# Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

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1 Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that can be neutralized by a single tablet of a commercial antacid will be determined by back titration. To do the experiment, an antacid tablet will be dissolved in a known excess amount of acid. The resulting solution will be acidic because the tablet did not provide enough moles of base to completely neutralize the acid. The solution will be titrated with base of known concentration to determine the amount of acid not neutralized by the tablet. To find the number of moles of acid neutralized by the tablet, the number of moles of acid neutralized in the titration is subtracted from the moles of acid in the initial solution. Objectives of the Data Analysis understand standardization of acids and bases by titration perform titration calculations compare theoretical and experimental results SUGGESTED REVIEW AND EXTERNAL READING data analysis and reference material; relevant textbook information on acids and bases BACKGROUND Acid-base reactions and the acidity (or basicity) of solutions are extremely important in a number of different contexts industrial, environmental, biological, etc. The quantitative analysis of acidic or basic solutions can be performed by titration. In a titration, one solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution by monitoring their reaction. Recall that concentration is often reported in molarity, M. M = # moles solute L solution = [solute] (1) For example, a M HCl solution means moles of HCl have been dissolved in 1 L solution. A common way of representing molarity is to write mol/l HCl, or [HCl] = M. Also recall that molarity is a conversion factor between moles and volumes of solutions. ( ) # moles solute moles = (# L solution), or n = M V (2) L solution c 2011 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and the University of California, Santa Cruz 1

2 An acid is a source of aqueous H + (aq). For example, HCl(aq) is the acid in your stomach: HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq). In a healthy stomach, ph is regulated naturally and digestion functions properly when the ph is around 3 (recall neutral is ph = 7). Excess stomach acid can be combated with bases, or antacids. Bases are H + (aq) acceptors; in water, they provide species that can react with H + (aq). Common ingredients in antacids are metal hydroxide and metal carbonate salts. The hydroxides provide hydroxide ion, OH, which can react with H + (aq) to form H 2 O. Carbonates provide the carbonate ion, CO 3 2, which can react with H + (aq) to form H 2 O and CO 2. The reactions of interest in this lab are neutralization reactions. H + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) 2 H + (aq) + CO 2 3 (aq) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) (3) The active ingredients in the antacid used in this experiment are listed on the label as 110 mg of Mg(OH) 2 and 550 mg of CaCO 3. The balanced equations for the neutralization of acid with these active ingredients are: Mg(OH) HCl Mg Cl + 2 H 2 O CaCO HCl Ca Cl + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (4) Notice the 2-to-1 mole ratio of HCl-to-base. To determine the amount of base in an actual tablet, ideally you would dissolve it in water and titrate with acid. In most titrations, solutions of the acid and the base are used. This is not an option here because CaCO 3 is quite insoluble in water. By the time the tablet completely dissolves, you will have added too much acid. To overcome this problem, the antacid tablet is dissolved in a known amount of excess acid; the excess acid is neutralized with more base. tablet[mg(oh) 2 /CaCO 3 ] + HCl neutralized tablet + excess acid acidic solution excess HCl + NaOH neutral solution (5) The excess HCl is titrated with NaOH(aq) until enough OH (from the NaOH solution) has been added to completely react with the excess H + (from the excess HCl in the solution). So, part of the added acid is neutralized by the antacid tablet; the remainder is neutralized by the NaOH added. This is called back titration. The equivalence point is when the number of moles of NaOH added equals the number of moles of HCl remaining after the reaction with the tablet. HCl is the H + (aq) source; NaOH is the OH (aq) source. At the endpoint of the titration, the acid has been neutralized by the base. c 2011 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and the University of California, Santa Cruz 2

3 V H + M H + = n H + = n OH = V OH M OH or n H + = V OH [OH ] (6) So: n HCl total = n HCl neutralized by tablet + n HCl neutralized by NaOH (V HCl M HCl ) = (n HCl neutralized by tablet ) + (V OH M OH ) or (n HCl neutralized by tablet ) = (V HCl M HCl ) (V OH M OH ) (7) One factor to consider: since the tablet contains a carbonate, the neutralization reaction produces carbon dioxide. Because CO 2 dissolves in water to produce carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3, it can cause your results to be off. You will drive off the CO 2 by heating the solution just below boiling for about 5 minutes to alleviate this problem. Another factor to consider: acidic and basic solutions are generally colorless. How can you tell when you have reached the endpoint of the titration? At the endpoint, the amounts of strong acid (e.g., H + ) and strong base (e.g., OH ) are equal. The ph changes dramatically with addition of more acid or base. An acid-base indicator gives a visual indication of the acidity or basicity of a solution. The indicator is usually an organic dye that behaves as a weak acid or a weak base. The indicator s color depends on whether it is in the dissociated or undissociated form (which depends on the ph of the solution): HIn H + (aq) + In. HIn is the undissociated form that is dominant at lower ph levels; In is the conjugate base (remains after dissociation) that is dominant at higher ph levels. HIn has one color and In another. The equilibrium constant for this weak acid is: K a = [H+ ][In ] [HIn] (8) The ph of the solution changes by about 4 ph units around the equivalence point. This means that [H + ] (and [OH ]) changes by 10 4 at that point, so the ratio of the two colored forms of the indicator changes by The solution transitions from 100 times as much HIn to 100 times as much In with just a few drops of titrant added. The color change occurs precisely at the end point (n H + = n OH ). A drop or two of indicator called bromthymol blue (BTB) is all that is needed to observe the endpoint. At the endpoint, BTB changes from yellow (in acid) to a faint blue (in base). The appearance of the faint blue marks the endpoint of the titration. PROCEDURE 1 Follow the procedure outlined for buret usage. Be sure your buret is clean and the stopcocks are firmly seated. c 2011 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and the University of California, Santa Cruz 3

7 n acid neutralized by tablet = n acid initially in flask n acid neutralized by NaOH (9) 18 Find the average number of moles of HCl neutralized by the tablet and standard deviation. 19 Compare the average with the amount theoretically expected based on the label. Express this comparison as the % ratio of the actual amount of acid that a tablet neutralizes to the theoretical amount that it should neutralize (to three significant figures). % = 100% (n acid actually neutralized )/(n acid theoretically neutralized ) (10) This could be less than 100% if the tablet does neutralize as much as expected or more than 100% if it exceeds what is claimed on the label. 20 Use the average moles of HCl neutralized by the tablets and the average mass of the tablets to determine the moles of acid neutralized per gram of tablet (to three significant figures). This is a more universal neutralization expression (it is independent on the mass of the tablet). REPORTING RESULTS Complete your lab summary or write a report (as instructed). Results Part 1. M OH individually and average (with error). If you did not do this step, please write the molarity of the NaOH. Part 2. M H + individually and average (with error). If you did not do this step, please write the molarity of the HCl. Part 3. Antacid results moles of acid initially, n acid initially in flask moles of acid titrated with base, n acid neutralized by NaOH moles of acid neutralized by tablet, n acid neutralized by tablet percent error (average moles of acid actually neutralized relative to the theoretical value) average moles neutralized per gram of tablet (from multiple measurements) Discussion/Conclusions What you did, how you did it and what you determined What were possible experimental reasons for error (deviations from expected values) How consistent were your tablets in the amount of antacid they contained? Review c 2011 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and the University of California, Santa Cruz 7

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