Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

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1 Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section Section Section Section Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs 12 Ion Product Constant 13 Calculating ph and poh Acid and Base Dissociation 16 Strong and Weak Acids 17 Titrations 18 Packets are due the day of the test, but i will check throughout the unit to see if you are keeping up with the work. I will grade the packets based on effort, completeness and correctness (weighing more towards the 1st two criteria). You must show your work to receive full credit. Name: Score: / 50

2 Name Date Class 19 ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS SECTION 19.1 ACID BASE THEORIES (pages ) This section compares and contrasts acids and bases as defined by the theories of Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis. It also identifies conjugate acid base pairs in acid base reactions. Properties of Acids and Bases (pages ) 1. Circle the letters of all the terms that complete the sentence correctly. The properties of acids include. a. reacting with metals to produce oxygen b. giving foods a sour taste c. forming solutions that conduct electricity d. causing indicators to change color 2. Bases are compounds that react with acids to form water and a(n) salt. 3. Circle the letters of all the terms that complete the sentence correctly. The properties of bases include. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. a. tasting bitter b. feeling slippery c. changing the color of an indicator d. always acting as a strong electrolyte Arrhenius Acids and Bases (pages ) 4. Match the number of ionizable hydrogens with the type of acid. c one a two b three a. diprotic b. triprotic c. monoprotic 5. Is the following sentence true or false? Only the hydrogens in weak polar bonds are ionizable. false 6. Hydrogen is joined to a very electronegative element in a very polar bond. 7. Alkali metals react with water to produce basic solutions. Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 209

3 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Name Date Class CHAPTER 19, Acids, Bases, and Salts (continued) 8. How do concentrated basic solutions differ from other basic solutions? They are extremely caustic. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (pages ) 9. How does the Brønsted-Lowry theory define acids and bases? The Brønsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a hydrogen-ion donor and a base as a hydrogen-ion acceptor. 10. Is the following sentence true or false? Some of the acids and bases included in the Arrhenius theory are not acids and bases according to the Brønsted-Lowry theory. false 11. Is the following sentence true or false? A conjugate acid is the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion. true 12. A conjugate base is the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion. 13. What is a conjugate acid base pair? A conjugate acid base consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion. 14. A substance that can act as both an acid and a base is said to be amphoteric. 15. In a reaction with HCl, is water an acid or a base? Water is a base because it accepts a proton. Lewis Acids and Bases (pages ) 16. What is a Lewis acid? A Lewis acid is a substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. 17. A Lewis base is a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. 210 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

4 Name Date Class 18. Is the following sentence true or false? All the acids and bases included in the Brønsted-Lowry theory are also acids and bases according to the Lewis theory. true 19. Complete this table of acid-base definitions. Acid Base Definitions Type Acid Base Brønsted-Lowry Lewis Arrhenius H + donor electron-pair acceptor H + producer H + acceptor electron-pair donor OH producer SECTION 19.2 HYDROGEN IONS AND ACIDITY (pages ) This section classifies solutions as neutral, acidic, or basic, given the hydrogenion or hydroxide-ion concentration. It explains how to convert hydrogen-ion concentrations into ph values and hydroxide-ion concentrations into poh values. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Ions from Water (pages ) 1. What does a water molecule that loses a hydrogen ion become? It becomes a negatively charged hydroxide ion (OH ). 2. What does a water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion become? It becomes a positively charged hydronium ion (H 3 O + ). 3. The reaction in which water molecules produce ions is called the self-ionization of water. 4. In water or aqueous solution, hydrogen ions (H + ) are always joined to water molecules as hydronium ions (H 3 O + ). 5. Is the following sentence true or false? Any aqueous solution in which [H + ] and [OH ] are equal is described as a neutral solution. true Ion Product Constant for Water (pages ) 6. What is the ion-product constant for water (K w )? Give the definition, the expression, and the value. The ion-product constant for water is the product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water. K w [H + ] [OH ] Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 211

5 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Name Date Class CHAPTER 19, Acids, Bases, and Salts (continued) 7. A(n) acidic solution is one in which [H + ] is greater than [OH ]. A(n) basic solution is one in which [H + ] is less than [OH ]. 8. Match the type of solution with its hydrogen-ion concentration. b acidic c neutral a basic a. less than M b. greater than M c M The ph Concept (pages ) 9. The ph of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration. 10. Match the type of solution with its ph. c acidic a. ph 7.0 b neutral b. ph 7.0 a basic c. ph Look at Table 19.5 on page 598. What is the approximate [H + ], the [OH ], and the ph of washing soda? mol/l, mol/l, and The poh of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydroxide-ion concentration. 13. What is the poh of a neutral solution? For ph calculations, in what form should you express the hydrogen-ion concentration? You should express the hydrogen-ion concentration in scientific notation. 15. Look at the ph scale below. Label where you would find acids, bases, and neutral solutions. ph Acids Neutral Bases Guided Reading and Study Workbook

6 Name Date Class 16. Is the following sentence true or false? Most ph values are whole numbers. false 17. If [H + ] is written in scientific notation but its coefficient is not 1, what do you need to calculate ph? You need either a table of common logarithms or a calculator with a log function key. 18. Is the following sentence true or false? You can calculate the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution if you know the ph. true Measuring ph (pages ) 19. When do you use indicators and when do you use a ph meter to measure ph? You use indicators for preliminary measurements and for small-volume samples. You use a ph meter for precise and continuous measurements. 20. Why is an indicator a valuable tool for measuring ph? It is a valuable tool for measuring ph because its acid form and base form have different colors in solution. 21. Why do you need many different indicators to span the entire ph spectrum? For each indicator, the change from dominating acid form to dominating base form occurs in a narrow range of approximately two ph units. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 22. Look at the figure below. Fill in the missing ph color change ranges for the indicators. Bromphenol blue Bromcresol green Phenol red Phenolphthalein 23. List three characteristics that limit the usefulness of indicators. a. b. c ph At temperatures other than 25 C, an indicator may change color at a different ph. Indicator color can be distorted if a solution is not colorless. Dissolved salts in a solution can affect the dissociation of the indicator. Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 213

7 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Name Date Class CHAPTER 19, Acids, Bases, and Salts (continued) 24. How accurate are measurements of ph obtained with a ph meter? to within 0.01 ph unit of the true ph 25. What is the ph of each of the following solutions? a. water 7 b. vinegar 3 c. milk of magnesia Is the following sentence true or false? Measurements of ph obtained with a ph meter are typically accurate to within ph unit of the true ph. false SECTION 19.3 STRENGTHS OF ACIDS AND BASES (pages ) This section defines strong acids and weak acids, and then explains how to calculate an acid dissociation constant. It describes how acids and bases are arranged by strength according to their dissociation constants (K a ) and (K b ). Strong and Weak Acids and Bases (pages ) 1. What factor is used to classify acids as strong or weak? Acids are classified by the degree to which they ionize in water. 2. Strong acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution; weak acids ionize only slightly in aqueous solution. 3. Look at Table 19.6 on page 605. Which acid is the weakest acid in the table? Which base is the weakest base? Hypochlorous acid is the weakest acid. Ammonia is the weakest base. 4. What do you use to write the equilibrium-constant expression? You use a balanced chemical equation. 5. An acid dissociation constant (K a ) is the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form. 6. What is another name for dissociation constants? Another name is ionization constants. 7. Is the following sentence true or false? The stronger an acid is, the smaller its K a value. false 8. A diprotic acid has two dissociation constants. 214 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

8 Name Date Class 9. Look at Table 19.7 on page 607. What is the second dissociation constant for the triprotic phosphoric acid? K a Weak bases react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base. 11. A base dissociation constant (K b ) is the ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the conjugate base. 12. What does the magnitude of the base dissociation constant (K b ) indicate? It indicates the ability of a weak base to compete with the very strong base OH for hydrogen ions. 13. The words concentrated and dilute indicate how much acid or base is dissolved in solution. 14. Is the following sentence true or false? The words strong or weak refer to the extent of ionization or dissociation of an acid or base. true Calculating Dissociation Constants (pages ) 15. Is the following sentence true or false? You can calculate the acid dissociation constant (K a ) of a weak acid from experimental data. true 16. To measure the equilibrium concentrations of all substances present at equilibrium for a weak acid, what two conditions must you know? You must know the initial molar concentration of the acid and the ph (or [H 3 O + ]) of the solution at equilibrium.

9 Name Date Class CHAPTER 19, Acids, Bases, and Salts (continued) SECTION 19.4 NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS (pages ) This section explains how acid base titration is used to calculate the concentration of an acid or a base. It also explains the concept of equivalence in neutralization reactions. Acid Base Reactions (pages ) 1. Is the following sentence true or false? Acids react with compounds containing hydroxide ions to form water and a salt. true 2. What does the reaction of an acid with a base produce? It produces water and a salt. 3. In general, reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water are called neutralization reactions. 4. Look at Table 19.9 on page 613. Circle the letter of the salt that is used for photographic emulsions. a. calcium chloride c. silver bromide b. potassium chloride d. sodium chloride 5. Salts are compounds consisting of a(n) anion from an acid and a(n) cation from a base. Titration (pages ) 6. How can you determine the concentration of an acid or base in a solution? You can perform a neutralization reaction. 7. Complete the flow chart below showing the steps of a neutralization reaction. A measured volume of an acid solution of unknown concentration is added to a flask. Several drops of the indicator are added to the solution while the flask is gently swirled. Measured volumes of a base of known concentration are mixed into the acid until the indicator changes color. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 216 Guided Reading and Study Workbook

10 Naming Acids Chem Worksheet 19-0 Name Acids are compounds that can donate the hydrogen ion, H +. When the formula for an acid is written the symbol for this hydrogen generally appears at the beginning of the formula. For example the formula for hydrochloric acid is written HCl and the formula for phosphoric acid is H 3 PO 4. Notice that both formulas begin with the letter H. In both cases the acid is made of a hydrogen ion (or hydrogen ions) and a negative ion, known as the anion. The name for an acid is based on the name of the anion. If the anion ends with the letters ide, the acid is named one way while acids containing anions that end with ate use a different rule. Remember that monatomic anions typically end with ide. The rules for naming acids are summarized below. Naming Acids Anion called (root) ide Anion called (root) ate Example: sulfide, S 2- Example: chlorate, ClO 3 Anion called (root) ite Example: chlorite, ClO 2 Acid called hydro (root) ic acid Example: hydrosulfuric acid, H 2 S Acid called (root) ic acid Example: chloric acid, HClO 3 Acid called (root) ous acid Example: chlorous acid, HClO 2 Examples #1. Write the chemical formula for: sulfurous acid. - this acid contains the hydrogen ion and the sulfite ion: H + 2- SO 3 - create a neutral compound from these ions: H SO 3 H 2 SO 3 #2. Name the following acid: H 2 CO 3. - this acid contains the hydrogen ion and the carbonate ion: H + CO the name of the negative ion is carbonate, therefore the acid is called carbonic acid. Fill in the following table with the missing information. Formula Cation Formula for anion Name of anion Name of Acid 1. HCl H + Cl chloride 2. HNO 3 H + nitrate 3. H + F hydrofluoric acid 4. H 2 SO 4 H + 2- SO 4 5. H + carbonate 6. H 2 SO 3 sulfite 7. ClO 3 chloric acid 8. H + phosphate 9. H 2 C 2 O 4 oxalate 10. hydrocyanic acid 11. acetic acid 12. I 13. sulfide 14. HClO AsO 4 arsenate 16. nitrous acid John Erickson, 2005 WS19-0NamingAcids

11 Name Date Period Acid/Base Homework #1 1. An aqueous solution tastes bitter and turns litmus blue. Is the solution acidic or basic? 2. An acidic solution reacts with magnesium carbonate to produce a gas. What is the formula of the gas? 3. How did Arrhenius describe acids and bases? Why was his description important? 4. Classify each of the following compounds as an Arrhenius acid or an Arrhenius base. a. H 2S b. RbOH c. Mg(OH) 2 d. H 3PO 4 5. Explain the difference between a monoprotic acid, a diprotic acid, and a triprotic acid. Give an example of each. 6. Ammonia contains three hydrogen atoms per molecule. However, an aqueous ammonia solution is basic. Explain using the Bronsted-Lowry model of acids and bases. 7. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the equilibrium equation. HC 2H 3O 2 + H 2O H 3O + + C 2H 3O 2 -

12 8. Gaseous HCl molecules interact with gaseous NH 3 moleucles to form a white smoke made up of solid NH 4Cl particles. Explain whether or not this is an acid-base reaction according to both the Arrhenius model and the Bronsted-Lowry model. 9. Write a balanced formula equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium metal. 10. Write a balanced formula equation for the reaction between potassium hydrogen carbonate and chlorous acid (HClO 2). 11. Write the balanced chemical equation for the ionization of perchloric acid (HClO 4) in water. 12. Write the balanced chemical equation for the dissociation of solid magnesium hydroxide in water.

13 Conjugate Acid Base Pairs Chem Worksheet 19-2 Name An acid is defined as a proton (H + ) donor while a base is a proton acceptor. The substance that is produced after an acid has donated its proton is called the conjugate base while the substance formed when a base accepts a proton is called the conjugate acid. The conjugate acid can donate a proton to the conjugate base, to reform the original reactants in the reverse reaction. Example HF + H 2 O H 3 O + + F acid base c. acid c. base In the reaction above HF is the acid and H 2 O is the base. The HF has given a proton to the H 2 O, forming H 3 O + and F. Since the product H 3 O + can donate a proton back to F it is labeled the conjugate acid, while the F is the conjugate base. Write an equation that shows NH 3 reacting with HCl. Label the acid, base, and conjugate acid and conjugate base. - Write reactants and transfer a proton from the acid to the base: NH 3 + HCl NH Cl H + Acids donate protons Bases accept protons A proton is a hydrogen ion base acid c. acid c. base Rewrite each equation. Identify the acid, the base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate base in each of the equations. 1. HCl + NH 3 NH Cl 5. HCO 3 + OH H 2 O + CO OH + HCN H 2 O + CN 6. NH H 2 O NH 3 + H 3 O + 3. PO HNO 3 NO 3 + HPO C 2 O HC 2 H 3 O 2 HC 2 O 4 + C 2 H 3 O 2 4. HCO 3 + HCl H 2 CO 3 + Cl 8. HPO H 2 O OH + H 2 PO 4 Fill in the following table. Acid Base Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base Equation 9 HNO 2 H 2 O HNO 2 + H 2 O NO 2 + H 3 O + 10 H 2 O F HF OH 11 NH 3 + HCN NH CN 12 H 2 O ClO 3 13 HSO 4 PO S 2 + H 2 O OH + HS 15 HCO 2 H OH -

14 Ion Product Constant Practice Questions 1. What is the hydroxide ion concentration with a hydronium concentration of 6.80 x mol/l? 2. What is the [H 3 O + ] in a solution with [OH - ] of 5.67 x 10-3 mol/l? 3. If the [H 3 O + ] in a nitric acid solution is mol/l, what is the [OH - ]? 4. If the [OH - ] in a sodium hydroxide solution is mol/l, what is [H 3 O + ]?

15 Name: Date: Period: Calculating ph, [H + ], [OH - ] Show work when needed. 1. What is the ph of a solution that has a H + concentration of 1.00 x 10-2 M? Is this solution acidic or basic? 2. What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution having a ph of 7.50? Is this solution acidic or basic? 3. What is the concentration of H + ions in a solution having a ph of 9.609? 4. What is the concentration of H + ion in a solution having a ph of 3.857? Is the solution acidic or basic? 5. Find the ph of a solution in which [H + ] = 1.39 x 10-4 M. 6. A solution has a ph reading of What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution?

16 7. The ph of rainwater is 6.2 and the ph of tomato juice is 4.2. Compare the relative number of hydronium ions in rainwater and tomato juice. 8 Find the ph of a solution in which [OH - ] = 2.6 x 10-7 M 9 What is the concentration of OH - ions in a solution with a ph of 4.38? Is the solution acidic or basic? 10. The poh of a solution is What is the [OH - ] of the solution? 11. The poh of a solution is What is the [H + ] of the solution?

17 Name Date Period Acid & Base Ionization Constants 1. The Ka of benzoic acid (HC7H5O2) is 6.6 x a. Write the equation for the ionization of benzoic acid in water. b. Write the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction. c. Calculate the concentration of H3O + in 0.10 M benzoic acid solution. 2. A 0.10 M HC6H5O2 solution has a ph of What s the Ka? 3. Find the concentration of hydroxide ion in a 0.15 M ammonia solution. For ammonia, Kb = 1.8 x 10-5.

18 Strong & Weak Acids Chem Worksheet 19-4 Strong acids are those that dissociate completely, while only a percentage of the weak acid compounds dissociate. Thus the given concentration of the acid is equal to the concentration of H + ions in the solution. Weak acids reach an equilibrium which is described by an acid dissociation constant (K a ). Since only a fraction of the weak acid particles dissociate, the concentration of H 3 O + ions in their solutions are considerable less than the concentration of these acids. SOLVING WEAK ACID PROBLEMS 1. Write equilibrium equation 2. Write equilibrium expression 3. Make table of concentrations 4. Substitute concentrations into equilibrium expression and solve USEFUL EQUATION ph = log [H + ] Solve the following problems. Show all work. 1. What is the ph of a M solution of the strong acid hydroiodic acid, HI? 2. What is the ph of a M solution of the weak acid hydrocyanic acid, HCN? K a = Calculate the concentration of H + ions in a 2.0 M solution of nitrous acid, HNO 2. K a = What is the ph of a 0.85 M solution of the strong acid chloric acid, HClO 3?

19 Name Date Period Titrations 1. What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 25.0 ml of it is neutralized by 31.7 ml of a M nitric acid (HNO3) solution? 2. During a titration, M HCl is added to a NaOH solution of unknown concentration. What is the concentration of the NaOH solution if ml of it is neutralized by 30.7 ml of the standard solution? 3. Calculate the concentration of hydrochloric acid if 30.0 ml of this acid is neutralized by 40.0 ml of M NaOH? 4. Calculate the concentration of potassium hydroxide if 60.0 ml of this base is neutralized by 25.0 ml of M hydrochloric acid. 5. In a titration, ml of M KOH is required to neutralize ml of HF. What is the molarity of the HF?

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