Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

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1 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid below its melting point. During the BC portion of the curve, the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance 1. increases and the potential energy increases 3. remains the same and the potential energy increases 2. decreases and the potential energy increases 4. remains the same and the potential energy decreases 2. What is conserved during a chemical reaction? 1. energy, only 3. both matter and energy 2. matter, only 4. neither matter nor energy 3. When the average kinetic energy of a gaseous system is increased, the average molecular velocity of the system 1. increases and the molecular mass increases 3. increases and the molecular mass remains the same 2. decreases and the molecular mass increases 4. decreases and the molecular mass remains the same

2 4. The graph below represents the uniform heating of a substance, starting with the substance as a solid below its melting point. Which line segment represents an increase in potential energy and no change in average kinetic energy? At 1 atmosphere of pressure, the steam-water equilibrium occurs at a temperature of 1. 0 K K K K 6. A sample of gas is held at constant pressure. Increasing the Kelvin temperature of this gas sample causes the average kinetic energy of its molecules to 1. decrease and the volume of the gas sample to decrease 3. increase and the volume of the gas sample to decrease 2. decrease and the volume of the gas sample to increase 4. increase and the volume of the gas sample to increase 7. Two pure water samples held in separate containers at one atmosphere pressure must have molecules possessing the same average kinetic energy if the samples have the same 1. volume 3. mass 2. temperature 4. density

3 8. The boiling point of water at standard pressure is K K K K 9. Which Kelvin temperature is equal to -73 C? K K K K 10. Which change in the temperature of a 1-gram sample of water would cause the greatest increase in the average kinetic energy of its molecules? 1. 1 C to 10 C C to 60 C C to 1 C C to 50 C 11. Which kelvin temperature is equal to 56 C? K K K K 12. Standard temperature and pressure are 1. 0 C and 1 kilopascal C and 1 kilopascal 2. 0 C and kilopascal C and kilopascal 13. Energy is being added to a given sample. Compared to the Celsius temperature of the sample, the Kelvin temperature will 1. always be 273 greater 3. have the same reading at 0 2. always be 273 lower 4. have the same reading at 273

4 14. Base your answer to the question on the information below. A rigid cylinder is fitted with a movable piston. The cylinder contains a sample of helium gas, He(g), which has an initial volume of milliliters and an initial pressure of 1.0 atmosphere, as shown below. The temperature of the helium gas sample is 20.0 C. Figure 2 The piston is pushed further into the cylinder. The temperature of the helium gas remains constant. Which is a correct numerical setup for calculating the volume of the helium gas that is anticipated when the reading on the pressure gauge is 1.5 atmospheres? (1.0)(125.0) = (1.50)(V ) 2 4. (1.50)(125.0) = (1.0)(V ) At STP, the element oxygen can exist as either O or O gas molecules. These two forms of the element have the same chemical and physical properties 3. different chemical properties and the same physical properties 2. the same chemical properties and different physical properties 4. different chemical and physical properties

5 16. Cylinder A contains 22.0 grams of CO (g) and cylinder B contains N (g). The volumes, pressures, and temperatures of the 2 2 two gases are indicated under each cylinder. Figure 3 Base your answer to the question on the information and diagrams. The temperature of the CO (g) is increased to 450. K and the volume of cylinder A remains constant. What is a correct numerical setup for 2 calculating the new pressure of the CO (g) in cylinder A? A real gas behaves more like an ideal gas when the gas molecules are 1. close and have strong attractive forces between them 3. far apart and have strong attractive forces between them 2. close and have weak attractive forces between them 4. far apart and have weak attractive forces between them

6 18. A flask containing molecules of gas A and a separate flask containing molecules of gas B are both at the same temperature. Gases A and B must have equal 1. volumes 3. pressures 2. masses 4. average kinetic energies 19. The decomposition of sodium azide, NaN (s), is used to inflate airbags. On impact, the NaN (s) is ignited by an electrical 3 3 spark, producing N (g) and Na(s). The N (g) inflates the airbag Figure 4 An inflated airbag has a volume of cm at STP. The density of N(g) 2 at STP is g/cm3. What is the total number of grams of N 2(g ) in the airbag? Answer: g 20. Base your answer to the question on the information below. A light bulb contains argon gas at a temperature of 295 K and at a pressure of 75 kilopascals. The light bulb is switched on, and after 30 minutes its temperature is 418 K. Figure 5 What is a correct numerical setup for calculating the pressure of the gas inside the light bulb at 418 K? Assume the volume of the light bulb remains constant

7 21. A real gas differs from an ideal gas because the molecules of real gas have 1. some volume and no attraction for each other 3. no volume and no attraction for each other 2. some volume and some attraction for each other 4. no volume and some attraction for each other 22. A sample of a gas has a volume of 2.0 liters at a pressure of 1.0 atmosphere. When the volume increases to 4.0 liters, at constant temperature, the pressure will be atm atm atm atm 23. Figure 6 The table shows the temperature, pressure, and volume of five samples. Which sample contains the same number of molecules as sample A? 1. E 3. C 2. B 4. D 24. The temperature of 100 milliliters of a gas at 200.K is increased to 400.K, pressure remaining constant. The new volume of the gas will be ml ml ml ml 25. At STP, 1 liter of O (g) and 1 liter of Ne(g) have the same 2 1. mass 3. number of atoms 2. density 4. number of molecules

8 26. A volume of 50.0 milliliters of an ideal gas at STP increases to 100 milliliters. If the pressure remains constant, the new temperature must be 1. 0 K K K K 27. Which energy change occurs during the burning of magnesium ribbon? 1. chemical energy to light energy 3. electrical energy to chemical energy 2. chemical energy to electrical energy 4. electrical energy to light energy 28. Figure 7 The graph represents a substance, X, in the form of a gas uniformly cooled from an initial temperature of 140 C. The time, in minutes, required to cool gas X from point B to a liquid at its freezing point is If two systems at different temperatures have contact with each other, heat will flow from the system at C to a system at 303 K C to a system at 293 K C to a system at 313 K C to a system at 333 K

9 30. What amount of heat is required to completely melt a gram sample of H O(s) at 0 C? J J J J 31. At standard pressure the steam-water equilibrium temperature occurs at 1. 0 K K K K 32. Which two compounds readily sublime at room temperature (25 C)? 1. CO (s) and I (s) 3. NaCl(s) and I (s) CO (s) and C H O (s) 4. NaCl(s) and C H O (s) Molecules in a sample of NH ( ) are held closely together by intermolecular forces 3 1. existing between ions 3. caused by different numbers of neutrons 2. existing between electrons 4. caused by unequal charge distribution 34. The amount of energy needed to change a given mass of ice to water at constant temperature is called the heat of 1. condensation 3. fusion 2. crystallization 4. formation 35. At STP, which list of elements contains a solid, a liquid, and a gas? 1. Hf, Hg, He 3. Ba, Br, B 2 2. Cr, Cl, C 4. Se, Sn, Sr 2

10 36. A 10-gram sample of water will lose the greatest amount of heat when its temperature is changed from 50 C to C C C C 37. Which substance cannot be decomposed into simpler substances? 1. ammonia 3. methane 2. aluminum 4. methanol 38. The unusually high boiling point of H O is primarily due to the presence of 2 1. hydrogen bonds 3. van der Waals forces 2. ionic bonds 4. molecule-ion attractions 39. Which sample contains particles arranged in a regular geometric pattern? 1. CO 2(l) 3. CO 2(g) 2. CO 2(s) 4. CO 2(aq) 40. Which is a characteristic of all mixtures? 1. They are homogeneous. 3. Their composition is a definite ratio. 2. They are heterogeneous. 4. Their composition can be varied.

11 41. Base your answer to the question on the particle diagrams below, which show atoms and/or molecules in three different samples of matter at STP. Which sample represents a pure substance? 1. Sample 1 2. Sample 2 3. Sample When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is classified as a 1. heterogeneous compound 3. heterogeneous mixture 2. homogeneous compound 4. homogeneous mixture

12 43. Given the diagrams X, Y, and Z below: Which diagram or diagrams represent a mixture of elements A and B? 1. X, only 3. X and Y 2. Z, only 4. X and Z 44. Which of these contains only one substance? 1. distilled water 3. saltwater 2. sugar water 4. rainwater 45. Which physical property makes it possible to separate the components of crude oil by means of distillation? 1. melting point 3. solubility 2. conductivity 4. boiling point 46. During fractional distillation, hydrocarbons are separated according to their 1. boiling points 3. triple points 2. melting points 4. saturation points

13 47. A compound differs from a mixture in that a compound always has a 1. homogeneous composition 3. minimum of three components 2. maximum of two components 4. heterogeneous composition 48. An aqueous solution of sodium chloride is best classified as a 1. homogeneous compound 3. heterogeneous compound 2. homogeneous mixture 4. heterogeneous mixture 49. Which sample represents a homogeneous mixture? 1. C H OH(l) 3. C H OH(g) C H OH(aq) 4. C H OH(s) Which property makes it possible to separate the oxygen and the nitrogen from a sample of liquefied air? 1. boiling point 3. hardness 2. conductivity 4. electronegativity

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