Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

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1 Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53, Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container, but have a constant volume. 2. Liquids usually flow readily but different liquids flow at different rates. 3. Liquids are not compressible since the particles are close together. 4. Liquids have much higher densities relative to gases. 5. Soluble liquids will mix together to form a uniform mixture The Intermolecular Force Concept (IMF) intramolecular force - Bonds holds atoms together within a single molecule. polar and nonpolar covalent bonds are intramolecular forces intermolecular force (IMF) Attraction between molecules that hold molecules together in liquids and solids. These are always weaker than covalent bonds! 1) Dispersion (also called London or Induced Dipole) Forces Temporary dipole attractions between nonpolar molecules that form due to shifting electrons. Electrons can concentrate in one region which results in a temporary dipole that disappears when the electrons shift again. So a temporary partially negative charge, - and partially positive charge, +, forms. This is the only type of IMF between nonpolar molecules. Bigger molecules or atoms usually have stronger dispersion forces. (More electrons) a) Two nonpolar molecules. b) Shifting electrons to one side causes a temporary dipole - in the left molecule c) This induces a dipole in the molecule on the right and a temporary attraction forms between these molecules. 2) Dipole dipole forces A permanent dipole force exists between polar molecules. Attractions form between the partially positive and partially negative ends of adjacent polar molecules Dipole forces are usually stronger than dispersion forces since the dipoles are permanent. Only polar molecules can form dipole-dipole forces! Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 1 of 7

2 3) Hydrogen Bonding Force An especially strong dipole force exists between molecules containing H-F, H-O or H-N bonds. (These bonds are highly polar due to the large electronegativity difference.) Strongest type of IMF between molecules, but H bonding force is much weaker than covalent or ionic bonds that hold atoms or ions together in a compound. polar covalent bonds polar covalent bonds Example. Indicate the strongest type of intermolecular force (Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole or Hydrogen bond) between the molecules in the following: Polar or Nonpolar? Strongest Intermolecular Force A. CO 2 B. PF 3 C. HF D. CH 4 Summary Bonds Ionic bond holds metal/nonmetal ions together Polar Covalent Bond e - shared unequally between nonmetals Nonpolar Covalent Bond e - shared equally between nonmetals Forces London nonpolar molecules Dipole dipole polar molecules H Bond Force H bonded to N or O or F molecules Coulomb s Law Review Opposite charges attract according to Coulomb s Law The electrostatic attraction between two charges is proportional to the charge magnitude (q) and inversely proportional to the distance (r) squared. F = ke(q1q2 / r 2 ) Larger charge means stronger attraction! Ionic bonds very strong cause charges are complete +1, +2, +3 charges. Like in NaCl. Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 2 of 7

3 Dipole dipole IMF much weaker cause charges are much less than +1. Remember polar bonds are only partially + and Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Surface Tension, Viscosity Intermolecular forces (IMFs) influence various properties of liquids. Vapor Pressure - The pressure exerted by gas molecules above a liquid. At the surface some molecules of a liquid have enough kinetic energy to break their attractive forces with neighboring molecules. These molecules escape from the liquid phase and form a gas above the surface of the liquid. If there s a lid, pressure develops. In the picture to the right, which liquid has the weaker IMF? A because there is more gas meaning liquid A is breaking away from the liquid state easier than B thus the IMF must be weaker in A than B. A molecules are less attracted to each other than in B. Stronger intermolecular forces lower vapor pressure - stronger attractions are harder to break so less gas forms above liquid B Weaker intermolecular forces higher vapor pressure - weaker attractions are easier to break so more gas forms above liquid A Balloons are attached to flasks containing water and ether. Ether has higher vapor pressure than water so balloon inflates. Boiling point (bp): Temperature at which a liquid changes to gas. Boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure. Stronger intermolecular forces higher BP - A higher boiling point means more energy is required to boil the liquid. Its harder for molecules to break away from each other due to strong attractions. Surface tension: Attraction between surface molecules in a liquid. Attractive forces at the surface pull molecules inward causing surface molecules to be held more tightly. This is why liquids form beads or drops when sprayed. Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 3 of 7

4 Stronger intermolecular forces higher surface tension - Surface tension of water is high enough that bugs can walk on water. Viscosity: the resistance of a liquid to flow. e.g. honey flows slowly high viscosity; gasoline flows rapidly low viscosity. Stronger intermolecular forces 13.4 Properties of Solids higher viscosity 1. Solids have a definite fixed shape and a fixed volume. 2. Solids are either crystalline or noncrystalline. 3. Solids are not compressible since the particles are close to one another. 4. Most solids have a slightly higher density than their corresponding liquid. - Ice is an important exception since ice is less dense than water. 5. Solids do not mix by diffusion or osmosis Crystalline Solids Crystalline solid - A solid whose particles are arranged in a specific order. Crystalline solids have regular geometric shapes: cubic, hexagonal, etc. Type Ionic Molecular Metallic Particles metal cations & nonmetal anions nonmetal atoms or molecules metal atoms surrounded by "sea of electrons" Melting Pt High Low variable Other properties hard, brittle some soluble in water conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water usually insoluble in water do not conduct electricity malleable, ductile insoluble in most solvents conduct electricity Examples NaCl, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 I 2, ice Fe, Au (a) is salt, an ionic solid (b) is ice, molecular solid, (c) is copper, a metallic solid Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 4 of 7

5 13.6 Changes of Physical State Heating curve: shows the phase changes that occur when heat is added to a sample. Be able to indicate the following on a heating curve: Regions for solid only, liquid only, gas only, solid-liquid, liquid-gas Where melting, freezing, boiling, and condensation occur Location of Melting point and Boiling point 13.7 Structure of Water Electron dot formula for H 2 O: two bonding electron pairs O H two nonbonding electron pairs O H H 2 O has a bent molecular geometry with bond angle of < Water has highly polar O-H bonds: can dissolve ionic compounds and mix with other polar substances Water has strong H bonding forces between molecules resulted in observed physical properties discussed below Physical Properties of Water Very polar, high IMP High bp and mp: bp = 100 C, mp = 0 C High surface tension, Low vapor pressure Water expands as it freezes Density of ice is less than density of liquid water (rare) Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 5 of 7

6 Practice Problems Example 1. Indicate the strongest type of intermolecular force (Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole or Hydrogen bond) between the molecules in the following: Polar or Nonpolar? Strongest Intermolecular Force A. CCl 4 B. NH 3 C. HCl D. OF 2 Example 2. Choose the bond or attraction described for each below: IMFs are attractions between molecules. Bonds hold atoms together in a molecule. A. polar covalent bond B. nonpolar covalent bond C. ionic bond D. metallic bond E. dispersion force F. dipole-dipole force G. hydrogen bonding force IMF? Y or N Type (A-G) Description of bond or attractive force 1. What is holding the atoms together in an HF molecule 2. What is holding two Br 2 molecules together in Br 2 (l). 3. What is holding the ions together in CuCl What is holding two H 2 O molecules together. 5. What is holding the atoms together in a sample of Cu. 6. What is holding the atoms together in an O 2 molecule. 7. What is holding two OF 2 molecules together. Example 3. Water molecules experience hydrogen bonding while hexane molecules experience dispersion forces. Circle true or false for the following statements. A. Water s intermolecular forces are weaker than hexanes. T F B. Hexane has a higher vapor pressure than water. T F C. Hexane has a lower boiling point than water. T F D. Water has a higher surface tension than hexane. T F E. Water has lower viscosity than hexane. T F F. Water has higher molar heat of vaporization than hexane. T F Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 6 of 7

7 Answers: Example 1. Polar or Nonpolar? Strongest Intermolecular Force A. CCl 4 Nonpolar Dispersion (or London) B. NH 3 Polar H bond C. HCl Polar Dipole D. OF 2 Polar Dipole Example 2. Choose the bond or attraction described for each below: A. polar covalent bond B. nonpolar covalent bond C. ionic bond D. metallic bond E. dispersion force F. dipole-dipole force G. hydrogen bonding force IMF? Y or N Type (A-G) Description of bond or attractive force N A 1. What is holding the atoms together in an HF molecule Y E 2. What is holding two Br 2 molecules together in Br 2 (l). N C 3. What is holding the ions together in CuCl 2. Y G 4. What is holding two H 2 O molecules together. N D 5. What is holding the atoms together in a sample of Cu. N B 6. What is holding the atoms together in an O 2 molecule. Y F 7. What is holding two OF 2 molecules together. Example 3: A False, B True, C True, D true, E false, F true Corwin Chapter 13: Liquids and Solids 7 of 7

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