Factors that Influence Student Selection of Educational Leadership Master s Programs at Regional Universities INTRODUCTION

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1 Fctors tht Influence Student Selection of Eductionl Ledership Mster s Progrms t Regionl Universities Pm Winn, Ed.D. Lesley F. Lech, Ph.D. Susn Erwin, Ph.D. Liz Benedict Trleton Stte University Grdute enrollment numbers in Eductionl Ledership progrms hve dwindled t mny public higher eduction institutions. At the sme time, for-profit institutions nd institutions with privte mrketing prtnerships hve experienced incresingly greter enrollments. Mny public institutions re reevluting their mrketing nd recruiting strtegies s they struggle to compete for students. Centrl to ny mrketing strtegy is knowledge of the needs nd wnts of consumers; in the cse of higher eduction, the consumers re students. This study sought to determine the needs nd wnts of Mster s-level Eductionl Ledership students by investigting the fctors tht influenced students selections of progrms s well s the recruiting strtegies tht students perceive s most effective vi survey reserch methods. Results indicte tht Mster s-level students (n = 47) selected prticulr Eductionl Ledership progrms primrily bsed on the course delivery methods (with hybrid courses most preferred) nd the convenience tht the progrms offer. Prticipnts perceived online dvertising s well s fce-to-fce contct with university or progrm representtives s top recruiting strtegies. University leders would be wise to consider mrketing efforts tht highlight Eductionl Ledership progrms blended lerning opportunities nd convenience through combintion of online dvertisements nd fce-to-fce recruiting events for Mster s-level students in Eductionl Ledership. Keywords: recruiting, grdute progrms, Eductionl Ledership, Mster s degree INTRODUCTION Historiclly, recruitment strtegies serve s vitl prt of university dmission processes; however, trditionl recruiting prctices flter in mrketplce of fierce competition from digitlly delivered progrms nd forprofit universities. Online progrm delivery frees students from geogrphic boundries. Mssive open online courses (MOOC) imed t lrge-scle prticiption through free nd open ccess expnd the rech of premiere university progrms (e.g. Hrvrd, Stnford, MIT) worldwide through the Courser consortium (Johnson, 2012). In ddition, for-profit universities (e.g. University of Phoenix) successfully out-recruit public universities by thousnds of students (Institute of Eductionl Sciences, 2010). Fced with declining enrollments, grdute Eductionl Administrtion progrms in Texs recognize their need to chnge. Trditionlly, geogrphic limittions required full-time working professionls to pursue grdute degrees close to home. Universities tht tout personl reltionships, individul ttention, nd smller lerning environments believe online delivery impedes student lerning. Nevertheless, enrollment trends support online options for grdute students with busy schedules. As institutions trnsform to meet lerner needs, progrm plnning nd recruitment hinges on students preferences (Stevens-Huffmn, 2006). At the sme time, Texs Eductionl Ledership grdute progrms grpple with declining enrollment, funding cuts, incresing tuition nd fees, nd fewer jobs in the field for grdutes.

2 Trends in Higher Eduction REVIEW OF LITERATURE Clls for ccountbility, efficiency, nd productivity in grdute progrms result in incresed costs, tightened budgets, nd the comprtive vlue of grdute degree. The 11th century university model operting on 19th century clendr is out of sync with 21st century students no longer willing to pssively bsorb lecture-delivered content (Mehffy, 2012). Turner nd Crriveu (2012) suggest the result is perfect storm, in which, low generl eduction success rtes, skyrocketing costs, chnging demogrphics, nd filure to ddress the lerning process fce off ginst the expecttion tht schools produce evidence of the vlue dded by their eduction. Filure to effectively ddress these issues t the University of Texs nd Texs A&M University resulted in mndte for eduction more responsive to lerner needs with fewer tenured fculty nd more prt-time instructors with professionl experience (Burk, 2012). Incresingly populr online degrees nd certifictions hve seen n estimted 6.1 million postsecondry students engged in online courses in , n increse of 560,000 students from the previous yer. Almost 30% of ll higher eduction students tke t lest one course online (Slon Consortium, 2011). In n estimted 2.7 million students were enrolled in fully online postsecondry progrms. Online enrollment is estimted to increse to 3.44 million students in 2015 encompssing 15.9 % of totl postsecondry enrollment (GSV EDU, 2012). MOOCs drmticlly chnge eductionl opportunities for lrge numbers of students t much lower cost (Burk, 2012). For exmple, Hrvrd nd MIT creted joint experiment utilizing free online courses (edx), testing new ides for mssive online courses nd digitl eduction. Providing students with personlized feedbck, web-bsed Crowdsourcing softwre breks homework submissions into chunks to be reviewed by teching stff, fellow students, nd lumni volunteers (Prry, 2012). In ddition, the Courser consortium creted by Stnford, the University of Michign, Princeton, nd the University of Pennsylvni, provides free, high-qulity courses (MOOCs) from other top-rted universities. While economic downturns historiclly increse enrollments in grdute progrms, recent recession trends indicte new grdute student enrollment fell by 1.1% between fll of 2009 nd fll of 2011 (June, 2011). Possible explntions include reduction in endowments funds, stte budget cuts, nd limited vilbility of finncil id. In ddition, budget restrictions hve incresed scrutiny of the eductionl prctices t colleges nd universities, nd hve pplied pressure to follow corporte pths of efficiency (Mehffy, 2012; Redwing, 2012). To crete university growth model by trnsforming trditionl on-cmpus progrms to n online lerning formt, Acdemic Prtnerships (AP) piloted model of contrctul prtnership between the compny nd university in fll Using Acdemic Prtnerships model, Lmr University incresed its enrollment in two grdute eductionl progrms from 226 to 4,100 (Acdemic Prtnership, 2012). In the fll of 2010, Acdemic Prtnerships contrcted with the University of Texs Arlington in the Mster s degree in Eductionl Ledership nd incresed enrollment from 173 in the fll of 2009 to 558 in the fll of 2010 nd 695 in the fll of 2011 (THECB, 2012). These drmtic chnges impcted enrollment t mny universities cross the ntion. One unintended consequence ws n oversupply of grdutes in the re of Eductionl Ledership. Other Texs progrms mintined grdute enrollment by shifting to online nd hybrid course delivery. Mrketing in Higher Eduction While public universities struggle to reinvent themselves, mrket shre trends for privte for-profit institutions continue to increse. Representing 11% of the 2009 university mrket (Integrted Postsecondry Eduction Dt System [IPEDS], 2010) revenue from for-profit degree-grnting institutions ws 19 billion dollrs in (U.S. Deprtment of Eduction, Ntionl Center for Eductionl Sttistics, 2011). Over the lst forty-yer period, institutions of higher eduction hve shifted from socil institutions to n industry (Anctil, 2008). Mrketing in eductionl institutions ws once discourged s undermining cdemic stndrds of qulity nd excellence (Anderson, 2008). However, with government deregultion nd incresing competition (Hemsley-Brown& Opltk, 2006; Jongbloed, 2003; Mringe, 2006) institutions of higher eduction must mrket to

3 compete (Constntinides & Zinck Stgno, 2011). Gumport (2000) ttributes this chnge to the increse of cdemic mngement, the rise of cdemic consumerism, nd the restrtifiction of cdemic subjects nd personl to use-vlue nd exchnge-vlue of prticulr knowledge in wider society (Gumport, 2000, pp ). The intense pressure for ccountbility, student enrollment, retention, nd cdemic performnce ll drive institutions of higher eduction to operte in more commercil mnner (Anctil, 2008). Hemsley-Brown nd Opltk (2006) found few results of effective grdute recruiting nd mrketing plns in the professionl literture becuse the emphsis t most universities is on undergrdute recruitment. While trditionl recruitment methods bound, more ggressive methods re on the rise. Higher eduction is highly competitive mrket seeking effective recruiting strtegies. As public universities seek wys to engge the mrket, for-profits continue to experiment ws bnner enrollment yer for the University of Phoenix, rising stock prices to $90.00 per shre. Recruiting strtegies behind this spike included implementtion of highly trined enrollment nd finncil-id counselors nd techniclly sophisticted 24-hour--dy recruiting opertion (Blumenstyk, 2011). In 2013, Acdemic Prtnerships nnounced chnged trditionl online courses to MOOCs to recruit new students. Successful course completion resulted in free course credit when students were dmitted to the university (Kolowich, 2013). The online for-profit Western Governor s University creted competency-bsed model in which students py set price per semester to complete n unlimited number of courses. On the other hnd, for-profit institutions re notorious for hiring lower pid, non-unionized, nd non-tenured fculty with lower qulifictions nd no reserch obligtions (Mehffy, 2012). Lowered personnel costs llow for-profit universities to dedicte more resources to recruiting nd new technologies (Kirschnir, 2012). Views differ s to the best mrketing model for higher eduction. More universities re moving to direct mrketing plns to compete with for-profit universities. Sevier (2004) supports model using brnd mrketing to crete wreness, direct mrking to generte responses, nd customer reltionship mngement for client retention. With the increse in competition nd resources constrints, more universities re focusing on trget mrketing pproch to identify nd pursue prospective students (Lewison & Hwes, 2007). Students re no longer just viewed s lerners, citizens, scholrs, nd mbssdors, but re seen s investors who re investing in their own future (Reder, 2011). Other forms of mrketing include collbortive reltionships (Gibbs, 2002) nd reltionship mrketing (Helgesen, 2008, Klssen, 2002). Reltionship mrketing in higher eduction focuses on building nd mintining the reltionship of vlue exchnge between the institution nd three min customer groups: future students, current students, nd lumni (McAlexnder nd Koening, 2001). The qulity of these reltionships is connected to the customers longterm loylty. Mrketing Tools The Grdute nd Professionl School Enrollment Mngement Corportion (GAPSEMC) notes grdute progrms must develop strtegic cmpign to compete in tody s competitive mrket. On verge, 6-12 contcts (e.g. mil, phone, emil, socil medi, nd specil events) must be mde before students enroll in progrm (GAPSEMC, 2012). Like other mrkets, colleges nd universities must successfully define their niche nd their mrket; this includes nlyzing demogrphic dt of current students to identify prospective students (Aldridge, 2010). Defining the higher eduction mrketplce must focus on the vrition in student demogrphics, psychogrphics, nd behviorl chrcteristics, ll of which hve contributed to the ge of individulism in which the dominnt movement is viewing customers s individuls. However, it is importnt to extend the demogrphic dt beyond the prospective students to ll people served by the university, such s lumni, employers of grdutes, finncil supporters, nd for sttesupported universities. This would include tx-pyers nd the legislture (Lewison & Hwes, 2007). Determining the most effective types of communiction is key in mrketing. While incresed mobile technologies influence student communiction, socil medi mrketing focuses on customer enggement, improved communictions, nd incresing brnd loylty (Constninides & Zinck Stgno, 2011). Ohio Stte University students preferred communiction from the school vi emil (82%) followed by the website (17.8%). For generl updtes, 68.9% chose emil, while 33.7% chose the web site (Ohio Stte Office of Student Life, 2010). Conversely, Robinson nd Stubberud (2012) found students most preferred fce-to-fce communiction, followed by emil. Pper communiction ws

4 VOLUME 4, ISSUE 1 lest preferred, while Fcebook rnked lst for work/school, but fourth for socil communiction. A 2011 Pew Reserch Center Report noted 65% of dult internet users use socil networking sites (Mdden & Zickuhr, 2011); however, review of literture on socil medi nd mrketing in higher eduction reveled tht, while recruiting officers nd potentil students both use socil medi, they use it for different purposes. Although universities used socil medi to connect with prospective students nd to mrket their institution, there is no indiction these medi re used by sid students to seek college dmission (Nyngu & Bdo, 2012). In contrst, Hys, Ruschmn, nd Wlker (2009) found significnt reltionship between the students who engged in the university s socil medi network nd eventul university dmission. Brnes nd Mttson (2009) found dmission officers in 2007nd 2008 incresingly using socil medi to reserch nd recruit potentil students. In 2008, dmission officers identified vrious socil medi pltforms (blogging, video blogging, socil networking sites) s mrketing tools nd felt socil medi were n importnt dmission tools. In 2010, Brnes nd Mttson discovered 95% of college dmission offices using t lest one form of socil medi nd 91% identifying socil medi s somewht importnt to their recruiting future. Brnes nd Lescult (2011) found Fcebook to be the most widely used socil medi tool (98%) followed by YouTube (86%), Twitter (84%), nd blogs (66%). The Center for Mrketing Reserch found benefits of using socil medi for recruiting to include reduced printing costs (33%), nd fewer monies spent on newspper ds (24%) nd rdio nd television (17%). In ddition, 92% of undergrdute dmissions gree socil medi is worth the investment, nd report socil medi to be 44% more effective in recruiting for top MBA progrms. The sme report identified the most successful tools for recruiting undergrdutes to be Fcebook (94%), YouTube (81%), Twitter (69%), nd Downlodble Mobile Apps (51%). Mobile pps were fvorite tool for top MBA progrms, with 82% crediting them for being n effective recruiting tool (Brnes & Lescult, N.D.). Noel Levitz Incorported identified the most populr socil medi tool s Fcebook, followed by You- Tube nd Twitter (Noel-Levitz, Inc., 2012). PBP Executive Reports (2010) reviewed mjor socil network sites to ssess wys intuitions of higher eduction could effectively use these tools for mrketing. Fcebook s fn pges, personl pge, nd group fetures offers institutions of higher eduction n excellent opportunity to mintin vible online socil presence. Twitter is useful to provide quick, dmissions relted informtion to students nd to direct them to the university s website for more informtion. Fusch (2011, 2011b) found digitl tools cn be used for specific mrketing purposes; YouTube is vluble pltform to rech prospective students; Fcebook cn generte the desire for cmpus visits; nd Twitter provides dmission officers the opportunity to provide personlized services to prospective students. Purpose Centrl to ny mrketing strtegy is knowledge of the needs nd wnts of consumers; in the cse of higher eduction the consumers re students. This study sought to determine the needs nd wnts of Mster s-level Eductionl Ledership students by investigting the fctors tht influenced students selections of progrms s well s the recruiting strtegies tht students perceive s most effective vi survey reserch methods. Specificlly, this study sought to nswer the following reserch questions: 1. Wht fctors influenced Mster s-level students decisions to ttend Eductionl Ledership progrms? 2. Wht recruiting strtegies do current Mster s-level students perceive s most effective in influencing their decisions to ttend prticulr Eductionl Ledership progrms? Prticipnts METHOD Current Mster s-level students from Eductionl Ledership progrms t three public regionl universities in the southwest United Sttes were recruited for prticiption in the study (n = 47, M ge = 36.89, SD ge = 8.06, ge rnge: yers, 75% femle). Prticipnts self-identified s belonging to the following ethnic ctegories: Africn Americn/ Blck (4%), Asin (2%), Cucsin (76%), Hispnic/Ltino/Chicno (16%), nd none of the bove (2%). b

5 Procedure Consenting prticipnts were sked to complete n online survey tht invited them to retrospectively identify the fctors tht impcted their choice of Eductionl Ledership progrm. Prticipnts were requested to provide dditionl informtion concerning the fctors they selected; the survey ws designed using brnching logic s to elicit dditionl informtion bout prticulr fctor only if the prticipnt initilly selected tht fctor s importnt. For the ske of brevity, copy of the survey ws not included in the rticle. The survey is vilble from the uthors upon request. Anlyses Prticipnts responses were nlyzed descriptively. Frequencies, percentges, nd verges of the ggregted nd disggregted dt were clculted for interprettion. Dt from the open-ended responses were nlyzed themticlly. RESULTS Prticipnts were sked to identify their primry motivtion for ttending grdute school. Figure 1 displys the frequencies of responses. Note tht most prticipnts (n = 47) identified furthernce of their creer (77%) s the primry motivtion for ttending grdute school. Mrkedly fewer prticipnts identified gols of expnding their knowledge nd skills or improving their erning potentil (13% nd 9%, respectively). Figure 1. Primry reson tht Msters level students identified for ttending grdute school (n = 47). Fctors tht Influenced Progrm Selection Prticipnts were sked to identify from prepopulted list or entry in n open-ended comments box ny nd ll fctors tht influenced their choice to ttend their current progrm. Figure 2 presents the fctors tht were identified by students. Delivery of coursework nd convenience were identified by the mjority of prticipnts s influentil fctors. Tuition cost nd reputtion were the third nd fourth top fctors, respectively. Interestingly, lthough tuition

6 VOLUME 4, ISSUE 1 cost ws identified by 43% of prticipnts s importnt, the sme prticipnts indicted tht the vilbility of scholrships nd finncil id mttered much less, with only 2% identifying either s top fctor, respectively. Figure 2. Fctors tht prticipnts identified s influentil in the selection of their current Mster s level Eductionl Ledership progrm (n = 47). Note tht prticipnts could choose multiple fctors, so percentges will dd to greter thn 100%. Mles nd femles were found to identify similr fctors, but there ws disprity when the dt ws disggregted by ge ctegory (see Figure 3 for results). Prticipnts who were yers old overwhelmingly chose delivery of coursework s the most importnt fctor (100%; n = 26), wheres only 20% of students tht were yers old (n = 5) thought tht the delivery of coursework ws influentil. Prticipnts who were yers of ge identified reputtion, convenience, the fct tht they hd ttended the university previously, nd fmily/friends recommendtions s b

7 top fctors (40% for ech fctor; n = 5). The yer old ge group (n = 26) chose delivery of coursework (73%) nd convenience (65%) s the top two influentil fctors on the progrm selection. Prticipnts in the ge rnge (n = 10) lso identified delivery of coursework (100%) nd convenience (100%) s top fctors long with reputtion (70%). Finlly, prticipnts who were (n = 4) yers of ge identified reputtion (75%) nd convenience (75%) s the most importnt fctors. Figure 3. Fctors tht prticipnts identified s influentil in the selection of their current progrm by ge ctegory (n = 45). Note tht prticipnts could choose multiple fctors, so percentges will dd to greter thn 100%. The top two fctors identified by prticipnts cross ll ge groups s impcting their selection of progrm were delivery of coursework nd convenience. Prticipnts tht identified either fctor were sked in subsequent survey questions to elborte on how tht fctor influenced their decision. Delivery of coursework. When sked how the delivery of coursework impcted prticipnts decisions to ttend their current universities, prticipnts (n = 47) selections were vried, with the gretest percentge indicting preference for mixture of online nd fce-to-fce instruction (34%), but followed closely by preferences for more online instruction (28%). Only 15% identified more fce-to-fce instruction s impcting their decision (see Figure 4). From these results, it ppers tht some Mster s-level students prefer mixture of online nd trditionl fce-to-fce instruction (clled hybrid or blended lerning), but most tend to prefer t lest some online component.

8 VOLUME 4, ISSUE 1 Figure 4. Aspects of the delivery of coursework tht prticipnts identified s ffecting their decision to ttend their current progrm (n = 47). Note tht prticipnts could choose multiple fctors, so percentges will dd to greter thn 100%.Prticipnts were sked to provide dditionl open-ended responses to the question of how the delivery of coursework ffected their progrm choice. Prticipnts identified the flexibility of loction nd pcing s impctful of their progrm selection in progrms with t lest some online instruction (whether fully or prtilly online). Two prticipnts noted tht they chose progrm with online components due to fmily obligtions. In contrst, two prticipnts mentioned tht they chose their progrm becuse of the fce-to-fce components. Clerly, while mny students prefer online coursework, some still desire the fce-to-fce components tht re vilble in mny progrms. Convenience. Figure 5 presents the spects of convenience tht prticipnts identified s impctful of their progrm choice. Results were vried. Almost hlf of mster s-level students (n = 47) noted they preferred progrm tht ws close to their home (49%) nd the convenience of scheduling clsses ws importnt (43%). Overll, Mster slevel students were less concerned bout the progrm being locted close to their work (13%). Figure 5. Aspects of convenience tht prticipnts identified s ffecting their decision to ttend their current progrm (n = 47). Note tht prticipnts could choose multiple fctors, so percentges will sum to greter thn 100%. Prticipnts were sked to provide dditionl open-ended responses to the question of how the delivery of coursework ffected their progrm choice. One prticipnt discussed his or her fmilirity with the cmpus nd the belief b

9 tht his or her institutionl choice would help prepre him or her for principl position. Another student discussed her or his preference for the orderly wy the course work ws plnned so she or he could pln properly. Recruiting Strtegies Prticipnts were sked to rnk the three fctors tht they believed to be the most effective in recruiting Mster slevel students for Eductionl Ledership progrms. The Condorcet method ws used to nlyze the rnked dt (see Tble 1 for the results). Online dvertising ws rnked s the top choice by most respondents, followed by contct from progrm representtive. The third highest ws contct from university representtive. From these rnkings, it ppers tht students vlue online dvertisements, yet it is interesting to note the ctegory with dvertising vi socil medi ws not rnked in the top three list of strtegies. The second nd third rnking tht plced contct s importnt shows tht, much like the fctors tht influenced their progrm selection, students still vlue personl contct when it comes selecting n eductionl progrm. Tble 1 Prticipnts Rnkings of Recruiting Prctices from Most to Lest Effective in Mster s-level Eductionl Ledership Progrms (n = 47) Rnk 1 Online dvertising 2 Contct from progrm representtive 3 Contct from university representtive 4 Fce-to-fce informtion session Recruiting Prctice 5 Advertising vi socil medi (e.g., Fcebook, Twitter) 6 Online informtion session 7 Advertising in populr print sources (e.g., newsppers, mgzines) 8 Advertising in eduction-relted trde journls 9 School district/service center contct 10 Word of mouth 11 Milings DISCUSSION Prticipnts identified delivery of coursework nd convenience s the two most influentil fctors in choosing their current Eductionl Ledership grdute progrm. They reported preference for mixture of online nd fce-tofce delivery. Students mentioned fmily nd professionl obligtions s key to the desire for t lest some online instruction. Prticipnts were lso cler in their desire for progrm tht ws convenient both in loction nd course scheduling. Scheduling ws identified by prticipnts s most importnt while convenience of loction from home seemed to mtter s well. Given the incresing populrity of the fully online progrms of for-profit universities nd universities with for-profit mrketing prtnerships, it is not surprising to lern from the study results tht students prefer convenience nd t lest some online delivery of coursework two components tht undoubtedly mke up the fully online progrms of

10 VOLUME 4, ISSUE 1 mny for-profit institutions. It is interesting to note, however, tht mny of the prticipnts indicted preference to include t lest some fce-to-fce instruction in grdute progrm in Eductionl Ledership. When it comes to recruitment strtegies, students perceived online dvertising nd contct with university/progrm representtives s the most effective recruiting strtegies. Combintion of these strtegies suggest university leders should consider mix of trditionl, fce-to-fce recruiting methods, nd new technologicl methods like socil medi to mrket their institution to prospective students. From these results, it is cler tht Msters-level students believe tht connecting with fce-to-fce university representtive is importnt. Yet the mjority lso chose online dvertising s potentilly effective. Future reserch could explore this further by investigting the kinds of online dvertising tht Msters-level students perceive s effective recruiting. Implictions for Prctice Results of the current study point to hybrid delivery of coursework nd convenience s key to most grdute students selections of Eductionl Ledership progrms. Mster s-level students re lrgely in greement tht mixture of online nd fce-to-fce coursework is preferred due to the flexibility tht it offers for fmily nd professionl obligtions. Note, however, tht ll of the current study prticipnts ttend Eductionl Ledership progrms t public institutions nd, for tht reson the results could be non-representtive of the popultion t lrge. In ddition, the respondents were lrgely femle (75%) nd Cucsin (76%), which could llow for potentil bis. Regrdless, the results offer interesting informtion concerning Eductionl Ledership progrms t public regionl institutions in the southwest United Sttes. It my be tht the students who chose public regionl institutions vlued t lest some fce-to-fce instruction nd chose public institution s direct result. Future studies could investigte tht issue. In sum, the results suggest tht dministrtors of Eductionl Ledership would be wise to consider the convenience of their progrms nd hybrid course delivery options in order to mximize recruitment efforts nd subsequent student enrollment. Results indicte tht Mster s students in Eductionl Ledership progrms t public regionl institutions prefer t lest some fce-to-fce instruction, but enjoy the convenience tht the online components offer s well. University leders should consider utilizing employees to help recruit Mster s-level students into their progrms s contct with person rnks high on effective recruiting strtegies. The study results lso reveled the fct tht effective recruiting likely begins with ctching prospective Mster s students ttention vi online dvertising nd following up with fce-to-fce contct to help boost enrollment. Resoned ction bsed on these results my help strengthen the mrketing of Eductionl Ledership grdute progrms t regionl universities cross the ntion nd their enrollment numbers s result. REFERENCES Acdemic prtnerships. A brief history. Retrieved from Aldridge, S. (2010). Strtegy mtters more thn budget in student recruiting. Chronicle of Higher Eduction, 57(11), B50. Anderson, G. (2008). Mpping cdemic resistnce in the mngeril university. Orgniztion, 15(2), Anticil, E. J. (2008). Mrketing nd dvertising higher eduction. ASHE Higher Eduction Report, 34(2), Brnes, N. G. & Lescult, A. M. (2011). Socil medi doption sors s higher-ed experiments nd reevlutes its use of new communiction tools. Retrieved Februry 19, 2012 from Higher-Ed2011/prweb htm Brnes, N. D. & Lescult, A. M. (n.d.). Higher Ed documents socil medi ROI: New communictions tools re gme chnger. The Center for Mrket Reserch University of Msschusetts Drtmouth. Retrieved Februry 13, 2013, from Brnes, N. G. & Mttson, E. (2009). Socil medi nd college dmissions: Higher-Ed bets business in doption of new tools for the third yer. The Center for Mrket Reserch, University of Msschusetts Drtmouth. Retrieved Februry 13, 2013, from b

11 Blumenstyk, G. (2011). Fst growing University of Phoenix clcultes more creful course. Chronicle of Higher Eduction, 57(23). Burk, P. (October, 2012). Storming the ivory tower. Texs Monthly. Retrieved from cms/printthis.php&issue= Constntinides, E., & Zinck Stgno, M.C. (2011). Potentil of the socil medi s instruments of higher eduction mrketing: s segmenttion study. Journl of Mrketing for Higher Eduction, 21(1), Fusch, D. (2011, Jnury-Februry). Mking informed investments in socil medi. Higher Ed Impct Monthly Dignostic, Retrieved on Februry 19, 2012 from Fusch, D. (2011b, Jnury-Februry). Mrketing nd recruiting with socil medi. Higher Ed Impct Monthly Dignostic, Retrieved on Februry 19, 2012 from dignostic.pdf Gibbs, P. (2002). From the invisible hnd to the invisible hndshke: Mrketing higher eduction. Reserch in Post- Compulsory Eduction, 7(3), Grdute nd Professionl School Enrollment Mngement Corportion (Februry, 2012). How to successfully recruit grdute students. Workshop conducted by Grdute nd Professionl School Enrollment Mngement Corportion in Atlnt, Georgi. Gumport, P. J. (2000). Acdemic restructuring: Orgniztionl chnge nd institutionl impertives. Higher Eduction: The Interntionl Journl of Higher Eduction nd Eductionl Plnning 39: Hyes, T. J., Ruschmn, D., & Wlker, M. M. (2009). Socil networking s n dmissions tool: A cse study in success. Journl of Mrketing in Higher Eduction, 18(1), Helgesen, O. (2008). Mrketing for higher eduction: A reltionship mrketing pproch. Journl of Mrketing for Higher Eduction, 18(1), Hemsley-Brown, J. V., & Opltk, I. (2006). Universities in competitive globl mrketplce: systemtic review of the literture on higher eduction mrketing. Interntionl Journl of Public Sector Mngement, 19(4), Institute of Eductionl Science. (2010). Fst fcts: Highest enrollment. Retrieved from the Ntionl Center for Eduction Sttistics Jongbloed, B. (2003). Mrketistion in higher eduction, Clrk s Tringle nd essentil ingredients of mrkets. Higher Eduction Qurterly, 5(2), Johnson, J. (2012, September 24). Wht in the world is MOOC? The Wshington Post. Retrieved from wshingtonpost.com/blogs/cmpus-overlod/post/wht-in-the-world-is--mooc/2012/09/24/ e df86b04_blog.html June, A. (2011). Enrollment of new grdute students dipped in 2010, for first time in 7 yers. Chronicle of Higher Eduction, 58(6), A23. Kirschner, A. (2012). Innovtions in higher eduction? Hh! Chronicle of Higher Eduction, 58(32), B6-B9. Klssen, M. L. (2002). Reltionship mrketing on the Internet: The cse of top-nd lower-rnked US universities nd colleges. Journl of Retiling nd Consumer Services, 12(2), Kolowich, S. (2013). Universities try MOOCs in bid to lure successful students to online progrms. Chronicle of Higher Eduction. Retrieved from https://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcmpus/universities-try-mooc2degree-courses-tolure-successful-students-to-online-progrms/41829 Lewison, D. M., & Hwes, J. M. (2007). Student trget mrketing strtegies for universities. Journl of College Admission, 196:

12 VOLUME 4, ISSUE 1 Mdden, M., & Zickuhr, K. (August 26, 2011). Report: Socil networking 65% of online dults use socil network sites. Pew Reserch Center. Retrieved from: Mringe, F. (2006). University nd course choice: Implictions for positioning, recruitment nd mrketing. Interntionl Journl of Eductionl Mngement, 20(6), McAlexnder, J. H.. & Koening, H.F. (2001). University experiences, the student-college-reltion, nd lumni support. Journl of Mrketing for Higher Eduction, 10(3), Mehffy, G. L. (September/October, 2012). Chllenge nd chnge. EDUCAUSE Review, 45(5). Nyngu, J. Z., & Bdo, N. (Spring, 2012). Socil medi nd mrketing of higher eduction: A review of the literture. Journl of the Reserch Center for Eductionl Technology (RCET), 8(1), Noel-Levitz Incorported. (2012). Noel-Levitz on undergrdute trends in enrollment mngement: 2012 E-recruiting prctices nd trends t four-yer nd two-yer institutions. Retrieved from https://www.noellevitz.com/documents/gted/ppers_nd_reserch/2012/2012%20e-recruiting%20prctices%20report.pdf?code= Ohio Stte Office of Student Life. (2010) student technology server. Retrieved from: documents/2010-stu-tech-brief-finl.pdf PBP Executive Reports (2010). Fcebook &Twitter: Engging & recruiting prospective students: A specil report for higher eduction dministrtors. Retrieved Februry 19, 2012 from: Prry, M. (2012). 5 wys tht edx could chnge eduction. Chronicle of Higher Eduction, 59(6), B6-B7. Reder, P. (2011). Yesterdy, tody, nd tomorrow- constnt chnge. Perspectives: Policy & Prctice in Higher Eduction, 15(3), Redwing, C., Todd, J., Dmbrosio, E., Hmilton, J., & Zmor, J. (2012). Literture review of current trends in higher eduction. Retrieved from Rishi, R. (2007). Alwys connected, but hrd to rech. EDUCAUSE Qurterly, 20(2),7-9. Robinson, S., & Stubberud, H. A. (2012). Communiction preferences mong university students. Acdemy of Eductionl Ledership Journl, 16(2), Sevier, B. (2004). Keeping the direct in direct mrketing. University Business, 7(4) Slon Consortium (2010). Clss differences: Online eduction in the United Sttes, Retrieved from slonconsortium.org/publictions/survey/clss_differences Stevens-Huffmn, L. (2006). Commitment, consistency re key to college recruiting. Workforce Mngement, 85(6), Texs Higher Eduction Coordinting Bord. (2012). Texs higher eduction dt. Retrieved from the Texs Higher Eduction Coordinting Bord Turner, P. M. & Crriveu. (2010). Next genertion course redesign. New York, NY: Peter Lng Publishing. U.S. Deprtment of Eduction, Ntionl Center for Eductionl Sttistics (2011). The condition of eduction Retrieved from About the Authors Pm Winn holds n Ed.D. in Eductionl Administrtion from the University of Texs A&M-Commerce. She hs served in both public nd higher eduction, with experiences rnging from teching to dministrtion nd hs trined principl ssessors cross the stte. Winn presently serves s n ssocite professor, director of the New Century Eductionl Ledership Progrm (NCELP), Mster s Coordintor. b

13 Lesley F. Lech holds Ph.D. in Eductionl Reserch from the University of North Texs. Prior to her current ppointment s ssocite professor nd doctorl progrm coordintor in the Deprtment of Eductionl Ledership nd Policy Studies t Trleton Stte University, Lesley spent five yers s n elementry mthemtics techer nd over three yers s reserch scientist with the Chrles A. Dn Center t The University of Texs t Austin. Susn Erwin holds Ph.D. in instructionl ledership nd cdemic curriculum from the University of Oklhom, Normn, Oklhom. With 23 yers K-12 public school experience nd 11 yers in higher eduction, Erwin presently serves s grdute progrm coordintor for the TSU deprtment curriculum nd instruction. Liz Benedict is currently working on her doctorl disserttion bout socil medi nd mrketing in higher eduction. She hs thirteen yers of public reltions experience, twelve of which hve been focused in the cdemic field. Liz presently serves s doctorl fellow t Trleton Stte University.

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