Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu"

Transcription

1 Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu

2 Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break down food If the stomach acid backs up into your esophagus, it irritates those tissues, resulting in heartburn( 胃 灼 熱 ). Acid reflux

3 Curing Heartburn Mild cases of heartburn can be cured by neutralizing the acid in the esophagus. Swallowing saliva, which contains bicarbonate ion Taking antacids that contain hydroxide ions and/or carbonate ions

4 heartburn Chronic heartburn is a problem for some people. GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is chronic leaking of stomach acid into the esophagus. In people with GERD, the muscles separating the stomach from the esophagus do not close tightly, allowing stomach acid to leak into the esophagus.

5 15.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases Properties of Acids: Sour taste Ability to dissolve many metals Ability to neutralize bases Change blue litmus paper to red

6 TABLE 15.1 Common Acids

7 Properties of Bases Taste bitter Alkaloids( 生 物 鹼 ) = plant product that is alkaline often poisonous Feel slippery Ability to turn red litmus paper blue Ability to neutralize acids

8 TABLE 15.2 Common Bases

9 15.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases Three different definitions the Arrhenius definition the Bronsted Lowry definition the Lewis definition

10 Arrhenius theory Arrhenius theory: an acid forms H + in water; and a base forms OH in water. (acid or base?)

11 Arrhenius Theory HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) The H + ions produced by the acid are so reactive they cannot exist in water. H + ions are protons! Instead, they react with water molecules to produce complex ions, mainly hydronium ion, H 3 O +. H + + H 2 O H 3 O + There are also minor amounts of H + with multiple water molecules, H(H 2 O) n+.

12 Arrhenius Acid Base Reactions The H + from the acid combines with the OH from the base to make a molecule of H 2 O. The cation from the base combines with the anion from the acid to make a salt. acid + base salt + water HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l)

13 Brønsted Lowry theory Brønsted Lowry theory defines acids and bases in terms of proton (H + ) transfer. an acid is a proton donor a base is a proton acceptor.

14 conjugate acid and base H 2 S + NH 3 NH HS acid base Conjugated acid Conjugated base conjugate pair: (H 2 S, HS ), (NH 3, NH 4 + ) OH + H 2 PO 4 H 2 O + HPO 4 2 base acid Conjugated acid Conjugated base conjugate pair: (OH, H 2 O), (H 2 PO 4, HPO 4 2 ) Summarizing the Bronsted Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases: A base accepts a proton and becomes a conjugate acid. An acid donates a proton and becomes a conjugate base.

15 Water Is Amphiprotic ( 兩 性 ) H 2 O acts as an acid when it donates H +, forming the conjugate base H 2 O acts as a base when it accepts H +, forming the conjugate acid Amphiprotic: Can act as either an acid or as a base

16 EXAMPLE 15.1 Identifying Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases and Their Conjugates In each reaction, identify the Bronsted Lowry acid, the Bronsted Lowry base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate base.

17 Solution (a) (b)

18 15.4 Acid Strength and the Acid Ionization Constant ( Ka ) A strong electrolyte completely dissociates into ions in solution, whereas a weak electrolyte only partially dissociates. We define strong and weak acids accordingly. A strong acid completely ionizes in solution, whereas a weak acid only partially ionizes. If the equilibrium lies far to the right, the acid is strong- it completely ionizes. If the equilibrium lies to the left, the acid is weak- only a small percentage of the acid molecules ionize.

19 Strong Acids Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an example of a strong acid. An HCl solution contains virtually no intact HCl; the HCl has essentially all ionized to form H 3 O + (aq) and Cl - (aq)

20 Weak Acids HF is a weak acid, one that does not completely ionize in solution. An HF solution contains a large number of intact (or un-ionized) HF molecules; it also contains some H 3 O + (aq) and F - (aq)

21 Strong Acids and Weak Acids monoprotic acids : containing only one ionizable proton. diprotic acid: containing two ionizable protons. triprotic: containing three ionizable protons).

22 Ionic Attraction and Acid Strength In general, the stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base and vice versa.

23 The Acid Ionization Constant (Ka) We quantify the relative strength of a weak acid with the acid ionization constant (Ka), which is the equilibrium constant for the ionization reaction of the weak acid. Or:

24 TABLE 15.5 Acid Ionization Constants (Ka) for Some Monoprotic Weak Acids at 25 C

25 15.5 Autoionization of Water and ph Water is amphoteric; it can act either as an acid or a base. Therefore, there must be a few ions present.

26 autoionization water acts as an acid and a base with itself, a process called autoionization : The equilibrium constant for this process is called the ion product( 離 子 積 ) of water and is represented by the symbol Kw

27 Ion product of water All aqueous solutions contain both H 3 O + and OH. The concentration of H 3 O + and OH are equal in water. [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 10 7 M at 25 C

28 Ion product of water An acidic solution contains an acid that creates additional H 3 O + ions, causing [H 3 O + ] to increase. However, the ion product constant still applies : This equilibrium constant is very important because it applies to all aqueous solutions

29 Summarizing K w:

30 EXAMPLE 15.2 Using Kw in Calculations (a) (b)

31 The ph Scale: A Way to Quantify Acidity and Basicity ph is a measure of the strength of an acid; low ph = stronger acid ph = log[h 3 O + ] and [H 3 O + ] = 10 ph poh is a measure of the strength of a base; low poh = stronger base poh = log[oh ] and [OH ] = 10 poh

32 Ionization Constant Relationships pk w is the negative logarithm of Kw and at 25 is equal to pk w = ph + poh = K w = [H + ][OH ] =

33 Significant Figures we report the ph to two decimal places here. This is because only the numbers to the right of the decimal point are significant in a logarithm.

34 EXAMPLE 15.3 Calculating ph from [H 3 O + ] or [OH - ] (a) (b)

35 EXAMPLE 15.4 Calculating [H 3 O + ] from ph Calculate the [H 3 O + ] for a solution with a ph of Sol:

36 EX: a student determines the ph of milk of magnesia, a suspension of solid magnesium hydroxide in its saturated aqueous solution, and obtains a value of What is the molarity of Mg(OH) 2 in its saturated aqueous solution? The suspended, undissolved Mg(OH) 2 (s) does not affect the measurement.

37 Solution Mg(OH) 2 (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 OH (aq) poh = ph = = 3.48 log[oh ] = 3.48 [OH ] = = 3.3 x 10 4 M

38 15.6 Finding the [H 3 O + ] and ph of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions If we let HA be a strong or weak acid, the ionization equations are: strong acids completely ionize in solution, and we can ignore the contribution of the autoionization of water, the concentration of H 3 O + in a strong acid solution is equal to the concentration of the strong acid. EX:

39 Finding the [H 3 O + ] and ph of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions Weak Acids: the concentration of H 3 O + is not equal to the concentration of the weak acid. Ex:

40 EXAMPLE 15.5 Finding the [H 3 O + ] of a Weak Acid Solution Find the [H 3 O + ] of a M HCN solution. Sol:

41 EXAMPLE 15.7 Find the ph of a M HClO 2 solution. Sol:

42 Con t

43 EXAMPLE 15.8 Finding the Equilibrium Constant from ph A M weak acid (HA) solution has a ph of Find Ka for the acid. Sol:

44 Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid We define the percent ionization of a weak acid as the ratio of the ionized acid concentration to the initial acid concentration, multiplied by 100%:

45 EXAMPLE 15.9 Finding the Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid Find the percent ionization of a 2.5 M HNO 2 solution. Solution:

46 The Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid The trend you can see in the table applies to all weak acids. The equilibrium H 3 O + concentration of a weak acid increases with increasing initial concentration of the acid. The percent ionization of a weak acid decreases with increasing concentration of the acid.

47 Mixtures of Acids- A Strong Acid and a Weak Acid Consider a mixture that is 0.10 M in HCl and 0.10 M in HCHO 2.

48 Con t contributions to [H 3 O + ]:

49 EXAMPLE Mixtures of Weak Acids Find the ph of a mixture that is M in HF and M in HClO.

50 Sol: Since the equilibrium constant for the ionization of HF is larger than that for the ionization of HClO, the contribution of HF to [H3O+] is by far the greatest.

51 15.7 Base Solutions Strong base as a base that completely dissociates in solution. Most strong bases are group 1A or group 2A metal hydroxides The group 1A metal hydroxides are highly soluble in water and can form concentrated base solutions. The group 2A metal hydroxides, however, are only slightly soluble.

52 Group 2A metal hydroxides Group 2A metal hydroxides dissolve in water, they produce 2 mol of OH per mole of the base. EX: Unlike diprotic acids, which ionize in two steps, bases containing two OH ions dissociate in one step.

53 TABLE 15.7 Strong Bases Table 4.1

54 Weak base A weak base is analogous to a weak acid. Unlike strong bases that contain OH and dissociate in water. The most common weak bases produce OH by accepting a proton from water, ionizing water to form OH. General equation: Ex:

55 Base Ionization Constant, K b Base strength is measured by the size of the equilibrium constant when it reacts with H 2 O :Base + H 2 O OH + H:Base + The equilibrium constant is called the base ionization constant, K b. Larger K b = stronger base

56 TABLE 15.8 Some Common Weak Bases

57 Ammonia & Amine, Ammonia and Amine have a nitrogen atom with a lone pair This lone pair acts as the proton acceptor that makes the substance a base,

58 EXAMPLE Finding the [ OH - ] and ph of a Strong Base Solution What is the OH concentration and ph in each solution? (a) M KOH (b) M Sr(OH) 2 Sol: (a) (b)

59 EXAMPLE Finding the [ OH - ] and ph of a Weak Base Solution Find the [ OH - ] and ph of a M NH 3 solution. Sol:

60 Con t

61 15.8 The Acid Base Properties of Ions and Salts Salts are water-soluble ionic compounds Salts that contain the cation of a strong base and an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid are basic. NaHCO 3 solutions are basic. Na + is the cation of the strong base NaOH. HCO 3 is the conjugate base of the weak acid H 2 CO 3. Salts that contain cations that are the conjugate acid of a weak base and an anion of a strong acid are acidic. NH 4 Cl solutions are acidic. NH 4 + is the conjugate acid of the weak base NH 3. Cl is the anion of the strong acid HCl.

62 Anions as Weak Bases Every anion can be thought of as the conjugate base of an acid. Therefore, every anion can potentially be a base. A (aq) + H 2 O(l) HA(aq) + OH (aq) The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base. An anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid is ph neutral. Cl (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCl(aq) + OH (aq) An anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid is basic. F (aq) + H 2 O(l) HF(aq) + OH (aq)

63 Strength of Conjugate Acid Base Pairs the stronger an acid, the weaker its conjugate base.

64 FIGURE Strength of Conjugate Acid Base Pairs

65 EXAMPLE Determining Whether an Anion Is Basic or ph-neutral

66 Relationship between K a of an Acid and K b of Its Conjugate Base Many reference books only give tables of K a values because K b values can be found from them.

67 EXAMPLE Determining the ph of a Solution Containing an Anion Acting as a Base Find the ph of a M NaCHO 2 solution. The salt completely dissociates into Na + (aq) and CHO 2 -(aq), and the Na + ion has no acid or base properties. (HCHO 2 K a =1.8x10-4 Sol:

68 Con t

69 Cations as Weak Acids cations can in some cases act as weak acids. Cations That Are the Counterions of Strong Base Na +, K +, and Ca 2+ are the counterions of the strong bases NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH) 2 and are therefore themselves ph-neutral. Cations That Are the Conjugate Acids of Weak Bases A cation can be formed from any nonionic weak base by adding a proton (H + ) to its formula. a cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base is a weak acid.

70 Con t Cations That Are Small, Highly Charged Metals Small, highly charged metal cations such s Al 3+ and Fe 3+ form weakly acidic solutions. Ex: when Al 3+ is dissolved in water, it becomes hydrated The hydrated form of the ion then acts as a Bronsted Lowry acid:

71 EXAMPLE Determining Whether a Cation Is Acidic or ph-neutral Classify each cation as a weak acid or ph-neutral. (C 5 H 5 N: Pyridine)

72 Classifying Salt Solutions as Acidic, Basic, or Neutral If the salt cation is the counterion of a strong base and the anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid, it will form a neutral solution. EX: NaCl Ca(NO 3 ) 2 KBr If the salt cation is the counterion of a strong base and the anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid, it will form a basic solution. EX: NaF Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 KNO 2 If the salt cation is the conjugate acid of a weak base and the anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid, it will form an acidic solution. EX: NH 4 Cl

73 Con t If the salt cation is a highly charged metal ion and the anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid, it will form an acidic solution. EX: Al(NO 3 ) 3 If the salt cation is the conjugate acid of a weak base and the anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid, the ph of the solution depends on the relative strengths of the acid and base. NH 4 F because HF is a stronger acid than NH 4+, K a of NH 4 + is larger than K b of the F ; therefore, the solution will be acidic.

74 EXAMPLE Determining the Overall Acidity or Basicity of Salt Solutions Determine if the solution formed by each salt is acidic, basic, or neutral.

75 Determine if the solution formed by each salt is acidic, basic, or neutral.

76 15.9 Polyprotic Acids Sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ) is a diprotic acid containing two ionizable protons Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) is a triprotic acid containing three ionizable protons. a polyprotic acid ionizes in successive steps, each with its own K a

77 TABLE Common Polyprotic Acids and Ionization Constants at 25 C

78 EXAMPLE Dilute H 2 SO 4 Solutions Find the ph of a M sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) solution. Sol:

79 Con t

80 Finding the ph of Polyprotic Acid Solutions EXAMPLE 15.17: Find the ph of a M ascorbic acid (H 2 C 6 H 6 O 6 ) solution. (K a1 : , K a2 : ) Sol:

81 EXAMPLE Finding the concentration of the Anions for a Weak Diprotic Acid Solution Find the [C 6 H 6 O 6 2- ] of the M ascorbic acid solution Sol: (K a2 : )

82 15.10 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure The more + H X polarized the bond, the more acidic the bond. The stronger the H X bond, the weaker the acid.

83 Relationship between Bond Strength and Acidity Binary acid strength increases to the right across a period. Acidity: H C < H N < H O < H F Binary acid strength increases down the column. Acidity: H F < H Cl < H Br < H I

84 Strengths of Oxoacids ( 含 氧 酸 ) Oxoacids: H-O-Y Acid strength increases with the electronegativity of the central atom, and with the number of terminal oxygen atoms. EX: electronegativity HOI < HOBr < HOCl Ka 2.3x x x 10-8

85 Relationship between Number of Oxygens on the Central Atom and Acidity The more oxygens attached to Y, the stronger the oxyacid.

86 Lewis Acid Base Theory Lewis acid base theory focuses on transferring an electron pair. The electron donor is called the Lewis base. Electron rich; therefore nucleophile The electron acceptor is called the Lewis acid. Electron deficient; therefore electrophile

87 Lewis Bases The Lewis base has electrons it is willing to give away to or share with another atom. The Lewis base must have a lone pair of electrons on it that it can donate. Anions are better Lewis bases than neutral atoms or molecules. N: < N:

88 Lewis Acids They are electron deficient, either from being attached to electronegative atom(s) or not having an octet. They must have an empty orbital willing to accept the electron pair. Many small, highly charged metal cations have empty orbitals they can use to accept electrons.

89 Lewis Acid Base Reactions The base donates a pair of electrons to the acid. It generally results in a covalent bond forming The product that forms is called an adduct. Arrhenius and Brønsted Lowry acid base reactions are also Lewis.

90 Examples of Lewis Acid Base Reactions Ag + (aq) + 2 :NH 3(aq) Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + (aq) Lewis Acid Lewis Base Adduct

91 What Is Acid Rain? Natural rain water has a ph of 5.6. Naturally slightly acidic due mainly to CO 2 Rain water with a ph lower than 5.6 is called acid rain. Acid rain is linked to damage in ecosystems and structures.

92 What Causes Acid Rain? Many natural and pollutant gases dissolved in the air are nonmetal oxides. CO 2, SO 2, NO 2 Nonmetal oxides are acidic. CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) 2 H 2 SO 4 (aq) 4 NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) 4 HNO 3 (aq) Processes that produce nonmetal oxide gases as waste increase the acidity of the rain. Natural volcanoes and some bacterial action Man made combustion of fuel

3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation

3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria

More information

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water Quiz number 5 will be given in recitation next week, Feb 26Mar 2 on the first part of Chapter 16, to be covered in lectures this week. 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review 16.2 BronstedLowry Acids and

More information

Ch Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.

Ch Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Ch 15-16 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base.

More information

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES Active Learning: 4, 6, 14; End-of-Chapter Problems: 2-25, 27-58, 66-68, 70, 75-77, 83, 90-91, 93-104 Chapter 15 End-of-Chapter Problems: 69-74, 125, 129, 133 16.1 ACIDS AND

More information

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,

More information

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l)

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l) CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?

More information

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water.

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water. Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the

More information

Types of Reactions. What are Acids &Bases? Chapter 15. Acids & Bases. Definition? a) Arrhenius. b) Bronsted-Lowry. c) Lewis

Types of Reactions. What are Acids &Bases? Chapter 15. Acids & Bases. Definition? a) Arrhenius. b) Bronsted-Lowry. c) Lewis Chapter 15. Acids & Bases Acid/Base Definitions Types of Acids/bases Polyprotic Acids The Ion Product for Water The ph and Other p Scales Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis The Common Ion

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases Acid-Base Chemistry ν There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases ν Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases ν Acid: H + ion donor ν Base: H + ion acceptor ν Lewis acids and bases ν Acid: electron pair

More information

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness.

Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. nswer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. 1. Name the following binary acids: a. HCl hydrochloric acid b. HF hydrofluoric acid c. H 2 S hydrosulfuric

More information

NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid

NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 1. Arrhenius Acid-Base Concept (last semester) Acid: H+ supplier Base: OH- supplier 2. Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Concept (more general) (a) Definition (H+ transfer) Acid:

More information

Acids and Bases. Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq)

Acids and Bases. Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq) 15 Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chemistry th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University AcidBase Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates

More information

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50 Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section 19.1 1-3 Section 19.2 3-6 Section 19.3 6-7 Section 19.4 8 Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases 10-11 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

More information

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids

More information

Summary of MQ2 Results: Mean =124 (71 %) Hi = 175. Lo = 32. Your scores will be posted on WebCT

Summary of MQ2 Results: Mean =124 (71 %) Hi = 175. Lo = 32. Your scores will be posted on WebCT Summary of MQ2 Results: Mean =124 (71 %) Hi = 175 Lo = 32 Your scores will be posted on WebCT 16.5 Strong Acids and Bases Strong Acids Strong Bases 16.6 Weak Acids Calculating K a from ph Using K a to

More information

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

Acid-Base Equilibrium

Acid-Base Equilibrium AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration

More information

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Professor Angelo R. Rossi Department of Chemistry Spring Semester Acids and Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids are substances which increase

More information

Acid-Base 2/27/2012. Definitions of Acids/Bases. Acid-Base Behavior. Arrhenius Definition. Arrhenius Definition

Acid-Base 2/27/2012. Definitions of Acids/Bases. Acid-Base Behavior. Arrhenius Definition. Arrhenius Definition Acids Taste sour Burn Skin Turn Litmus Red Dissolve metals Citrus fruit Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vinegar Battery Acid Bases Taste Bitter Behavior Burn Skin/Feel Slippery Turn Litmus Blue Soap Ammonia

More information

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates

More information

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

More information

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens.

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens. Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric citric malic PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 1. 1. PROPERTIES OF BASES 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. NAMING ACIDS NOTES Binary acids (H + one element) Practice: 1. hydro- - HF

More information

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak

More information

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =

More information

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the

More information

Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base? You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

More information

Acids and Bases. Basic Definitions & Concepts

Acids and Bases. Basic Definitions & Concepts Acids and Bases CHEM 102! T. Hughbanks! Basic Definitions & Concepts Most basic concepts are given clearly in your text - these notes will only list these as topics discussed, so there will be less detail.!

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

Notes: Acids and Bases

Notes: Acids and Bases Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base 2816 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H +, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N + BF

More information

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

More information

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts Name: 15.1: Acids and Bases Define an Acid: Define a Base: Ex of an acid in aqueous solution: Ex of a base in aqueous solution: List some of the properties of acids

More information

Topic 5. Acid and Bases

Topic 5. Acid and Bases Topic 5 5-1 Acid and Bases Acid and Bases 5-2 There are a number definitions for aicd and bases, depending on what is convenient to use in a particular situation: Arrhenius and Ostwald: Theory of electrolyte

More information

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review Sessions @ pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate

More information

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Name 1) According to the Arrhenius concept, an acid is a substance that. A) is capable of donating one or more H + B) causes an increase in the concentration of H + in

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus

More information

Unit Two: Acids and Bases

Unit Two: Acids and Bases Section One: Theoretical Stuff Unit Two: Acids and Bases The concept of acids and bases has existed for centuries. We can discuss them two ways, operational definitions and theoretical definitions. 1.

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Aqueous Solutions Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solute the substance present in a smaller amount (usually solid in Chap. 4) Solvent the

More information

Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99

Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99 Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should

More information

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4

More information

Reactions in solution. A subset of chemical reactions

Reactions in solution. A subset of chemical reactions Reactions in solution A subset of chemical reactions Learning objectives Define solution and its components Distinguish among strong, weak and non-electrolyte Identify strong acids and strong bases Apply

More information

H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3

H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3 Properties Unit 12 Acids & Bases electrolytes sour taste turn litmus red react with metals to form 2 gas vinegar, soda, citrus fruits electrolytes bitter taste turn litmus blue slippery feel ammonia, lye,

More information

QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN -

QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - QUESTION (2012:3) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. Conjugate acid Conjugate base - HCO 3 2 CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - (ii) HPO 4 2 (aq) Write equations for the reactions

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

Acid and Base Multiple Choice

Acid and Base Multiple Choice Acid and Base Multiple Choice January 1999 21. Consider the following acidbase equilibrium: HCO 3 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + OH In the reaction above, the BrönstedLowry acids are A. H 2 O and OH B. HCO 3 and OH

More information

Arrhenius Theory of Acids

Arrhenius Theory of Acids Acids and Bases Chapter 17: 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18: 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Arrhenius Theory of Acids an acid-base reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen ions and hydroxide

More information

Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases

Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases CAPTER Acids, Bases and Salts Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids Acids are substances that generate in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 0% in water. That is,

More information

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution What is a Solution? Solute + substance dissolved typically smaller quantity Solvent! dissolving medium typically larger quantity Solution homogeneous mixture variable

More information

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius (18591927) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium

More information

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3. Basic solutions

More information

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions

More information

Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent

Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent 1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled

More information

Acid Base Concepts. Arrhenius concept. Hydronium Ion. Page 1

Acid Base Concepts. Arrhenius concept. Hydronium Ion. Page 1 Acid Base Concepts Page 1 The Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, framed the first successful concept of acids and bases. He defined acids and bases in terms of their effect on water. According to Arrhenius,

More information

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator).

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator). Acid/Base Basics How does one define acids and bases? In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by two sets of theories. One is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea

More information

AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions:

AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions: AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions: Arrhenius: Acid - Produces H + ions in solution HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Base - Produces OH - ions in solution NaOH Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Dissociation

More information

SECTION 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

SECTION 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 1-1 SECTION 1 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Many chemical reactions do not go to completion. That is to say when the reactants are mixed and the chemical reaction proceeds it only goes to a certain extent, and

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions Name: Period: Date: I. Definitions: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions 2. Bronsted-Lowry (1923) 3. Lewis (1923), so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHE 1400 - Spring 2015 - Chapter 7 Homework 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1)According to Arrhenius, an acid and a base will react

More information

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq)

1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) H 3 O (aq) NH 3 (g) H 2 O ( ) NH 4 (aq) OH (aq) CH 3 COO (aq) H 2 O ( ) CH 3 COOH(aq) OH (aq) H 2 O

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide.

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Be active while reading the text. Take notes, think about what you ve read, and ask yourself questions while reading. Use this document as a guide for making your

More information

ph of strong acid and base

ph of strong acid and base ph of strong acid and base What does strong mean in terms of acids and bases? Solubility. Basically, if you say an acid or base is strong, then it dissociates 100% in water. These types of situations are

More information

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT.

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. melyons@tcd.ie ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry

More information

V. POLYPROTIC ACID IONIZATION. NOTICE: K a1 > K a2 > K a3 EQUILIBRIUM PART 2. A. Polyprotic acids are acids with two or more acidic hydrogens.

V. POLYPROTIC ACID IONIZATION. NOTICE: K a1 > K a2 > K a3 EQUILIBRIUM PART 2. A. Polyprotic acids are acids with two or more acidic hydrogens. EQUILIBRIUM PART 2 V. POLYPROTIC ACID IONIZATION A. Polyprotic acids are acids with two or more acidic hydrogens. monoprotic: HC 2 H 3 O 2, HCN, HNO 2, HNO 3 diprotic: H 2 SO 4, H 2 SO 3, H 2 S triprotic:

More information

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp)

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) 1 Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems. Substance Constant Substance Constant HCO

More information

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions.

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2

More information

Acids, Bases and Concentrations

Acids, Bases and Concentrations 61 Chapter 7 Acids, Bases and Concentrations Thoughts or pictures of a shark usually evoke fear. But most sharks are not harmful to humans and shark attacks while dangerous and sometimes fatal are extremely

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.

More information

Chapter 6 More on Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 6 More on Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 6 More on Chemical Compounds An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Monatomic Ion Names Monatomic Cations (name of metal) Groups 1, 2, and 3 metals Al 3+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Ag + (name

More information

Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria In the 1 st half of this chapter we will focus on the equilibria that exist in aqueous solutions containing: weak acids polyprotic acids weak bases salts use equilibrium

More information

Arrhenius Definition. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Arrhenius Definition. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius: any substance which ionizes in water to produce: Protons

More information

Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution

Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution 2P32 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry Dr. M. Pilkington Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution Oxides; acidic, basic, amphoteric Classification of oxides - oxide

More information

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Acids, Bases, Salts, and Buffers

Acids, Bases, Salts, and Buffers Acids, Bases, Salts, and Buffers GOAL AND OVERVIEW Hydrolysis of salts will be used to study the acid-base properties of dissolved ions in aqueous solutions. The approximate ph of these solutions will

More information

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and bases For centuries people have known acids are in vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. Only few hundred years ago that it was discovered that acids

More information

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10

More information

Required Reading Material.

Required Reading Material. JF Chemistry 1101 2014-2015 Introduction to Physical Chemistry: Acid Base and Solution Equilibria. Professor Mike Lyons School of Chemistry melyons@tcd.ie Required Reading Material. Kotz, Treichel and

More information