Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base. 1. What's the Brønsted definition of an acid?...of a base?

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1 Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Name 1. What's the Brønsted definition of an acid?...of a base? 2. In 1923, Johannes Brønsted (Danish) and Thomas Lowry (British) independently expanded definition of Arrhenius acids and bases (which were required to be ). A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a molecule or ion that is a hydrogen ion (H+) donor. The hydrogen ion is also called a proton - we've come across it before while studying nuclear last semester. A Brønsted- base is a or ion that is a proton acceptor. A -Lowry acid-base reaction involves the transfer of protons from the to the base. These reactions are generally in equilibrium - with both and reactions being present. The molecular species that remains after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has given up a is called the conjugate base of that acid. The molecular species that is formed after a Brønsted-Lowry base a proton is called the of that base. The conjugate pair refers to an acid and its conjugate or a base with its conjugate. Note that in a conjugate pair, there is no reason why the acid should be while the base is charged. 3. What is the correct name for the H3O+ ion? 4. Determine the conjugate base for the following acids: HCl: HNO3: NH4+: H2O: H3PO4: 5. Determine the conjugate acid for the following bases: OH-: Br-: NH3: H2O: CO3-2 : 6. Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs in the following reactions: (acid, base, conjugate acid, conjugate base) a. HCN + H 2 O H 3 O + + CN - b. H 2 O + HSO 4 - SO H 3 O + 7. Write the equation for the ionization of HNO3 in water, labeling each acid/base pair: 8. Write the equation for the ionization of NH3 in water (a weak base), labeling each acid/base pair: 9. Some acids have a unique property: the ability to donate more than one proton (H+) per molecule. A molecule that can donate one proton is called a monoprotic acid. A molecule that donates two protons is a protic acid. A molecule that can donate three protons is called a acid. Ans: acid molecule the Lowry base triprotic conjugate acid reverse Arrhenius neutral proton penta acid chemistry physics aqueous Brønsted forward gains di conjugate weak strong

2 10. List 6 strong acids and explain why these acids are considered strong acids List 6 strong acids and explain why these acids are considered strong acids What makes acids or bases considered weak? 13. Listed below are some of the properties of acids and bases. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word, acids (A) or bases (B): a) produce hydrogen ions (H+) in solution e) have a sour taste b) have a bitter taste f) have a slippery, soapy feel c) produce hydroxide ions (OH-) ions g) react with acids to form salts d) react with bases to form salts h) react with many metals 14. Write a balanced equation for the dissociation (ionization) of the following acids in water: a) HClO 4 H ClO 4 d) H 2 S b) H 2 SO 4 e) HCl c) HC 2 H 3 O 2 f) HNO Write an equation for the dissociation (ionization) of the following bases in water: a) NaOH d) KOH b) Ca(OH) 2 e) Mg(OH) 2 c) Ba(OH) 2 f) LiOH 16. What type of reaction is a neutralization reaction? (whose theory) 17. Write the generic equation for a neutralization reaction:

3 18. Write the balanced equation for these neutralization reactions: (remember to balance charges for ionic compounds!) a) HCl + NaOH b) HNO 3 + KOH c) Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 4 d) Mg(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 e) H 2 CO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 f) NH 4 OH + H 2 g) H 2 C 2 O 4 + Ca(OH) 2 h) Al(OH) 3 + HClO You have no doubt taken at least one antacid during your lifetime in order to relieve stomach pain. Check your medicine cabinet at home and make a list of the antacids that you find. Read the label of each and list all of the ingredients that they contain. Then use your knowledge about bases and circle those ingredients that are the bases in the antacid. If you do not find any antacids in your home, stop at the grocery store and read a few of the packages there in order to complete this problem. For full credit, find and circle at least three different ingredents! (examples: Tums, Rolaids, Malox, Milk of Magnesia, Pepto-B, etc) 20. In a titration of HClO 4 with NaOH, ml of the base was required to neutralize 20.0 ml of 5.0 M HClO 4. What is the molarity of the NaOH? (Be sure to write the neutralization reaction.) 21. In a titration of HNO 3 with NaOH, 60.0 ml of M NaOH was needed to neutralize 15.0 ml of HNO 3. What is the molarity of the acid? (Write the neutralization reaction.)

4 22. If 10.0 ml of M KOH are required to neutralize 30.0 ml of stomach acid (HCl), what is the molarity of the stomach acid? (Write the neutralization reaction.) 23. In a titration of H2SO4 with NaOH, 60.0 ml of M NaOH was needed to neutralize 15.0 ml of H2SO4. What is the molarity of the acid? (Be sure to write the neutralization reaction.) 24. If 10.0 ml of M KOH are required to neutralize 30.0 ml of gastric juice (HCl), what is the molarity of the gastric juice? 25. Find [H+], [OH-], ph, and poh values for the following: A A M solution of HCl (hydrochloric acid). B 1098 L of a solution containing moles of hydrobromic acid. C 660 L of a solution containing moles of hydrochloric acid. D 735 L of a solution containing 0.34 moles of nitric acid. [H+] [OH-] ph poh 26. Classify each of the following as acidic, neutral, or basic. The ph of each item is also listed. a) tomatoes-4.2 g) soil-5.5 b) eggs-7.8 h) milk-6.4 c) ammonia-11.0 I) blood 7.4 d) [H+] = 1 x 10-8 M j ) [H+] = 7.3 x 10-1 M e) [OH-] = 1 x 10-3 M k) [H+] = 1 x 10-5 M f) [OH-] = 4.9 x 10-6 M l) [OH-] = M 27. Name each of the following acids and bases: a) HCl f) NaOH b) HNO3 g) KOH c) H2SO4 h) HC2H3O2 d) NH3 i) H3PO4 e) H2CO3 j) Mg(OH)2

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