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1 Answer Booklet Reflection of Light With a Plane (Flat) Mirror Trace a Star Page The individual students will complete the activity with varying degrees of difficulty. 2. The student will see the images reversed left to right. 3. The brain and the senses, especially touch, tend to get confused and the brain will try to correct for the reversal of the images. 4. The hand will appear to be located behind the mirror at a distance equal to the distance of the object from the front of the mirror. 5. It tends to be easier to trace with a finger because the body gets additional feedback through the sense of touch. 6. This activity deals with reflection. 7. At the end of the lesson, the students might share their designs with the class. If a computer is available the students could design and compile a booklet of class designs on the computer. Reflection of Light With Two Plane Mirrors Double Mirrors Placed at a 90-Degree Angle Page When the mirrors are placed at 90 degrees, the image is not reversed and this is called a true image. 2. The eyes see a true image or they see the student as other people see the student. 3. Over the years, the student has adjusted to a reversed image in the mirror. Also, the activities ask the student to use the hand to cross midline of the body. The right brain controls the left side and the left brain controls the left side and this adds another variable which the student must consider. 4. Reflection 65

2 Reflection of Light With Two Plane Mirrors Double Mirrors Placed at a Number of Angles Page Computation. 2. You will see whole images at 60, 90, and 180 degrees. 3. The number of images and the number of mirror frames that are reflected will be equal. 4. The number of images equals 360 degrees divided by the angle indicated on the protractor. 5. The number of observed images and the computed images should be equal, but the observed images may be one or two less because of the crude equipment used. Making a Kaleidoscope Page There is no exact number of images because the equipment being used is very crude. The activity is included to encourage the student to observe more carefully. 2. The objects appear to be the same size, but they are reflected in parts or pieces. 3. In some segments of the kaleidoscope, the images are reversed left to right or even upside down. Making a Periscope Page The lines are the same as those shown in the illustration at the top of page 17. Light, Color, and Their Uses 2. No, the periscope will not function if the mirrors are positioned at different angles. 66

3 Exploring Diffraction With a Spectroscope Page The student will see a spectrum or bands of color like a rainbow. Each bulb will also have a set of distinct vertical lines. Each different element has its own distinct set of vertical lines, or signature. 2. If the light observed is a white light source, the student will observe the seven major colors in a continuous spectrum. The name Roy G. Biv will help the student to remember the names of the colors in order red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. If the light observed is not a white light source, some of the colors of the spectrum will not be seen. 3. The bands of color fade or blend into each other. Depending on the spectroscope, the student may observe very distinct vertical lines of color. You might also see some black lines which are absorption lines. 4. No, each light source has its own unique pattern of colored vertical lines. 5. There are bands of color, but they also tend to fade together. With some spectroscopes, the students will see very distinct and precisely spaced vertical lines. These lines are the signature of that particular element. The black lines (Fraunhofer lines) are the absorption lines of certain elements. For more information, see an encyclopedia. 6. Though light bulbs may look the same, they are filled with different elements or gases. Each gas or element has its own emission spectrum or bands of colors. Diffraction of Light by Very Small Apertures Page This activity is intended to encourage the student to observe more carefully. 2. The shape, direction, or number of pattern may change as the screen is slowly rotated. A varying combination of patterns and colors will appear. 67

4 Discovering Color With a Prism Pages By refraction, a prism can break white light up into its seven major colors. Some of the suggested light sources will appear to be white light to the eye, but a prism will show that some wavelengths are not present. 2. The acrylic plastic or plastic prism will refract and break the light into color, but the quality of the plastic or glass will determine the sharpness of the colors. 3. Colors always come out of a prism in the same order. Some colors will be omitted if the light source is not white light. 4. The colors blend or shade into each other. 5. The bands of color do not always have the same shape or width. The shape or width of the color band depends on the type of light source. Light and Color Color Spinners Page The colors seem to blend and form other colors. The perception of color is determined by light, the source of color; material and its response to color; and the eye of the perceiver of color. 2. The colors seen by the student will depend on the design, the kind of pigment used, and the speed of the movement. 3. While spinning, the colors seem to mix and become other colors. The mixing of the colors is a function of the eyes and brain. 4. Combine blue and yellow pigments to make green. 5. Combine red and yellow pigment to make orange. 6. If all colors are equally combined in design, they should make white or gray. The kind of pigment used will affect the colors. Light, Color, and Their Uses 7. Most of the time, brown can be made by adding red, yellow, and blue. 8. Color one side of the circle and add a few lines or dots on the other half of the circle. Experiment. 68

5 9. Color varies a great deal with the type of pigment used. The colors in light also combine differently than pigment. Light and Color Filters Page The students will record what they observe. Answers will vary depending on the filters used. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Filters subtract or absorb some colors. Two filters may be used to transmit a third color. Light and Color Hidden Messages Page The student should see a confusion of lines, letters, and shapes of varying colors. 2. If a red filter is used, red will not be seen and yellow may appear to be orange. Green will appear to be dark blue. If a yellow filter is used, all the yellow designs will not be seen. The colors will vary with the pigments and filters used. 3. Answers will vary depending on the pigment and filters used. 4. Each filter absorbs and transmits different wavelengths of light. 5. A booklet of secret messages might be a nice class project. Simple Magnifiers Observations, Data and Conclusions Page The letters are magnified. 2. The magnification is better with smaller drops of water. 3. The water drop magnifier is focused by moving it back and forth from the surface of the print or picture. 69

6 4. The smaller water drop magnifies more because of the way it bends or refracts light. The focal length of the small drop is shorter because the curvature of the surface of the water drop is greater. The shorter the focal length of a lens, the greater the magnification. 5. Bottles with curved edges magnify better. 6. The bottom or curved side of a bottle magnifies best. 7. The water acts as a lens and refracts or bends light to a focal point. 8. Some bottles serve as converging or convex lenses, and they bend or refract the light to focus it. Focusing Light With a Lens Pages 50 (Part 1) 1. Answers will vary depending on the lenses provided. 2. Answers will vary depending on the lenses provided. 3. The lens of the eyepiece of a telescope will have the shorter focal length and the greater magnification. The object lens will have the longer focal length and less magnification. Pages (Part 2) 1. Answers will vary depending on the lenses provided. 2. With a single lens, the focal image will generally be smaller than the object. The focal image may be the same size as the object, but it will never be larger. 3. If you found two distinct images, one will be large and one will be small. One may also be reversed. There are two distinct images because the object distance is different. The object distance is the distance between the object and the lens. The student must consistently use the same object distance when measurements are made. 4. Answers will vary depending on the lenses provided. Light, Color, and Their Uses 70

7 Building a Telescope Pages Answers will vary with the lenses used. 2. The student will observe with and without the telescope. After observing the striped chart, or some other object provided, the student will make a judgment about the amount the telescope magnifies. Generally, simple telescopes constructed by students will have a magnification of less than five. 3. Answers will vary with the lenses used These questions were included to encourage the student to observe carefully. 6. This is a refracting telescope and the image will appear upside down. For more information, see telescopes in an encyclopedia. Building a Microscope Page Answers will vary. 3. The microscope with the better set of lenses will have a clearer, sharper image. 4. The purchased microscope will be better. 5. The purchased microscope is better because the glass in the lenses is a better quality and has been ground and polished more carefully. It is also mounted and aligned more precisely. Interference Fringes Page See the top left figure on page See the bottom left figure on page

8 Polarization of Light Page Polarized material allows light to pass through it only in one direction or plane. See the figure on page The plastic is transparent and it will allow the light to pass through it, but the student should notice the bands of color around areas of stress. As the object was molded into shape, there were areas that were pulled and pushed, and these stress marks were molded into the plastic. The stressed areas interrupt the light rays entering the plastic and change the plane or direction of that light. 3. The transparent tape changes the plane or direction of polarization. The tape may also act as a filter and absorb some wavelengths. Layering the tape may also reinforce the light waves that are in or out of phase. Two or more light waves that exactly match or overlap at the crests and troughs of the waves are said to be in phase. When the crests and troughs of two or more waves do not match or overlap, the waves are said to be out of phase. Light, Color, and Their Uses 72

9 Glossary additive color A primary light color red, blue, or green; these three colors produce white light when added together. angle of incidence The angle between a wave striking a barrier and the line perpendicular to the surface. angle of reflection The angle between a reflected wave and the normal to the barrier from which it is reflected. angstrom An angstrom is 1/100,000,000 of a centimeter. concave lens A lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges; used to correct nearsightedness. convex lens A lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges; used to correct farsightedness. diffraction grating A piece of transparent or reflecting material, which contains many thousands of parallel lines per centimeter; used to produce a light spectrum by diffraction. electromagnetic wave A wave that does not have to travel through matter in order to transfer energy. electromagnetic spectrum Transverse radiant energy waves, ranging from low frequency to very high frequency, which can travel at the speed of light. element A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means. equalateral triangle A triangle with three equal angles of 60 degrees and sides of equal length. filter A screen that allows only certain colors to pass through it; a transparent material that separates colors of light. focal length The distance between the principal focus of a lens or mirror and its optical center. 73

10 focal point/focus The point that all light rays from a mirror or lens pass through. frequency The number of waves that pass a point in a given unit of time. gamma ray High-energy wave of high frequency and with a wavelength shorter than an x ray; released in a nuclear reaction. image The reproduction of an object formed with lenses or mirrors. in phase When two or more light rays overlap exactly at the crest and the trough, they are said to be in phase. index of refraction The amount that light is refracted when it enters a substance; given as the ratio of speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a given substance. infrared radiation Invisible radiation with a longer wavelength than red light and next to red light in the electromagnetic spectrum; used in heat lamps, to detect heat loss from buildings, and to detect certain tumors. interference The addition by crossing wave patterns of a loss of energy in certain areas and reinforcement of energy in other areas. kaleidoscope A toy in which reflections from mirrors make patterns. It was invented in 1819 by David Brewster. laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) A device that produces a highly concentrated, powerful beam of light which is all one frequency or color and travels only in one direction. law of reflection Angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. Light, Color, and Their Uses lens A curved, transparent object; usually made of glass or clear plastic and used to direct light. 74

11 light Light is a form of energy, traveling through the universe in waves. The wavelengths of visible light range from less than 4,000 angstroms to more than 7,000 angstroms. normal A line perpendicular to a surface. opaque Not transparent; no light passes through the material. optical axis The line straight out from the center of a parabolic mirror; straight line through the center of a lens. optical fiber A thin strand of glass that transmits light down its length. optical telescope A tube with magnifying lenses or mirrors that collect, transmit, and focus light. out of phase When the crest of one wave overlaps the trough of another they are said to be out of phase. parabola A curved line representing the path of a projectile; the shape of the surface of a parabolic mirror. parabolic mirror A curved mirror. pigment A material that absorbs certain colors of light and reflects other colors. plane mirror A mirror with a flat surface. polarized light Light in which all waves are vibrating in a single plane. prism A transparent material with two or more straight faces at an angle to each other. real image An image that can be projected onto a screen; formed by a parabolic mirror or convex lens. 75

12 reflection The light or image you see when light bounces off a surface; bouncing a wave or ray off a surface. reflecting telescope A telescope in which magnification is produced by a parabolic mirror. refraction Bending of a wave or light ray caused by a change in speed as it passes at an angle from one substance into another. scattering The spreading out of light by intersecting objects, whose size is near the wavelength. spherical Surface of a lens or mirror that is part of a sphere. subtractive color One of the three pure pigment colors magenta, yellow, cyan; these pigment colors produce black when mixed. translucent Semitransparent; a material that admits some light. transparent See-through; light can go through. true image A true image is the way other people see us. It is the opposite of the image that is seen in a mirror. ultraviolet radiation Radiation that has a shorter wavelength than visible light; next to violet light in the electromagnetic spectrum. virtual image An image formed by a mirror or lens that cannot be projected onto a surface. visible light spectrum Band of visible colors produced by a prism when white light is passed through it. wavelength The total linear length of one wave crest and trough. Light, Color, and Their Uses x ray Invisible electromagnetic radiation of great penetrating power. 76

13 List of Catalogs for Science Equipment K 12 Carolina Biological Supply Co York Road Burlington, NC Hubbard P.O. Box 104 Northbrook, IL Central Scientific Co. (CENCO) Melrose Avenue Franklin Park, IL Delta Education, Inc. P.O. Box 950 Hudson, NH Dick Blick Art Materials P.O. Box 1267 Galesburg, IL Edmund Scientific Company *(Specialty Optics) 101 E. Gloucester Pike Barrington, NJ Flinn Scientific, Inc. (Chemical Catalog) P.O. Box Flinn Street Batavia, IL Fisher Scientific Co. Educational Materials Division 4901 W. LeMoyne Street Chicago, IL Frey Scientific Co. P.O. Box Hickory Lane Mansfield, OH FREY NASCO 901 Janesville Avenue Fort Atkinson, WI Oriental Trading Company, Inc. P.O. Box 3407 Omaha, NE Science Kit and Boreal Labs 777 E. Park Drive Tonawanda, NY Scienceware Grau-Hall Scientific 6501 Elvas Avenue Sacramento, CA S&S Arts and Crafts Colchester, CT Stumps Decorations for Special Occasions Box 305 South Whitley, IN Triarco Arts & Crafts th Avenue N. Plymouth, MN

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