An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

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1 Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Bronsted-Lowry definition An acid is a proton donor. A base is a proton acceptor. An acid base reaction is the transfer of a proton. Acid and Base Strength A strong acid or base dissociates completely into ions when dissolved in water; they are strong electrolytes. A weak acid or base dissociates only slightly in water; they are weak electrolytes. The strength of an acid or base is not related to its concentration. Know examples of common strong and weak acids and bases. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Water can act as a proton donor or a proton acceptor. H 2 O + H O + CO H 2 O +& OH -

2 After a proton is given up by an acid the remaining species becomes a potential base, that is, can accept a proton back. This species is called the conjugate base of the acid. Conversely, a base that has accepted a proton becomes a potential acid. This is the conjugate acid of the base. An acid and the species that remains after the proton is donated are called a conjugate acid-base pair. Some acids can give up more than one proton, these are polyprotic acids; diprotic, triprotic, etc,. A species that can give up or accept a proton may act as an acid or a base. Such substances are called amphoteric. The stronger an acid, the weaker is its conjugate base. The stronger a base, the weaker is its conjugate acid. Acid Dissociation Constants Equilibrium constants can be used to quantitatively express the relative strength of acids and bases. They are often called acid constants or base constants, K a or K b respectively. Consider the symbolic acid base reaction, HA + H 2 O + 3 O + + A - Since the concentration of the solvent water remains essentially constant during the reaction, its concentration term is not included in the equilibrium constant expression, so K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ]/[ HA] The larger the value of K a, the stronger the acid. Acids taste sour and bases taste bitter. They are generally damaging to living tissue

3 Reactions of Acids Reactions with metals, metal hydroxides and oxides Acids react with active metals to produce a salt and hydrogen. M(s) + nh + M n+ + n/2h 2 (g) Acids react with metal hydroxides to give a salt and water. M(OH) n + nh + M n+ + nh 2 O Acids react with metal oxides to give a salt and water. MO n/2 (s) + nh + M n+ + n/2h 2 O(l) Reactions with carbonates and bicarbonates Carbonates and bicarbonates react with acid to give carbon dioxide and water. CO 3 2- HCO H + &2 2 + H 2 O + H + &2 2 + H 2 O Reactions with ammonia and amines Ammonia and amines act as typical bases. NH 3 + H RNH 2 + H Self Ionization of Water The dissociation of water molecules in pure water can be symbolized as H 2 O + H 2 O + 3 O + + OH - or H 2 O OH -

4 The extent of the dissociation is very small as can be seen from the dissociation constant for water, K w. (Recall that the concentration of water is considered to be constant.) K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x K w is called the ion product of water. Since the concentrations of OH and H must be equal in pure water [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x 10-7 [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-7 The K w is applicable for any water solution as well as pure water. If an acid or base is dissolved in water, the new concentration of OH - or H 3 O + can be calculated using K w. If the [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ], the solution is neutral, neither acidic nor basic. If the [H 3 O + ] is greater than 1.0 x 10-7, the solution is acidic. If the [OH - ] is greater than 1.0 x 10-7, the solution is basic. The ph Scale The ph is a convenient way of expressing the acidity of a solution ph = -log[h 3 O + ] The lower the ph the more acidic the solution; the higher the ph the more basic the solution. Pure water is neutral and has a ph of 7. Acidic solutions have a ph lower than 7 and basic solutions have a ph above 7. ph indicators are dyes that change color at a certain ph. These dyes are used as indicators of the ph of a solution. A ph meter gives a more accurate measure of solution ph based on the electrical conductivity of H 3 O +. pk, defined as logk, is useful for expressing the K values of acid-base equilibria.

5 The ph of Aqueous Salt Solutions A salt containing the anion of a weak acid will react in water to form a basic solution. A - + H 2 O HA A salt containing the cation of a weak base will react in water to form an acidic solution. M + + H 2 O MOH A salt containing the cation of a strong base and the anion of a strong acid will give a neutral solution. Buffers The ph of a buffer solution does not change very much when small amounts of acid or base are added to it. Buffer solutions contain approximately equal amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. Added acid will react with the base and be consumed, and added base will likewise react with the acid of the buffer. A - + H + +$ HA + OH - $ - + H 2 O Recall that K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ]/[ HA]. Rearranging to solve for [H 3 O + ] we get [H 3 O + ] = K a [ HA]/[A - ] It can be seen then that the [H 3 O + ] and ph in a buffer solution depends upon the change in the ratio of the acid and conjugate base. Note that if [ HA] = [A - ] then the ratio [ HA]/[A - ] = 1 and [H 3 O + ] = K a. Taking the negative log of both sides of the [H 3 O + ] equation above gives ph = pk a. The solution will be buffered at the ph of the weak acid. The higher the concentration of the acid and conjugate base, or base and conjugate acid, the higher the capacity (or ability to maintain the ph) of the buffer solution.

6 Titration, Equivalents and Normality Titration can be used to determine the concentration of an acid solution. A ph indicator is matched to the ph at which a large sudden change in the ph signals the end point or point of nearly exact acid base reaction. The equivalent weight of an acid or base is the formula weight divided by the number of respective H + or OH - ions in the formula. An equivalent of a substance is the amount in grams that is equal to the equivalent weight or the equivalent weight expressed in grams. Equivalents = mass/equivalent weight Equivalents are used in the same manner as moles. One equivalent of acid reacts with one equivalent of base. Normality is the number of equivalents in a liter of solution. Normality = equivalents/liter of solution = N Titration calculations are based having added equal equivalents of acid and base at the end point of the titration. Then V acid x N acid = V base x N base

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