# Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX

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1 Refrigeration 101 Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX

2 Compressor Basic Refrigeration Cycle Evaporator Condenser / Receiver Expansion Device

3 Vapor Compression Cycle

4 Cooling by the removal of heat The MOVEMENT of HEAT from a place where it is not wanted to a place where it is unobjectionable

5 How Heat is Removed

6 What is heat? A form of energy What is cold? Absences of heat. How does heat flow? High heat to low heat Does cold flow? NO How is heat measured? British Thermal Unit (BTU)

7 British Thermal Unit (BTU) Heat is a form of energy and is measured in BTU s. A BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature, of one pound of water, one degree Fahrenheit.

8 1. Heat flows from high energy levels to a lower energy level Heat will not flow without a temperature difference 3 3. The greater the temperature difference, the faster the energy will flow.

9 Radiation Heat Flows Three Ways Convection Conduction

10 Conduction The transfer of heat from molecule to molecule through a substance by chain collision Example: Heating one end of a copper tube, will cause the other end to get hot.

11 Convection Heat transfer by the movement of molecules from one place to another. Example: Convection oven Forced air furnace

12 Radiation The transfer of heat by passing from a source to an absorbent surface without heating the space in between. Example: Sunlight goes through a window without heating the glass but heats the surface in the room it is shinning on.

13 Temperature Temperature indicates the average velocity of the molecules of a substance. As the heat energy in a substance increases, it s molecules vibrate more intensely A thermometer measures the intensity i of this vibration. i Thermometers do not measure heat, they measure the effect of heat.

14 Temperature Animation

15 The amount of heat (measured in BTU s) required to raise one pound of a substance one degree Fahrenheit. Specific Heat Temp Rise (Deg F) Substance (BTU/LB/Deg F) (From 1 BTU Addition) Water (Liquid) Ice Steam Aluminum Brass

16 Physical State of a Substance Gas Liquid Solid Adding heat energy in any of the three states will increase the temperature. Changing the state of a substance will require a larger quantity of heat energy.

17 Heat Energy There are two types of Heat Energy Sensible Heat Latent Heat

18 1. Is the energy of molecular motion 1 2. Causes a change in temperature, with 2 No change in state Sensible heat causes an increase in molecular motion The addition or removal of sensible heat is measurable with a thermometer

19 1. Is the energy of molecular separation and arrangement Causes a change in state, while there e is no change In temperature It can not be measured with a thermometer.

20 Mechanical refrigeration works by changing the state of the refrigerant. The majority of heat is removed from the temperature controlled space as the refrigerant absorbs heat when it changes state from a liquid to a gas in the evaporator. The majority of the absorbed heat is removed from the refrigeration system in the condenser as the refrigerant changes state from a gas back to a liquid.

21 Vapor Compression Cycle

22 Example (Deg. F.) ( Deg. C.) BTU s 100 Measurable Sensible are required Liquid temperature Heat to 50 reach Boiling change 32 0 Point BTU s No are required measurable to change temperature the water to Latent steam. Boiling change Heat Water Measurable Sensible Steam temperature Heat t change Heat Energy is added d to 32 F. (0 C) Water (liquid) BTU s

23 The temperature at which a substance will change state from a liquid to a vapor or a vapor to a liquid Add Heat = Liquid to Vapor (Vaporization) Remove Heat = Vapor to Liquid (Condensation)

24 At a temperature equal to it s boiling point or condensing point, a substance can be both vapor and liquid. Addition of Heat = Boiling Removal Heat = Condensing

25 100% Liquid, no vapor present At a temperature below i it s boiling point, a substance is: 1lb. Of 200 o F. What is the state of water? - Sub-cooled liquid - Sub-cooled by 12 o F.

26 100% vapor, no liquid present At a temperature above it s boiling point, a substance is: 1lb. Of 220 o F. What is the state of water? - Super heated vapor (steam) - Super heated by 8 o F.

27 Example (Deg. F.) ( Deg. C.) A mixture of vapor Temperature Measurable Sensible = Saturated and liquid. Mixture 100 Steam % vapor Above 212 F. (100 C) = Superheated -temperature Heat There is Vapor no liquid. change Temperature at 212 F. (100 C) 100 % liquid -There is no vapor. Temperature below ( ) Sub-cooled Liquid 212 F. (100 C) = Saturation Temperature of Water is 212 F. (100 C) at Sea Level (0 PSIG / 14.7 PSIA) BTU s

28 Pressure: Defined as a force per unit of area PSI Bars KPA

29 How does pressure flow? High To Low What would happen if you take two refrigerant tanks, one with refrigerant and the other in a vacuum and connect a hose between them? Refrigerant flows from the tank with refrigerant to the tank that is in a vacuum, until the pressures equalize.

30 As the pressure on a substance increases, boiling temperature will increase. As pressure decreases, boiling temperature will also decrease. Pressure and boiling temperature follow each other At the boiling point we have both Liquid and Vapor.

31 As the pressure increases, saturation temperature will increase. As pressure decreases, saturation temperature will also decrease. Pressure and boiling temperature follow each other At the saturation temperature we have a saturated mixture At the saturation temperature we have a saturated mixture (both liquid and vapor are present).

32 Atmospheric Pressure At Sea Level, the atmospheric pressure on our bodies is 14.7 PSIA. A column of air, one, inch square and 60 miles high weighs 14.7 pounds.

33 Pressure Scales Gauge Scale Absolute Scale ATMOSPHERE 0 PSIG 14.7 PSIA Sea Level) 0 in Hg in Hg Hg is the symbol for Mercury. VACUUM in Hg 0 in Hg

34 Compound Gauge Gauge Scale: Positive Pressure Scale Vacuum Scale (Reference Only!)

35 Vacuum Gauge Absolute Pressure in microns of Hg.

36 Mercury Barometer Vacuum Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level Column of mercury supported by cm mm atmospheric in pressure. Hg 1 inch of Hg =25,400 microns Mercury

37 A medium to move heat What is a refrigerant? A substance that absorbs heat by evaporating at low temperatures and pressures. And gives up heat by condensing at high temperatures and pressures

38 Refrigerants No Longer Available R 12 CFC R 11 CFC R 500 CFC R 502 CFC 100% Ozone depletion potential Used in every thing Med. Low temp. 100% Ozone depletion Used in centrifugals Med. Temp 66% Ozone depletion Used in 50hz Med. - Low Temp 28% Ozone depletion Used in deep freezers Low. Temp Production ceased in 1995 Production ceased in 1995 Production ceased in 1995 Production ceased in 1995

39 Refrigerants Currently in Use in R 22 HCFC R 134a HFC R 507 HFC 404A HFC 5% Ozone depletion potential Used in every thing Med. Low temp. 0% Ozone depletion Used in auto A/C Med. - Low Temp 0% Ozone depletion Used in freezers Low Temp 0% Ozone depletion Used in deep freezers Med. Low Temp Production phase out Replaced R-12 Replaced R-502

40 Compressor Refrigeration System Components Evaporator Condenser / Receiver Expansion Device

41 Compressors

42 Compressors

44 Example Mechanical Center

45 Condensers

46 Condensers Air Cooled Water Cooled Tube and fin Shell and tube Plate Evaporative

47 Superheated Vapor In Sub-cooled Liquid Out

48

49 Plate Evaporative

50 Metering Device

51 TXV and Electronic

52 Evaporators

53 Display Case Evaporators

54 Walk-In Evaporators

55 Plate to Plate Heat Exchanger

56 Questions

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