# There is no such thing as heat energy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects. That is the correct way to characterize these quantities. In some circles, heat energy is incorrectly used to mean energy content, when heat is not something contained within an object, but rather energy transferred by the object. There is no such thing as heat energy, while there really is thermal energy. The reason lies in the definition of heat itself, and in two other types of energy: thermal energy and internal energy. In order to define heat, we must define a reservoir (sometimes known as a heat reservoir or an energy reservoir). This is an object or material at a uniform temperature that is so large that removing a small amount of energy or adding a small amount of energy does not change anything (or at least not very much). Heat is energy transferred between systems at different temperatures. (Objects at different temperature transfer thermal energy.) The colder object becomes hotter and the hotter becomes colder. Thermodynamics and temperature The study of systems in which thermal properties change is known as thermodynamics. Perhaps the gentle reader has already heard of the three laws of thermodynamics, paraphrased as 1. Energy is conserved.

2 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 2 2. You can t win, you can only lose or break even. 3. You can t even break even. To that, physicists have added a zeroth law, which describes how temperature is defined. Suppose there are three objects, A, B, and C. The objects A and B are reservoirs and are in thermal equilibrium, which means that when they are in contact there is no net exchange of thermal energy between them. The two objects are now separated. If object C is brought up and found to be in thermal equilibrium with object A, say, then if objects B and C are placed in contact, it will be found that they are also in equilibrium with one another. A device that measures temperature is known as a thermometer. Temperatures are measured by allowing the thermometer and the system to come to thermal equilibrium. Two objects are said to be in a state of thermal equilibrium if there is no net interchange of thermal energy between those objects when they are brought into thermal contact. The measurement of the temperature of the thermometer therefore also gives a measurement of the temperature of the system. In this setup, the object C acts as the thermometer. A real thermometer (like object C) is originally calibrated by placing it in equilibrium with various objects at various known temperatures. The temperatures are marked in some way (most thermometers we are acquainted with have a mercury or alcohol column whose height is different at different temperatures, and the heights corresponding to various know temperatures are marked). Temperature is measured by putting the calibrated thermometer together with, say, object B and waiting for equilibrium to be established.

3 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 3 Then objects B and C are in thermal equilibrium and the calibrated reading of the temperature may be read off. We now define the property of thermal systems that determines whether or not they are in thermal equilibrium as the temperature: Two systems that are in thermal equilibrium with each other must have the same temperatures. Thermal equilibrium is the state in which there is no net interchange of thermal energy between objects. In practice, temperature is measured by assigning numbers to systems we designate as cold or hot and by using thermal equilibrium. The everyday scale of temperature is the Celsius scale, named for Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius ( ), who designed the first temperature scale separated by one hundred degrees of temperature in As defined today, the Celsius temperature scale has its zero at the triple point of water (where water, ice, and water vapor are at equilibrium in a vacuum), a temperature negligibly different from the freezing point of water on Earth s surface, and sets 100 C as the boiling temperature of water at sea level. A degree Celsius ( C) is one-one hundredth of the interval between these two points. In this Celsius scale, ice melts at 0 C, a cool day might have a temperature of 10 C, room temperature is about 20 C, a heat wave would have temperatures around 30 to 40 C, and human body temperature is 37 C (skin temperature is about 35 C). The absolute temperature scale, or Kelvin scale, is named for William Thomson, Lord Kelvin ( ), who contributed mightily to the understanding of thermal systems. He was the first person to realize that there is an absolute minimum temperature at -273 C, which he proposed in The kelvin (K) is equal in size to the degree Celsius. There is no degree associated with the name of the unit in the Kelvin scale. The zero of

4 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 4 the absolute scale, absolute zero, is at 0 K = C. Thus, 0 C is at a temperature of K.

5 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 5 Heat and thermal energy The word heat refers to energy in transit between objects at two different temperatures. Heat is not a separate form of energy, but an artifact of the transfer of energy to an object by virtue of a temperature difference. No object has a heat content, as was first shown by the American inventor Benjamin Thompson ( ), also known as Count Rumford, in During this period, he was arms maker for the King of Bavaria. He did an experiment in which he had workers drill out a cannon bore, which they did by turning a large drill into the solid iron cannon; the bore boiled cooling water as long as the drill was turned. The amount of energy to boil water that could come off the cannon was essentially infinite; it didn t come from the cannon itself, but rather from the work the drill did. An object may, however, be assigned a thermal energy, just as it can be assigned a potential energy. The unit of thermal energy and of heat in the International System is the joule (J). The units of energy are consistent across all uses and always given in terms of joules. This is a consequence of the identification of thermal energy as a form of energy. (This unit replaces old units of energy for virtually all uses. This means that in science it is no longer acceptable to use the calorie or kilocalorie (food calorie); all energies are measured in joules.) Thermal energy is the total energy of motion of all the molecules in an object. There is evidence of the molecular basis of matter in Brownian motion. Grains of pollen in water, when observed under a microscope, seem to jitter around with a life of their own. They jitter because they are at a very high temperature compared to the lowest temperature possible, absolute zero. Molecules have thermal energy. The amount of

6 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 6 energy is reflected in their kinetic energies. On average, the higher the temperature, the faster the molecules of the matter move. In solids, this is just a bouncing motion, since the atoms are fixed into place by interatomic springs. In liquids, the same result is found. The tiny unseeable water molecules go flying around. Sometimes they hit the pollen molecule so hard that it bounces visibly away as a result of the collision. Thus, Brownian motion is evidence for the existence of unseen molecules that bang around hitting other molecules. This explanation for Brownian motion was first offered by Albert Einstein in a famous paper from the year The molecules in air do a similar thing. The molecules are always moving around. The only way they interact is by bumping into one another. It is clear that, even if all molecules had the same speed at an initial instant, soon thereafter, they would be hitting other molecules in direct collisions, in glancing collisions, and so on. The molecules would soon have a range of speeds. There is a most probable speed, which depends on temperature, but molecules may have many speeds. Gas molecules move at average speeds of kilometers per second. a) b) Fig. E The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for several temperatures. b) Actual data ( ) from a gas (thallium vapor) at 870 K compared to the Maxwell-Boltzmann prediction (line).

7 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 7 James Clerk Maxwell ( ) in 1859 derived the distribution of molecular speeds that corresponded to an ideal gas, and Ludwig Boltzmann in 1871 extended this to the distribution of energies in arbitrary systems. As a result it is now called the Maxwell- Boltzmann distribution. The picture above shows the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function, which gives the relative number of particles in some speed range. Notice that the distribution begins at zero for zero speed and rises to a maximum, then falls for higher speeds. Molecules are small: The typical size of a molecule is m. To get an idea how small this is, a small plastic 35-mm film canister holds about molecules of water, a very large number. The US national debt is about \$5 trillion. If for each dollar of national debt, we had an amount equal to the national debt, we would have 2.5 x dollars. There are that many water molecules in two 35 mm film canisters! Put another way, seconds would be 20 million ages of the universe. We can t see these small objects, but we can see their effects, as in Brownian motion. It is no surprise that we can t see the molecules moving, they are so small. But they do move and their motion produces thermal energy. The pictures above indicate that, while we can t know what any individual molecule is doing, the molecules trade their energy with one another and do not lose it. This energy content is the thermal energy. The amount of thermal energy, denoted Q, transferred as heat between two objects of different temperature depends on the difference in the objects temperature, T. More thermal energy can be transferred between two objects if the temperature difference between them is greater than between two other objects for which the temperature difference is smaller.

8 Energy, Ch. 7, extension 2 There is no such thing as heat energy 8 Generally (but not always), an object experiencing a transfer of thermal energy that increases that object s energy will experience a rise in temperature. Conversely, most objects transferring away thermal energy will undergo a decrease in temperature. If thermal energy is gained by an object, Q for that object is positive, and its temperature increases. If thermal energy is lost by an object, Q for that object is negative, and its temperature decreases. In general (but not always), the greater the transfer of thermal energy to or from an object, the greater the change in that object s temperature. The exception referred to above occurs if the object is in the process of changing from a solid to a liquid (or vice versa) or a liquid to a gas (or vice versa). Thermal energy transferred to or from an object undergoing one of these changes doesn t result in an increase or decrease in temperature. The reason the object does not change temperature is that the energy is going into changing the potential energy of individual molecules of material, releasing them from bonds or creating bonds. This is a change in the potential energy of the molecules of matter. To take this behavior into account, physicists have invented the term internal energy to refer to both the thermal energy and the potential energy of the molecules of a material. This assures everyone that energy is conserved in these processes (including phase changes). In sum, thermal energy refers to the kinetic energy of the atoms and/or molecules in matter. Internal energy refers to the total kinetic and potential energy in a material. Heat is thermal energy that is being transferred between two objects at different temperatures. There is no such thing as heat energy! I am much indebted to Mario Iona for his cogent advice on this subject. This material was adapted from an article Explaining hot and cold originally published in AURCO J. 6, 61 (2000).

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving

### Temperature. Temperature

Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

### Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal

Staten Island Technical High School Vincent A. Maniscalco, Principal The Physical Setting: CHEMISTRY Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal - Unit 1 - Matter and Energy Lessons 9-14 Heat,

### KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move

TEMPERATURE 2008, 2004, 10 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Ancient people were physically aware of hot and cold and probably related temperature by the

### Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

### 2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

### Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

### Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

### A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

### Chapter 3. Thermal Energy

Chapter 3 Thermal Energy In order to apply energy conservation to a falling ball or a roller coaster in the previous chapter, we had to assume that friction (with the air or the track) was negligible.

### Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

### Evolution of the Thermometer

Evolution of the Thermometer A thermometer is a device that gauges temperature by measuring a temperature-dependent property, such as the expansion of a liquid in a sealed tube. The Greco-Roman physician

### Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

### Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX

Refrigeration 101 Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX Compressor Basic Refrigeration Cycle Evaporator Condenser / Receiver Expansion Device Vapor Compression Cycle Cooling by the removal of heat

### Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

### Temperature Notes Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit Write notes, put in por7olio. Study. Read over notes daily.

Temperature Notes Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit Write notes, put in por7olio. Everything Underlined COPY IT! Study. Read over notes daily. Enjoy the learning process. Temperature is how hot or cold something

### Unit 2 Lesson 1 Introduction to Energy. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Get Energized! What are two types of energy? Energy is the ability to cause change. Energy takes many different forms and causes many different effects. There are two general types of energy: kinetic energy

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### TEMPERATURE QUESTIONS TEACHERS NOTES

TEMPERATURE QUESTIONS TEACHERS NOTES If you think of Additional questions, Ways in which these answers could be improved, Anything else you want to tell me, then Please contact me. Michael de Podesta michael.depodesta@npl.co.uk

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

### Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

### 7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

### Specific Heat (slope and steepness)

1 Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 10 pages. According to the Physical Science text book, the Specific Heat of a material is DEFINED as the following: Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required

### Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws

Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws I. Handout: Unit Notes II. Modeling at the Atomic Scale I. In another unit you learned about the history of the atom and the different models people had of what the

### Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

### Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

### = 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

### Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

### Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

### Activity 5 At a Glance

At a Glance Testing Your Hypothesis by Boiling Water Below Its Boiling Temperature Purpose To have students boil water below its typical boiling temperature by reducing the pressure above the surface of

### Materials 10-mL graduated cylinder l or 2-L beaker, preferably tall-form Thermometer

VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER Introduction At very low temperatures (temperatures near the freezing point), the rate of evaporation of water (or any liquid) is negligible. But as its temperature increases, more

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

Build Your Own Universe You will need: At least 10,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000 x Down quarks At least 10,000,000,000,000,000,

### Triple Point Experiment

Equipment List Rotary vane vacuum pump 2-stage, 2 to 7 CFM. For example, Edwards 2M2 (2 CFM), Edwards RV5 (3.5 CFM), Edwards E2M8 (6.7 CFM) or equivalent. Bell jar Nalgene polycarbonate plastic, 5-5/8

### Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer

F L E X I B L E L E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H T O P H Y S I C S Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer 1 Opening items 1.1 Module introduction 1.2 Fast track questions 1.3 Ready to study?

### Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Kenny Gotlieb, Sasha Mitchell and Daniel Walsh Physics Department, Harvard-Westlake School 37 Coldwater Canyon, N. Hollywood, CA 9164 Introduction

### Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

OpenStax-CNX module: m42217 1 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

### Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Physics 1425 Lecture 31 Michael Fowler, UVa Bernoulli s Picture Daniel Bernoulli, in 1738, was the first to understand air pressure in terms of molecules he visualized them shooting

### Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

### Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

### Chapter 17: Change of Phase

Chapter 17: Change of Phase Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) 3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is A) a warming process. B) a cooling process also. C) neither a warming nor cooling process.

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### 5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Energy and States of Matter 5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 5.1 At the top of the hill, all of the energy of the car is in the form of potential energy. As it descends down the hill, potential

### Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas

1 of 6 Thermodynamics Summer 2006 Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas The study of thermodynamics usually starts with the concepts of temperature and heat, and most people feel that the temperature of an object

### Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

### SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it an

### Basic Forms of Energy:

Background Information: Energy can be defined in many different ways: the ability to do work, the ability to the change the properties of a material, or simply the ability to do something. Energy is a

### Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report. Joshua Gutwill. October 1999

Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report Joshua Gutwill October 1999 Keywords: 1 Heat and Temperature Front End Evaluation Report October 28, 1999 Goal:

### 5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

### Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy

Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy 2.1 Forms of Energy How are forms of energy defined? 2.2 Energy Conversions What happens when energy is converted from one form into another form? 2.3 Efficiency of

### Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

### Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury

Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.

### TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS. Aditya S. Cary Academy ABSTRACT

TESTING DRY ICE IN DIFFERENT LIQUIDS Aditya S Cary Academy ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment was to see how dropping dry ice into different liquids affect the mass and temperature of the dry ice.

### Forms of Energy Explain

Forms of Energy Explain DIRECTIONS 1. For the Explain portion of the section, work through each slide 2. For each form there are three slides: 1. Introduce the form of energy 2. Give examples of the form

### Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

### HOW HVAC WORKS. How HVAC. Works PAGE 1

How HVAC Works PAGE 1 Heat - What is it? Heat is more than a physical concept - it is a feeling. Heat is taught to us at a very young age as a danger to be avoided. Yet, have you ever stopped and thought

### Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

### CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7

CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7 Date: 1. Which of the following statements is not a part of kinetic molecular theory? A) Matter is composed of particles that are in constant motion. B) Particle velocity increases

### Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam

Page 1 Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Multiple Choice. Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Two gases with unequal masses are injected into opposite

### Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K

Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero -273 o C 0 K Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 1. Large number of atoms/molecules in random motion 2.

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

### What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work?

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? Compare kinetic and potential energy What are the different types of energy? What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Great, but

### Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

### 9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE

9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 6 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to investigate how properties of gases pressure, temperature, and volume are related. Also, you will

### Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods 1.1 The Discovery Process o Chemistry - The study of matter o Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff that things are made of. This

### Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

### Bay Area Scientists in Schools Presentation Plan

Bay Area Scientists in Schools Presentation Plan Lesson Name Heat Transfer: It s So Cool! Presenter(s) Kevin Metcalf, Sarika Goel, David Ojala, Melanie Drake, Carly Anderson Grade Level 3 Standards Connection(s)

### Current Staff Course Unit/ Length. Basic Outline/ Structure. Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas. Properties of Waves A simple wave has a PH: Sound and Light

Current Staff Course Unit/ Length August August September September October Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas Basic Outline/ Structure PS4- Types of Waves Because light can travel through space, it cannot be

Chapter 1 Student Reading Chemistry is the study of matter You could say that chemistry is the science that studies all the stuff in the entire world. A more scientific term for stuff is matter. So chemistry

### SIZE. Energy. Non-Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy. Part II. Examples of Non-Mechanical Energy. Examples of Mechanical Energy.

Energy Part II Non-Mechanical Energy Wait a minute if all energy is either kinetic or potential and TME = KE + PE then how can there possibly be such thing as non-mechanical energy!?!? Mechanical Energy

### Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

### Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions TEK 6.9C: Demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical

### Why hot water freezes faster than cold water

Why hot water freezes faster than cold water By Daniel Muthukrishna Undergraduate Engineering/Physics Student at the University of Queensland Images also produced by Daniel Muthukrishna Some of the main

### Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space Chemical or Physical Property? Physical properties of matter: characteristics that can be observed or

### Section 15.2 Water Purification

Section 15.2 Water Purification Fresh water is an essential ingredient of modern life. Thought it s often available as the result of natural processes, there are times when it must be extracted from impure

### Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory

Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory What is temperature? We have developed some statistical language to simplify describing measurements on physical systems. When we measure the temperature of a system, what underlying

### 7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter is a concept that basically states that matter is composed

### Energy Transformations

Energy Transformations Concept Sheet Energy Transformations PS.6: The student will investigate and understand states and forms of energy and how energy is transferred and transformed. 1. Energy is the

### REASONING AND SOLUTION

39. REASONING AND SOLUTION The heat released by the blood is given by Q cm T, in which the specific heat capacity c of the blood (water) is given in Table 12.2. Then Therefore, T Q cm 2000 J 0.8 C [4186

Chapter 6 Atmospheric Aerosol and Cloud Processes Spring 2015 Cloud Physics Initiation and development of cloud droplets Special interest: Explain how droplet formation results in rain in approximately

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an

What is energy? In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Energy is expressed in units of joules (J). A joule is calculated

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Sample Mid-Term 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, its period A) is quartered.

### Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion.

Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Position: This means that matter can have energy even though it is not moving. If you knock something off of your kitchen counter,

### ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

### Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 FV 6/26/13 MATERIALS: PURPOSE: 1000 ml tall-form beaker, 10 ml graduated cylinder, -10 to 110 o C thermometer, thermometer clamp, plastic pipet, long