# Math 10C. Course: Polynomial Products and Factors. Unit of Study: Step 1: Identify the Outcomes to Address. Guiding Questions:

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1 Course: Unit of Study: Math 10C Polynomial Products and Factors Step 1: Identify the Outcomes to Address Guiding Questions: What do I want my students to learn? What can they currently understand and do? What do I want my students to be able to understand and do based on the big ideas and specific outcomes in the program of studies? Outcome(s) from the Program of Studies: Algebra and Number (S01 students must have complete the real numbers unit prior to this unit of study so that SO1 will be covered already) SO1. Demonstrate an understanding of factors of whole numbers by determining the: prime factors greatest common factor least common multiple square root cube root. [CN, ME, R] SO4. Demonstrate an understanding of the multiplication of polynomial expressions (limited to monomials, binomials and trinomials), concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [CN, R, V] SO5. Demonstrate an understanding of common factors and trinomial factoring, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V] 1 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

2 Step : Learning Trajectory Prior Learning Current Learning Future Learning Grade 5 Number Strand 4. Apply mental mathematics strategies for multiplication, such as: annexing then adding zero halving and doubling using the distributive property. [C, CN, ME, R, V] Grade 7 Patterns and Relations (variables and Equations) S.O. #4. Explain the difference between an expression and an equation. [C, CN] Grade 9: Patterns and Relations (variables and Equations) S.O. #5 Demonstrate an understanding of polynomials (limited to polynomials of a degree less than or equal to ) SO. #6 Model, record and explain the operations of addition and subtraction of polynomial expressions, concretely, pictorially and symbolically (limited to polynomials of degree less than or equal to ). S.O. #7. Model, record and explain the operations of multiplication and division of polynomial expressions (limited to polynomials of degree less than or equal to ) by monomials, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V] Grade 9 Number Strand Algebra and Number SO1. Demonstrate an understanding of factors of whole numbers by determining the: prime factors greatest common factor least common multiple square root cube root. [CN, ME, R] SO4. Demonstrate an understanding of the multiplication of polynomial expressions (limited to monomials, binomials and trinomials), concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [CN, R, V] SO5. Demonstrate an understanding of common factors and trinomial factoring, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V] 0 1 Algebra and Number S.O 4. Determine equivalent forms of rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials or trinomials). [C, ME, R] 5. Perform operations on rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials or trinomials). [CN, ME, R] 6. Solve problems that involve rational equations (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials or trinomials). [C, PS, R] 0 1 Relations and Functions 1. Factor polynomial expressions of the form: ax+bx+c,a 0 ax by,a 0,b 0 ( ( )) ( ( )) a f x +b f x +c,a 0 ( ( )) ( ( )) a f x bg y,a 0,b 0 where a, b and c are rational numbers. [CN, ME, R] 0 1 Relations and Functions S.O. #4. Analyze quadratic functions of the form y=a +bx+cto identify characteristics of the corresponding graph, including: x vertex domain and range direction of opening axis of symmetry x and y intercepts and to solve problems. [CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1, C6 4.] S.O. 5. Solve problems that involve M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

3 S.O. #1 Demonstrate an understanding of powers with integral bases (excluding base 0) and whole number exponents by: representing repeated multiplication, using powers using patterns to show that a power with an exponent of zero is equal to one solving problems involving powers. [C, CN, PS, R]. Demonstrate an understanding of operations on powers with integral bases (excluding base 0) and whole number exponents: (am)(an)=am+n am an=am n,m>n (am)n =amn (ab)m= ambm, 0. n n n a b a b b = [C, CN, PS, R, T] [ICT: P.4] S.O. #5. Determine the square root of positive rational numbers that are perfect squares. [C, CN, PS, R, T] S.O. 5. Determine the square root of positive rational numbers that are perfect squares. [C, CN, PS, R, T] [ICT: P.4] Grade 8 Number Strand S.O. #1. Demonstrate an understanding of perfect squares and square roots, concretely, pictorially and symbolically (limited to whole numbers). [C, CN, R, V] quadratic equations. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1] S.O. #6. Solve, algebraically and graphically, problems that involve systems of linear quadratic and quadratic quadratic equations in two variables. [CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1, C6 4.4] 0 1 Trigonometry S.O.# 5. Solve, algebraically and graphically, first and second degree trigonometric equations with the domain expressed in degrees and radians. [CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1, C6 4.4] S.O. #6. Prove trigonometric identities, using: reciprocal identities quotient identities Pythagorean identities sum or difference identities (restricted to sine, cosine and tangent) double angle identities (restricted to sine, cosine and tangent). [R, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1, C6 4.4] Relations and Functions S.O. # 10. Solve problems that involve exponential and logarithmic equations. [C, CN, PS, R] S.O. # 11. Demonstrate an understanding of factoring polynomials of degree greater than (limited to polynomials of degree 5 with integral coefficients). [C, CN, ME] S.O. #1. Graph and analyze polynomial functions (limited to polynomial functions of degree 5 ). [C, CN, T, V] [ICT: C6 4., C6 4.4] M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

4 Grade 10C Algebra and Number. Demonstrate an understanding of powers with integral and rational exponents. [C, CN, PS, R] 0 Patterns and Relations. Solve problems that involve quadratic equations. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1, C6 4.] 0 Relations and Functions 1. Determine equivalent forms of rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials and binomials). [C, ME, R]. Perform operations on rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials and binomials). [CN, ME, R]. Solve problems that involve rational equations (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials and binomials). [C, CN, PS, R] 7. Represent data, using polynomial functions (of degree ), to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, T, V] [ICT: C6 4.1, C6 4., C6 4.4] 4 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

5 Step : Necessary Pre Requisites Pre Requisite Knowledge and Skills - Collecting like terms - Finding perfect squares - Distributive property - Add/ subtract polynomials - multiply / divide monomials - Algebra tiles - Expanding and simplifying Pre Requisite Vocabulary - Like terms - Perfect squares - Distributive law - Expression vs Equation - Polynomial - Monomial, Binomial, Trinomial polynomial - Constant term - Variable - Degree - Coefficient - Simplify - Factors - Multiples 5 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

6 Step 4: Learning Development Developing Knowledge and Skills - Binomial multiplication - Factorization (common factoring, difference of squares, trinomial, perfect square trinomials) - Where does this apply to real life situations? - Seeing factors as length/ width of a rectangle? Square? Etc? - Using factors to create area - Using algebra tiles to factor and expand. Developing Vocabulary - All prerequisite vocabulary (from Jr High) - Like terms - Perfect squares - Distributive law - Expression vs Equation - Polynomial - Monomial, Binomial, Trinomial polynomial - Constant term - Variable - Degree - Coefficient - Simplify - Factors - Multiples - GCF - Prime factorization - LCM - Perfect cube/ perfect root - Radicand/ radical/ index (from previous unit likely) - Decomposition Predictable Misunderstandings and Errors Adding/ Subtracting polynomials (collecting like terms) vs multiplying and dividing polynomials (using the powers laws). Students will want to change the exponent when adding and subtracting rather than just add/subtract the coefficient. 6 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

7 Step 5: The Big Picture Essential Understanding: - Tiles can be used to represent factors and multiples - Factors can be used in a variety of real life situations such as: area, volume, construction, design, modeling. Big Ideas: - Multiplication and Division are inverses of each other - A rectangle diagram can be used to represent area and factors - Factors and multiples can be used for polynomials - Expressions can be written in various equivalent forms (factored or expanded) Essential Question: - How could the understandings from this unit be used in construction and design? Consider the perspectives of potential: Architect? Carpenter? Plumber? Landscape engineers? Etc. 7 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

8 Day 1 1. Polynomial an expression consisting of variables and real numbers. The exponents of the variables must be whole numbers. Ex: x + 11, x +, x, 7x x y, ( rd and 5 th are not polynomials). y. Coefficient the number immediately preceding a variable in a term (i.e. in 4x + 7x, the coefficients are 4 and 7).. Degree of a term The sum of the exponents of the variables in the term. Ex: 9x 4 + x + 7 Degree = Degree of a polynomial. Degree of a polynomial is determined by the term with the highest degree. Ex: 4y 10 6y 7 + y 4 Degree of this polynomial is 10. Degree = Constant term. The term which has no variable. Ex: a. x + 7x 6 (constant term is 6) b. 7x 5 (constant term is 0) 8 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

9 6. Classifying polynomials according to the number of terms. See for examples of mono, bi and trinomials. Number of terms Name 1 monomial binomial trinomial 4 or more polynomial 7. Classifying polynomials according to the degree of the polynomial. Degree Name Examples 0 constant 11 1 linear 7x + quadratic x 7x + cubic 5x + 8x 9x 6 Questions Number of terms Degree Name of polynomial according to Number of terms Degree x. x x 5x x x x x x x Number of terms Degree Name of polynomial according to Number of terms Degree Answers monomial constant. 7x 1 1 monomial linear. x binomial linear 4. x 5x 6 trinomial quadratic 5. 5x x x 10 4 polynomial cubic 6. x x x trinomial cubic 9 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

10 II. Addition and subtraction of polynomials. add/subtract like terms (terms that have the same variable(s) and exponent(s)). Ex: 1. (x + 4x ) + (x 6x + 9) = x x + 7. (4y y + ) (y + 5y ) = y 7y + 5 Try: 1. (6a ab + 4) (7a + 4ab ). (x + y ) + (x y) (5x 5y + y ) Assignment: M10C CH Poly Intro.docx Contains Blackline Master.1c 10 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

11 Day Polynomial Multiplication and Division Grade 9 Review of Laws or properties of exponents. 1. Product law: x a. x b = x a + b i.e. 4 7 m m = m See for further explanations. Quotient law: x x a b a b = x i.e. m 9 7 m = m See for further explanations. Power laws: See x m a. ( ) n mn = x b. ( x a y b ) c x ac y bc = c. a c x b = y x y ac bc i.e. ( ) 4 1 m = m i.e. ( m n ) 5 = m n i.e m m = n n 4 0 Multiplication Monomial by Monomial. YouTube explanation of mono X mono. Ex: 1. (x )(x ) = 6x 5. ( 4a b )(ab) = 8a b 4. (8x y 1 ) xy = 4 4x y 4. ( 4x y )(xy )( xy) = 16x 5 y 6 Division of Monomial by Monomial. Ex: 1. 50x 10x = 5. 0x 5x = 4x. 0x y 5x y 4 4xy 4. (x y )(5xy) xy = 5x y YouTube explanation of mono divided by a mono 11 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

12 Division of Polynomial by Monomial Rule: Take each term in the numerator (top) and divide it by the term in the denominator (bottom) 4t + 8t Ex: 1. = t +, t 0 4t 4t 4t = t 8t 4t = Thus, t +. 10m + 5m + 15m 5m = m + m +, m 0 10m 5m = m 5m 5m = m 15m 5m = Thus, m + m +. 6r r + 9r r 4 = r r +, r 0 4 6r r = r r r = r 9r r = 4. 8x + 16x = x + x + 8x 8 = x 16x 8 = x 4 8 = Distributive Property (Monomial multiplied by a Binomial/Trinomial. Ex: 1. x (x 7y + ). (x 7) + x(x + 5) (8x + 5x 7) = 6x 1x y + 6x = 6x 1+ x + 5x 8x 5x + 7 = (x + 5) = 9 6x 10 = 6x 1 1 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

13 4. 4a(a + ) + a(a 1) a(a + 4) a a a a a a 4a + 6 a 5. x [ + 4(x + 6)] [ + (x + 1)] Hard Question! [ ] [ ] = x + 8x x + Distribute the 4 and the. = x 6 16x 48 x Distribute the and the. = 16x 59 Clean up. Assignment M10C CH Poly Multiply & Divide.docx 1 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

14 Day Binomial x Binomial (Also known as FOIL) Multiply ( x + y)( a + b) Two different binomials. a. ( x + )( y + 1) Method 1 Algebra Tiles Step 1 Draw (x + ) on the vertical axis and (y + 1) on the horizontal axis. Step Multiply the vertical and horizontal values and fill in the rectangle. Step Determine your final product. There is 1 xy, 1 x, y's and one's. So, the answer is xy + x + y + 14 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

15 Method Area model Step 1 Create a square grid with (x + ) on the vertical axis and (y + 1) on the horizontal axis. x y 1 Step Fill in the grid y 1 x xy x y Step Determine your final product. There is 1 xy, 1 x, y's and a. So, the answer is xy + x + y + Method FOIL (First, Outer, Inner, Last) The most "mathematical" method. ( x + )( y + 1) ( x )( y 1) + + First x times y = xy ( x )( y 1) + + Outer x times 1 = x ( x )( y 1) + + Inner times y = y ( x )( y 1) + + Last times 1 = You now collect your terms. There is 1 xy, 1 x, y's and a. So, the answer is xy + x + y + 15 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

16 b. ( x )( y ) + Negatives are grey. Algebra Tiles 1 y y y y y y 1 1 x xy xy x x x xy xy x x y y 1 1 Determine your final product. 4 xy's, 4 x's, 6 y's and 6 1's = 4xy 4x + 6 y 6 Area model Step 1 Create a square grid with (x + ) on the vertical axis and (y ) on the horizontal axis. x y Step Fill in the grid y x 4xy 4x 6y 6 Step Determine your final product. There are 4 xy's, 4 x's, 6 y's and 6 1's = 4xy 4x + 6 y 6 16 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

17 FOIL (First, Outer, Inner, Last) ( x + )( y ) ( x )( y ) + First x times y = 4xy ( x )( y ) + Outer x times = 4x ( x )( y ) + Inner times y = 6y ( x )( y ) + Last times = 6 You now collect your terms. There are 4 xy's, 4 x's, 6 y's and 6 1's = 4xy 4x + 6 y 6 YouTube explanation of FOIL M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

18 Multiply ( x + y)( x y) Two binomials that "are the same" but different signs. a. ( a b)( a b) + Notice how the a and b exist in both, but one is + and the other. FOIL (First, Outer, Inner, Last) ( a b)( a + b) ( a b)( a b) + First a times a = 4a ( a b)( a b) + Outer a times b = 6ab ( a b)( a b) + Inner b times a = 6ab ( a b)( a b) + Last b times b = -9b You now collect your terms. There is a 4a, a 6ab, a 6ab and a 9b = 4a 9b Notice how the Outer and the Inner cancel each other out? This is always true for ( x + y)( x y) So, a general rule when multiplying binomials of the type ( x + y)( x y) is not FOIL, but FL. First and Last. 18 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

19 b. ( 5x + 4 y)( 5x 4y) First, let's try FOIL (First, Outer, Inner, Last) ( 5x + 4 y)( 5x 4y) ( 5x 4 y)( 5x 4y) + First 5x times 5x = 6 5x ( 5x 4 y)( 5x 4y) + Outer 5x times 4y = 0x y ( 5x 4 y)( 5x 4y) + Inner 4y times 5x = 0x y ( 5x 4 y)( 5x 4y) + Last 4y times 4y = 16y Collect our like terms = 5x 16 y 6 Now, let's try FL (First, Last) ( 5x + 4 y)( 5x 4y) ( 5x 4 y)( 5x 4y) + First 5x times 5x = 6 5x ( 5x 4 y)( 5x 4y) + Last 4y times 4y = 16y Collect our like terms = 5x 16 y 6 Thus, when dealing with conjugates (that's what ( x + y)( x y) are called), you can FOIL or you can FL. 19 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

20 Multiply ( x ) + y Squaring a binomial. YouTube video and explanation of ( ) a. ( m + 5n) a + b. Let's realize that ( m + 5n) is no different than ( m 5n)( m 5n) multiple two binomials, FOIL! FOIL (First, Outer, Inner, Last) ( m + 5n) = ( m + 5n)( m + 5n) ( m 5n)( m 5n) + + First m times m = + + and we know how to 4m ( m 5n)( m 5n) + + Outer m times 5n = 10mn ( m 5n)( m 5n) + + Inner 5n times m = 10mn ( m 5n)( m 5n) + + Last 5n times 5n = 5n You now collect your terms. 4m + 10mn + 10mn + 5n = 4m + 0mn + 5n As you can see, squaring a binomial ( x ) + y is just as easy as using FOIL. But wait! Squaring a binomial ( x ) + y has a shortcut! 0 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

21 Let's try the previous question again. a. ( m + 5n) When you are squaring a binomial, here is the shortcut... square the first, square the last, multiply the two and double it. Easy right? Let's see it in practice. Square the first m squared = Square the last 5n squared = 4m 5n Multiple the two and double it Let's collect our like terms = m times 5n is 10mn, doubled = 0mn. 4m + 0mn + 5n That's the same answer! Cool huh? 6 b. ( ) 7c 8d Square the first ( ) 7c = 49c Square the last ( ) 6 1 8d = 64d 6 Multiple the two and double it Let's collect our like terms = 6 6 7c 8d = 56c d double that gets 49c 11c d + 64d c d a b YouTube video and explanation of ( ) Assignment pg 186 #5c,e,f 6a 15ace, 18(tough) pg 194 #4 1 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

22 Day 4 Applications Find the area of the shaded region. 4x + 6 A = A Large A Small x x + 4 5x 4 = (4x + 6)(5x 4) (x + 4)(x ) = 14x + 6x 16 Multiplication and simplifying of: 1. Mono x Poly. Bin x Bin. Poly x Poly Examples 1. (x )(x + 5x 7) Put the (x ) into the trinomial The x multiplies into the trinomial and then the multiples into the trinomial. = x + x x x x = + + x 1x 1x 14. 4a(a + ) + a(a 1) a(a + 4) a a a a a a 4a + 6 a. (x 1)(x + ) (x 4)(x 5) = x + 5x x 9x + 0 = + + x 5x x 9x 0 = + x 14x M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

23 4. (x + )(x + )(x 1) Foil the first binomials. Then multiple again. ( x 5x 6)( x 1) = + + = x + x + x x x = x + x + x 4 6 The first two binomials are FOILed Distribute the (x 1) into the trinomial Collect like tems. 5. (x ) (x + 5)(x 5) ( x 6x 9) ( x 5) = + Keep the negative out of the squaring of (x ) and out of FOILing (x+5)(x 5) = x + 6x 9 x + 5 Fire the negatives into the brackets = x + 6x + 16 Collect like terms 6. t ( t) + 5(t 1)(t + 1) ( ) ( ) = t 9 1t + 4t + 5 4t 1 square ( t) Watch the negative! FOIL (t 1)(t+1) = t 9 + 1t 4t + 0t 5 Distribute the negative into the trinomial and the 5 into the binomial. = 19t + 1t 14 Collect like terms. 7. (a + )(a ) + (a + ) ( a ) ( a a ) = FOIL (a+)(a ) and square (a+) = a 18 + a + 1a + 1 Distribute the and the = 5a + 1a 6 Collect like terms M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

24 8. (x 4 y) Isn`t this the same as (x 4 y)(x 4 y)(x 4 y) Yes it is! We can do this! It is no different than question 4. FOIL the first two binomials an then distribute the third binomial into the trinomial. = (x 4 y)(x 4 y)(x 4 y) ( 9x 4xy 16y )( x 4y) = + = 7x 7x y + 48xy 6x y + 96xy 64y = 7x 108x y + 144xy 64y Thus, if you ever need to cube a binomial, write it out as the multiplication of binomials and follow proper math : ) 9. ( x + y z)( x y + 4z) Area Model Here we have a trinomial times a trinomial. We can look at it in a couple of ways. x y 4z x x 4xy 8xz y xy 6y 1yz z xz yz 4z Collect like terms = x xy + 7xz 6y + 14yz 4z 4 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

25 Distributive Property Distribute the x, y and the z into the trinomial ( x y + 4z) ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = x ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = 4xy ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = 8xz ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = xy ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = 6y ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = 1yz ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = xz ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = yz ( x y z)( x y 4z) + + = Assignment 4z Collect like terms = Page 177 #8 Page 186 #4,7, 8, 11, 1, 14, 19ace, 1ace x xy + 7xz 6y + 14yz 4z 5 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

26 Day 5 Common Factors (Prime factorization, GCF, LCM and GCF of a polynomial) Prime Number - a whole number that has exactly two factors, itself and 1. i.e.,, 5, 7, 11, etc. Why aren't 0 or 1 prime numbers? Class discussion. Prime Factorization - writing a number as a product of its prime factors. 1. Write the prime factorization of the following numbers. a. 6 b But wait, is 10 a prime number? No! Keep going. 5 = 5 either is acceptable c. 60 What number goes into 60? Many, but I'll use What goes into 5? = 5 1 d. 55 Let's use a factor tree x x 5 x 1 5 x 5 x x 7 = 5 7 Question What is common between the words rake and cat? They both have an a. The a would be considered a factor in mathematics. Question What is the greatest common factor for these numbers? Note: the GCF (greatest common factor) is the largest number common in the set. a. 6 and 9 b. 15, 40, 55 c. 9, 7, 45 GCF = GCF = 5 GCF = 9 (yes a GCF can be one of the numbers) 6 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

27 d. 6a and 9a e. x and x f x y and 1xy GCF = a GCF = 6x GCF = 4xy Thus, when dealing with polynomials, always look to see if there is a GCF for the polynomial. Question Factor using GCF. Note: Always look for GCF! Always! 1. 5x + 10x. x + 7x x. 8a b + 16a b + a bc = 5 x( x + ) = x x + x ( 7 ) = a b + b + c 8 (1 4 ) 4. x(a + b) + 7(a + b) 5. 7a(x 1) + (x 1) ( a b)( x 7) = + + = ( x 1)(7a + ) 6. x (y + 5) + x(y + 5) 7. x(5 x) 9(5 x) + 8y(5 x) = y + x + x ( 5)( ) = x(5 x) 9(5 x) + 8 y(5 x) = (5 x)(x y) Least Common Multiple or Lowest Common Multiple - the lowest number that a set of numbers are all factors of. Question Find the LCM for the given set of numbers. a., 4 and 6 One way to do this is to write out all the multiples of each number LCM = 1, 6, 9, 1 4, 8, 1 6, 1 b. 4, 6, 9 4, 8, 1, 16, 0, 4, 8,, 6 6, 1, 18, 4, 0, 6 LCM = 6 9, 18, 7, 6 7 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

28 Real Life Example Mr. Boychuk has tiles that measure 14 inches by 16 inches that he wishes to make into a square mosaic. What is the smallest square that Mr. Boychuk can create using his 14x16 inch tiles? Option 1: Draw a diagram Keep adding 14x16 rectangles until the square is created. Option : List the factors of 14 and 16 to determine the LCM. 14, 8, 4, 56, 70, 84, 98, 11 16,, 48, 64, 80, 96, 11 Thus, a square 11 inches by 11 inches will fit the 14x16 tiles. Assignment Pg 140 #5 ace, 6ace, 7, 10 ace, 11 ac, 1, Pg (ace in each), 1a, 14ac, 16ace, 18 8 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

29 Day 6 Factoring Difference of Square and Perfect Squares I. Factoring a difference of squares. YouTube video on Difference of Squares Let's go back to Day and multiply the following ( x y)( x y) could FOIL, or we need on FL. You need only FL because ( x y)( x y) +. If we remember, we + are called conjugate binomials. This means the binomials are identical except one has addition while the other has subtraction. ( x y)( x y) + = 9x + 6xy 6xy 4y = 9x 4y This was Day so very easy :-) Let's notice something about the answer and more specifically, what always occurs when you multiply conjugate binomials. ( x y)( x y) ( x y ) + = There are three things to notice about the answer: 1. The answer is a binomial. The answer has subtraction. Both terms are perfect squares. So, if we can multiply binomials, why can't we take the answer and factor it into the original binomials? We can! Remember, if you notice the three things mentioned above, you have what's called A Difference of Squares. Let's Factor Ex: 1. x 16. x 5y. 49x 64 = ( x 4)( x + 4) ( x 5y)( x 5y) = + = ( 7x 8)( 7x + 8) Notice how in questions 1-, they were all binomials, they were all subtraction and each term was a perfect square? Hence, we knew we had A Difference of Squares. 9 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

30 4. x 4 81 ( x 9)( x 9) ( x )( x )( x 9) = + = + + The ( 9) x is another difference of squares. 5. x y y (GCF) Wait! I see a binomial, I see subtraction, but each term is not a perfect square. What do we do? Notice the Greatest Common Factor! Always factor the GCF out first. ( 1) = y x y Now the binomial is a perfect square. ( 1)( xy 1) = y xy + 6. y 6 1d 6 = ( y 4 d ) Factor out the GCF,. = ( y d )( y + d ) The binomial was A Difference of Squares. 7. x 0 16 = (x ) (x 10 4) Are we done? No! (x 10 4) can be factored. = (x )(x 5 + )(x 5 ) Assignment Pg 194 #6, 10aceg, 1ac, 1ace 0 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

31 II. Factoring Perfect squares. Recall from Day that (a + ) = a + 6a + 9 We learned that we could FOIL the binomial, or we could square the first term, square the last term, multiply the two terms and double the product. a + b = a + ab + b Thus, in general ( ) So, when we have a trinomial of the form a + ab + b, it is called a Perfect Square Trinomial and can easily be factored back to a single binomial squared. Ex: 1. a + 8a + 16 = (a + 4). 9a + 10a = (a + 0). 81a 7ab + 16b 6 = (9a 4b ) Notice in the first three questions how the first and last terms were perfect squares. That's a requirement for Perfect Square Trinomials. 4. 8a + 8a + 7 Wait! these aren't perfect squares. What to do? GCF, pull out the 7. = 7(4a + 4a + 1) 4 and 1, those are perfect squares. = 7(a + 1) 5. 15ax + 90ax + 15a = 15a( x + 6x + 9) = 15(x + ) 1 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

32 a + a This question can be left as is and factored or rearranged in descending order of x, then factored. Option 1 - Leave as is. Option - Rewrite 1 1a + 6a 6a 1a + 1 = ( 1 6a) = ( 6a 1) These two answers appear different yet they are the same. One answer is negative while the other answer is positive. Think about it, 6 = 6 and 6. Thus, if your answer is squared, then the number being squared could be positive or negative. Assignment Pg 194 #7a, 8, 1acd, 1bd M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

33 Day 7 Trinomial Factorization ( ax + bx + c ) I. Factoring trinomials (ax + bx + c, a = 1) Recall: (x + 4)(x + ) = x + 7x + 1 The middle term is the sum of the last terms of each binomial. The end term is the product of the last terms of each binomial. Ex: 1. x + 8x + 16 = ( x + 4)( x + 4) Hey, this is a perfect square!. = ( x + 4) x + 5x + 6 ( x?)( x?) = + + We know if must break down to two binomials each with an x. The latter two numbers need to multiply to 6 and add to 5. Since the 6 and 5 are both positive, we know the? numbers both need to be positive. ( x )( x ) = + +. x 4 8x + 15 ( x?)( x?) = + + We know if must break down to two binomials each with an x. The latter two numbers need to multiply to 15 and add to 8. Since the 15 is positive and the 8 is negative, we know the? numbers both need to be negative. ( x )( x 5) = 4. x 10 + x ( x?)( x?) = + + We know if must break down to two 5 binomials each with an x. The later two numbers need to multiply to 8 and add to. Since the 8 is negative we know the? numbers need to be opposite signs, one positive and one negative. So what numbers multiply to 8 and add to? 7 and 4. Note: it can't be 7 and 4. ( x 7)( x 4) = + M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

34 5. x 10xy + 1y ( x? y)( x? y) = + + Since the last term has a y, there needs to be a y in each binomial. We now need two numbers that multiply to 1 and add to 10. To multiply out positive but add up negative, both numbers must be negative! = ( x y)( x 7 y) 6. x 10 7x 5 y 0y 6 = ( x? y )( x? y ) 10 x breaks down to 5 x and 6 y breaks down to y What numbers multiply to 0 and add to 7? = ( x 10 y )( x y ) GCF 7. x + 10x 8 Whoa! What's going on? Think, what is common? The is common! Factor a out. = ( x + 5x 14) Now find two numbers that multiply to 14 = ( x + 7)( x ) and add to 5. GCF 8. x x y 8xy 4 What's common? The x. Factor it out. Optional Hints: 4 = x( x xy 8 y ) Now find two numbers that multiply to 8 = x x y x + y ( 4 )( ) and add to. 1. Both terms positive (middle and last), then both parts are positive. x + 1x + = (x +8)(x + 4). Last term positive, middle term negative, then both parts are negative. x 1x + = (x 8)(x 4). Last term is negative, then one part is negative and the other is positive. x 4x = (x 8)(x + 4) x + 4x = (x + 8)(x 4) 4. The middle term contains the variables that are found in the first and last terms. The exponents are half of what they are in the first and last terms. 4 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

35 II. Factoring trinomials (ax + bx + c, a 1) 1. x + 1x + 15 Here, there is no GCF. So, what are the factors of ( x?)( x?) = + + Now we need two numbers that multiply to 15. x? The 1 in the middle is not too important as the will influence it. Two factors of 15 are 5 and. Let's put the 5 and into the?, but which goes where? We'll try both. = ( x + 5)( x + ) = ( x + )( x + 5) We must FOIL both out to see which is correct. = x + 11x + 15 This is NOT correct. Thus, when the a value in the question = + + This is correct. x 1x 15 ax + bx + c is not 1, there is extra work to be done.. 5x 16x + + Again, no GCF so find the factors of ( 5 x?)( x?) 5x. = + + Now we need the factors of. and 1 are good. But again, which goes where? Try both. = ( 5x + 1)( x + ) = ( 5x + )( x + 1) We must FOIL both out to see which is correct. = + + This is correct. 5x 16x = 5x + 8x + This is NOT correct.. 1x 4 16x + 5 This is a tough question. We need the factors of ( 6x 5)( x 1) 4 1x. We know that x will be in both binomials, but the factors of 1 are &6, &4 and 1&1. Which pair is it? There is no easy answer and sadly we must try them all. A good rule of thumb, start in the middle (&4) and work out. = This is the correct answer. You can FOIL to verify. 5 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

36 4. 8x + 10xy y = ( ax + by)( cx dy) We know that 0 x breaks down as 10 x and y breaks down as y. The factors of 8 are (1&8) and (&4). The factors of are (&-1) and ( &1). We must now test our options. ( x 10 y)( 4x 10 y) = + This is the correct answer. You can FOIL to verify x 44xy 0y GCF. Factor a out. =(5x x 15y ) = ( ax + by)( cx dy) Find the factors of 5 and 15. =(5x + y)(x 5y) This is the correct answer. You can FOIL to verify. Extra Questions if needed: 6. x + 11x m + 1m 5 = ( x + )( x + 4) = ( m 1)( m + 5) 8. 4x 5xy 6y 9. 6x 5x 4 = ( 4x + y)( x y) = ( x 4)( x + 1) Assignment Pg 166 #11aceg, 14aceg, 15ac, 17 a = 1 Pg 177 # 1aceg, 15aceg, 17, 19aceg a 1 6 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

37 Day 8 Square Roots and Cube Roots Square Root - a number, when raise to the power of results in a given number. 9 = ± A Square Root always gives two answers. = 9 = 9 Cube Root - a number, when raised to the power of results in a given number. 64 = 4 A cube root only produces one answer = 64 To get a cube root on a TI calculator, hit MATH then 4. Square - a dimensional object where all sides are equal. Area = length x width = s Cube - a dimension object where all sides are equal. example - a 6 sided die. Volume = length x width x height = s Examples 1. Find the sides of the square if the area is 89 km. A = s 89 = s 89 = s = 17km s The negative answer is not applicable so we disregard it.. Find the sides of a cube if the area volume is 1167 cm. V = s 1167 = s 1167 = s = cm s 7 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

39 c. x + 4x + Now we need two numbers that add to 4. So choose a pair. Let's try 1 and. ( 1+ )( + )( 1+ 5)( + 6 )... There are an infinite number! ( )( ) x + 1 x + = x + 4x + Or we could try 1 and 5. ( )( ) x 1 x + 5 = x + 4x + 4 So choose a pair of numbers that add to 4 and FOIL away! d. x 5x + Now we need two numbers that add to 5. Again, infinite possibilities. Let's try 8 and. ( )( ) x 8 x + = x 5x 4 Some Tricky Factorization Factor the following: 1. 4 x 81 A difference of squares question. =( 9 )( 9 x + x ) The ( 9) x can be factored again! =( x 9)( x )( x ) + + Rule = factor until you can factor no more.. x x 1 Need two numbers that multiply to 1 and add to 1 4 =( x 4 )( x ) + First binomial is a difference of squares. =( x )( x + )( x + ). x 10x 11 Need two numbers that multiply to 1 and add to 1 4 =( x 1)( x 11) + Second binomial is a difference of squares. =( x + 1)( x 11)( x + 11) 9 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

40 Assignment Page 147 #7, 8 Page 187 #0a Page 156 #17 Page 167 #19, 0 Page 195 #0 Square and Cube Roots Volume of Cube Neat Factoring Question Determining b and c values to make trinomials factorable Two step factorization 40 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

41 Day 9 Practicing all types of Factoring. YouTube video of what to look for when factoring. I. All types of factoring. Ex: 1. x 7x 18. 6m + 19mn + 10n = ( x 9)( x + ) = (m + n)(m + 5 n). x 8 4. x 4x + 4x = ( x 4) = ( x )( x + ) = x x + ( 4x 4) = x( x ) 5. x(m ) 4(m ) 6. ab 9ab + 6a b = ( m )( x 4) = ab(1 b + a) 7. y 7 y x 7x y + 1y 4 4 = ( y 1)( y + 4) = ( x 4y )( x y ) ( x y)( x y)( x y ) = + Assignment M10C W CH Factoring.doc 41 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

42 Textbook Review Questions The textbook has very good questions that can be used for review. You will notice that each set of questions indicated what section of the text it covers. If you need help with a question, you may refer to the section in the text. Page 198 Questions Section #1-.1 Prime Factors, Lowest Common Multiple & Greatest Common Factor #6-10. Square Roots and Cube Roots # Factoring Binomials and Trinomials #18, 19, 0a, 1.5 FOIL and Factoring #, FOIL and Factoring #7-0.7 Binomials multiplied by Trinomials and Tri times Tri #-5.8 Factoring Difference of Squares, Perfect Squares and Applications 4 M10C CH Products & Factors Lesson Plans.docx

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