For my experiment I wanted to know if increasing the temperature of a chemical reaction would change how fast

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

THE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DRY ICE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER

THE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DRY ICE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER THE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DRY ICE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER Justin Tunley Cary Academy ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to find out how much the temperature of water would change over time after

More information

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE LAB: Part II 1. Thermal expansion/water thermometer A flask One-hole stopper A long glass tube A container filled with

More information

Heat Transfer. Convection. Introduction. Natural convection

Heat Transfer. Convection. Introduction. Natural convection Heat Transfer Convection Introduction Convection is defined as the circulation of fluids (liquids or gases), either natural or forced. Hot or cold fluids can add or remove heat. Natural convection is caused

More information

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

More information

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change When at least two states of the same substance are present, scientists describe each different state as a phase. A phase change is the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

More information

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below. UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

More information

Temperature. Temperature

Temperature. Temperature Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

More information

SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 21 EVAPORATORS AND THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 21 EVAPORATORS AND THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 21 EVAPORATORS AND THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM UNIT OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, the reader should be able to Define high-, medium-, and low-temperature refrigeration.

More information

Kinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued.

Kinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued. Bellringer You are already familiar with the most common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. For example you can see solid ice and liquid water. You cannot see water vapor, but you can feel it in

More information

CONVECTION CURRENTS AND ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOUR OF WATER

CONVECTION CURRENTS AND ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOUR OF WATER CONVECTION CURRENTS AND ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOUR OF WATER Objective: To compare the thermal behaviour of water with that of other liquids, specifically alcohol and edible oil. To point out the anomaly of water

More information

Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

More information

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB Purpose: Most ionic compounds are considered by chemists to be salts and many of these are water soluble. In this lab, you will determine the solubility,

More information

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids 1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)

More information

WHAT HAPPENS TO WATER ABSORBENT MATERIALS BELOW ZERO DEGREES?

WHAT HAPPENS TO WATER ABSORBENT MATERIALS BELOW ZERO DEGREES? WHAT HAPPENS TO WATER ABSORBENT MATERIALS BELOW ZERO DEGREES? Relative humidity (RH) below zero is defined as the actual water vapour pressure in the air (or space) divided by the saturation vapour pressure

More information

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

More information

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510)

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) 17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.

More information

The Energy of Evaporation A Lab Investigation

The Energy of Evaporation A Lab Investigation The Energy of Evaporation A Lab Investigation Summary In this investigation, students test evaporation rates for different liquids. Next, students use a thermometer to measure the temperature change during

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

More information

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

More information

There is no such thing as heat energy

There is no such thing as heat energy There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects.

More information

Chapter 5 Student Reading

Chapter 5 Student Reading Chapter 5 Student Reading THE POLARITY OF THE WATER MOLECULE Wonderful water Water is an amazing substance. We drink it, cook and wash with it, swim and play in it, and use it for lots of other purposes.

More information

Learning outcomes. Students will be able to:

Learning outcomes. Students will be able to: Learning structure of the lesson The big picture This lesson is designed to exemplify an argumentation approach to practical work, using a predict-observe-explain framework. Students often think that some

More information

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

More information

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb. Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

More information

Things you need. Time ?????? Large pyrex beaker preferably 500 to 1000ml, or large steel vacuum

Things you need. Time ?????? Large pyrex beaker preferably 500 to 1000ml, or large steel vacuum This experiment is a means of observing the effect of cold temperatures on a range of everyday items. A freezing solution is made for this purpose by adding dry ice to a pure alcohol. This is strictly

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules. UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion

More information

The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet)

The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet) The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet) Property : High Polarity Activity #1 Surface Tension: PILE IT ON. Materials: 1 DRY penny, 1 eye dropper, water. 1. Make sure the penny is dry. 2. Begin by estimating

More information

Chapter Test A. States of Matter MULTIPLE CHOICE. a fixed amount of STAs2 a. a solid. b. a liquid. c. a gas. d. any type of matter.

Chapter Test A. States of Matter MULTIPLE CHOICE. a fixed amount of STAs2 a. a solid. b. a liquid. c. a gas. d. any type of matter. Assessment Chapter Test A States of Matter MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. Boyle s law explains the relationship between volume and pressure for a fixed

More information

A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2

A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2 North arolina Testing Program EO hemistry Sample Items Goal 4 1. onsider the spectrum for the hydrogen atom. In which situation will light be produced? 3. Which color of light would a hydrogen atom emit

More information

Materials 10-mL graduated cylinder l or 2-L beaker, preferably tall-form Thermometer

Materials 10-mL graduated cylinder l or 2-L beaker, preferably tall-form Thermometer VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER Introduction At very low temperatures (temperatures near the freezing point), the rate of evaporation of water (or any liquid) is negligible. But as its temperature increases, more

More information

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

More information

Density Lab. If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Name: Section: Due Date:

Density Lab. If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Name: Section: Due Date: Name: Section: Due Date: Lab 01B-1 If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Density Lab Density is an important concept in oceanography,

More information

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

More information

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE 4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE Summary: Students experiment with air by finding that it has mass and pressure. Warm air is less dense than cool air and this is tested using a balance. Students experiment

More information

Energy. Work. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Learning Check 2.1. Energy. Energy. makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work.

Energy. Work. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Learning Check 2.1. Energy. Energy. makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work. Chapter 2 Energy and Matter Energy 2.1 Energy Energy makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work. 1 2 Work Potential Energy Work is done when you climb. you lift a bag of groceries. you

More information

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study Describing Matter This section describes the kinds of properties used to describe matter. It also defines elements and contrasts compounds and mixtures. Use Target Reading Skills Write a definition of

More information

Chapter 17: Change of Phase

Chapter 17: Change of Phase Chapter 17: Change of Phase Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) 3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is A) a warming process. B) a cooling process also. C) neither a warming nor cooling process.

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Sample Mid-Term 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, its period A) is quartered.

More information

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

Year 10 Investigation. What Makes Ice Melt Fastest? By Rebecca Hogan

Year 10 Investigation. What Makes Ice Melt Fastest? By Rebecca Hogan Investigation What Makes Ice Melt Fastest? MY WEBSITE: http://whatsubstancemeltsicefastest.weebly.com/ Nature of Investigation: What keeps us cool on hot days? What is used in our cool, refreshing beverages?

More information

Section 15.2 Water Purification

Section 15.2 Water Purification Section 15.2 Water Purification Fresh water is an essential ingredient of modern life. Thought it s often available as the result of natural processes, there are times when it must be extracted from impure

More information

Humidity, Evaporation, and

Humidity, Evaporation, and Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Dew drops like these, on a banana leaf photographed just after sunrise, form when the air temperature drops to or below the dew point. At the dew

More information

Experiment 1: Colligative Properties

Experiment 1: Colligative Properties Experiment 1: Colligative Properties Determination of the Molar Mass of a Compound by Freezing Point Depression. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of an unknown

More information

Online Changing States of Matter Lab Solids What is a Solid? 1. How are solids different then a gas or a liquid?

Online Changing States of Matter Lab Solids What is a Solid? 1. How are solids different then a gas or a liquid? Name: Period: Online Changing States of Matter Lab Solids What is a Solid? 1. How are solids different then a gas or a liquid? 2. What are the atoms doing in a solid? 3. What are the characteristics of

More information

Convection, Conduction & Radiation

Convection, Conduction & Radiation Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

More information

Phase change lab questions Period: Physical Science

Phase change lab questions Period: Physical Science Phase change lab questions Period: Physical Science Name: Date: Pre-lab: (As always, write in complete sentences) 1. What should happen to the temperature of a substance while the substance is melting?

More information

Activity 5 At a Glance

Activity 5 At a Glance At a Glance Testing Your Hypothesis by Boiling Water Below Its Boiling Temperature Purpose To have students boil water below its typical boiling temperature by reducing the pressure above the surface of

More information

Chapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids

Chapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids States of Matter Table of Contents Objectives Summarize the main points of the kinetic theory of matter. Describe how temperature relates to kinetic energy. Describe four common states of matter. List

More information

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

More information

Melting ice Student sheet

Melting ice Student sheet Melting ice Student sheet Predict Which ice cube will melt first? Observe Describe what you saw happen. Why? (Give a scientific explanation) Questions to think about: Why does ice melt? Why might one ice

More information

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 1, Issue2, July-2012 1 CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER ABSTRACT (1) Mr. Mainak Bhaumik M.E. (Thermal Engg.)

More information

Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX

Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX Refrigeration 101 Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX Compressor Basic Refrigeration Cycle Evaporator Condenser / Receiver Expansion Device Vapor Compression Cycle Cooling by the removal of heat

More information

Q1. (a) The graph shows the temperature inside a flat between 5 pm and 9 pm. The central heating was on at 5 pm.

Q1. (a) The graph shows the temperature inside a flat between 5 pm and 9 pm. The central heating was on at 5 pm. Q. (a) The graph shows the temperature inside a flat between 5 pm and 9 pm. The central heating was on at 5 pm. (i) What time did the central heating switch off? () (ii) Closing the curtains reduces heat

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

Chapter 2, Lesson 5: Changing State Melting

Chapter 2, Lesson 5: Changing State Melting Chapter 2, Lesson 5: Changing State Melting Key Concepts Melting is a process that causes a substance to change from a solid to a liquid. Melting occurs when the molecules of a solid speed up enough that

More information

KINDERGARTEN WATER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN WATER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN WATER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN WEEK 1. PRE: Defining the states of matter. LAB: Discovering the properties of water. POST: Analyzing the water

More information

Density. Density is how concentrated or compact matter is.

Density. Density is how concentrated or compact matter is. Density Density is how concentrated or compact matter is. Packing snow into snowballs increases its density. You are squeezing large amounts of matter into small volumes of space. Equation for Density

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

A Teaching Unit for Years 3 6 children

A Teaching Unit for Years 3 6 children A Teaching Unit for Years 3 6 children 1 SEREAD and ARGO: Concept Overview for Years 3-6 Teaching Programme This is the overview for the first part of the SEREAD programme link with ARGO. The overview

More information

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred.

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. Forms of Energy AZ State Standards Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. PO 1. Describe the following ways in which

More information

TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS. Aditya S. Cary Academy ABSTRACT

TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS. Aditya S. Cary Academy ABSTRACT TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS Aditya S Cary Academy ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment was to see how dropping dry ice into different liquids affect the mass and temperature of the dry ice.

More information

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 Created by: Debra McKey (Mountain Vista Middle School); Valerie Duncan (Upper Lake Middle School); and Lynn Chick (Coyote Valley

More information

How does solar air conditioning work?

How does solar air conditioning work? How does solar air conditioning work? In a conventional air conditioning system; The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor is powered by electricity to squeeze

More information

What is matter? Chapter 2 DID YOU KNOW? Cxt HEAD TO FOLLOW

What is matter? Chapter 2 DID YOU KNOW? Cxt HEAD TO FOLLOW Chapter 2 What is matter? Figure 2.1 Our Sun is a ball of glowing hydrogen and helium gas. At the bottom left you can see a solar prominence. The Sun ejects a massive plume of gas into space. The plume

More information

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the different components of the water cycle. LAB: Contrasting water with hydrogen

More information

Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing

Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing Science Project Idea 8 th -Grade Energy Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing Setting the Scene: Holding On To Heat If you leave a cup of cold water on a counter, it will warm up very quickly.

More information

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.

More information

The Atmosphere and Winds

The Atmosphere and Winds Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 8A-1 The Atmosphere and Winds We need to learn about the atmosphere, because the ocean and atmosphere are tightly interconnected with one another: you

More information

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

More information