1 Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water. 1) In pure water, to which no electrolytes have been added, there is a small electrical conductivity, indicating that there are ions present. This is due to the autoionization of water. H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) OH - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) OH - is the hydroxide ion. H 3 O + is the hydronium ion The hydronium ion represents a proton that is hydrated by (surrounded by) water. There is never just a proton in solution. However, the hydronium ion is often represented by just a proton and the autoionization is written as a dissociation reaction. H 2 O(l) OH - (aq) + H + (aq) 2) This equilibrium can be described by an equilibrium expression: K eq = [H + ][OH - ]. This is given a special name and symbol. K w, the ion product of water. Experimentation shows that at a particular temperature, K w is constant. At 25 o C, K w = 1 x At 25 o it will always be true that 1 x = [H + ][OH - ] 3) If water is the only source of protons, then [H + ] = [OH - ] = 1 x 10-7 and the solution is considered neutral. If [H + ] > [OH - ], then the solution is basic. If [H + ] < [OH - ], the the solution is acidic. Be able to write the equation for the autoionization of water. If given [H + ] be able to calculate [OH - ] and vice versa. The ph of aqueous solutions 1) Since the concentrations of [H + ] and [OH - ] observed are often very small, the p-scale is used to indicate the quantity present. p(x) = -log(x) We use this to determine ph, the poh, pk a, and pk b values. Note: 1) There is an inverse relationship. For example, as [H + ] increase, the ph decreases. 2) As the concentration changes by 10 n, the ph will change by n. For example if the concentration changes by a factor of 100 or 10 2, the ph will change by 2. 2) Applying the p scale to the equation for autoionization of water: K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 1 x results in pk w = ph + poh = 14 If given [H + ] or [OH - ] be able to calculate ph and poh.
2 Behavior of Solutes in Water When a solute is added to water, a neutral, acidic, or basic solution will arise. The ultimate solution ph will depend on a reaction between the solute and water. 1) In the Bronsted-Lowry model, acid base behavior is shown as a transfer of a proton. 2) A Bronsted acid must contain H in the formula and the H must be easily removed. The general formula is HA ex. H attached to highly electronegative atoms like the halogens, oxygen, or sulfur 3) A Bronsted base must contain a lone pair of electrons. The general formula is B ex. O 2-, OH -, F -, NH 3 and other N derivatives 4) In the Bronsted-Lowry model, a reaction between an acid and a base occurs to form a new acid and a new base. The acids and bases exist in pairs. When the acid loses a proton, it becomes a base and is called the conjugate base. When a base gains a proton, it becomes an acid and is called the conjugate acid. HA + B A - + BH + (acid ) (base) (conjugate) (conjugate) base acid 5) When an acid is added to water, there is a Bronsted-Lowry acid base reaction where the acid behaves as an acid, and water acts as the base. This is the acid ionization reaction. HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) A - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 6) When a base is added to water, there is a Bronsted-Lowry acid base reaction where the base behave as a base and water acts as the acid. This is the base ionization reaction. Be able to identify or provide the conjugate acids and conjugate bases of any acid or base. Remember, a conjugate base will have one less hydrogen than the acid and the conjugate acid will have one more hydrogen. Keep your charges straight. Remember the hydrogen is removed as a proton. Categories of behavior of solutes in water what are the major species in water 1) If a solute has strong covalent bonds there is no reaction between solute and water. The ph will be unchanged when the solute dissolves. These are molecules with no H in the formula or contain an H that will not come off easily such as that found in methanol (CH 3 OH), ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) or alkane chains such as butane (CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ) 2) The solute is covalent and undergoes a reaction with water to produce a proton. a) There is a complete reaction with water when the solute is a strong acid (HClO 4, H 2 SO 4, HNO 3, HI, HBr, HCl0) There will be no undissociated acid molecules left. The major species in solution after this reaction will be the conjugate base, H 3 O +, the anion, and H 2 O HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NO 3 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) b) There is a partial reaction with water when the solute is a weak acid. Any acid that is not a strong acid is considered to be a weak acid. There will be an equilibrium and the major species in solution will be the weak acid and water. There will be small amounts of the conjugate base and the hydronium ion. HF(aq) + H 2 O(l) F - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) (acid ionization) 3) The solute is ionic. It will dissociate into ions and the component ions may undergo reaction with water. a) Strong bases will dissociate to form OH -. Strong bases are the hydroxides of Group I and Group II metals. (NaOH and KOH are common strong bases. LiOH, RbOH, and CsOH are less common strong bases. Ca(OH) 2, Ba(OH) 2 and Sr(OH) 2 will produce two moles OH - per mole of solid). These strong bases will completely dissociate in water. The major species in water will be the metal ion, the hydroxide ion and water.
3 The reaction of interest is: OH - (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 2 O(l) + OH - (aq). Since there is no net change in the molecules present after the reaction, it is sufficient to know that the base dissociates in water. b) anion example: NaCN(aq) Na + (aq) + CN - (aq) Na + + H 2 O no reaction CN - + H 2 O HCN + OH - (base ionization) c) cation example CH 3 NH 3 Cl(aq) CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) no reaction CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 NH 2 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) acid ionization Be able to write the chemical equations that show the acid base reaction of solutes in water. Acid Ionization, K a and pk a The acid ionization reaction is the transfer of a proton from the acid to water. HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) A - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) The equilibrium expression for this reaction is K eq = [A - ][H 3 O + ]/[HA] = K a For the acid ionization, K eq is written K a and is called the acid dissociation constant. K a values allow one to compare the strength of acids. Since it is an equilibrium constant, the larger the K a, the more products there are, which means there will have been more dissociation of the acid and more protons formed. Thus, the larger the K a, the stronger the acid. For strong acids, the reaction lies so far to the right that [HA] is very small and it is difficult to determine the K a accurately. However, comparing the values of weak acids is very useful. The p notation can be employed, such that pk a = -log(k a ). Note that the larger the K a, the smaller the pk a. Thus the stronger the acid, the smaller the pk a. Although we will discuss bases more later, a comment can be made now on the relative strength of bases. The relative strength of an acid is based on the extent to which it produces protons. The relative strength of a base depends on its affinity for a proton. The greater the affinity, the stronger the base. In general, the stronger acid will produce a weaker conjugate base. Consider: HF(aq) + H 2 O(l) F - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K a = 7.2 x 10-4 CH 3 COOH(aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 COO - + H 3 O + K a = 1.85 x 10-5 In the first reaction there is a competition between H 2 O and F - for the proton. In the second reaction there is a competition between H 2 O and CH 3 COO - for the proton. The first reaction lies further to the right than the second reaction. Thus water can steal the proton from F - easier than from CH 3 COO -. Thus, F - is the weaker base and HF is the stronger acid. The take home message the stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base or the weaker the base, the stronger the acid. Be able to calculate K a from pk a and vice versa. Be able to rank the strength of acids and conjugate bases if given K a or pk a information.
4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions: In general, to determine the ph of a solution, the dominant equilibria must be identified. Strong acids dissociate completely. The major species in solution will be the proton and the conjugate base from the acid. What about the autoionization of water? This occurs to such a small extent that it can usually be ignored. Furthermore, the protons produced by the ionization of the strong acid will push the autoionization of water to the left because of Le Chatelier's principle. Thus, the major source of protons will be the acid. The concentration of protons will be equal to the concentration of the strong acid. What if two strong acids are mixed together? Each acid will completely dissociate and the total [H + ] will be a sum from both sources. What about the ph of a dilute concentration of a strong acid? Be careful. If the acid is really dilute, such as 1 x 10-7 or less, the contribution of water will be important. You won't have to work any problems of this type, just be aware of this fact. Be able to determine the ph of a solution of a strong acid(s). If given the ph, be able to determine the concentration of the original acid. Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions: The following steps will help you determine the ph of these solutions. 1) List the major species in solution 2) Identify the species that will produce protons and write the appropriate balanced equations 3) Determine if the contribution of any of the reactions is negligible. 4) Write the equilibrium expression for the dominant reaction. 5) Create an equilibrium reaction table. Include initial concentration, change and final concentration in terms of x. 6) Put values from the equilibrium table into the equilibrium expression (with K a ) 7) Simplify the equilibrium expression if possible (if x is small, check for perfect squares) 8) Solve for x 9) Check the assumption that x is small by using the 5% rule Other comments: 1) How do you decide if some reactions are negligible? If the K a is very small compared to other K a s. For example, the K a (K w ) for water is 1 x 14. This is usually a factor of at least 1 x 10 6 times smaller than the K a values for the weakest acids (for example, K a (HOCl) = 3.5 x 10-8 ) and so the contribution of the ionization of water to the proton concentration can be ignored. 2) If the equilibrium expression cannot be simplified, the quadratic equation must be used. This would be the case if K a was near 1 x ) What is the 5% rule? (value of x/original concentration of acid) x 100 must be less than 5 4) What if two weak acids are mixed together? Usually one will have a K a significantly smaller than the other and the contribution to the protons concentration from the weaker acid can be ignored. 5) The percent dissociation is a way to describe how much acid has dissociated. Percent dissociation = (amount of acid dissociated in M)/(amount of acid initially in M) x 100 (Note the similarity of this to the 5% rule. There are three values of importance in ph problems of weak acids, ph, initial acid concentration, and K a. Given any two, you should be able to determine the third. Be able to determine the ph of a weak acid solution. To do this, you would be given the initial concentration of the acid and the K a. If given the ph or percent dissociation and acid concentration, you should be able to determine the K a.
5 Bases: 1) Strong bases are treated like strong acids. They completely dissociate in aqueous solution. The major species in solution will be the cation (conjugate acid, the hydroxide ion and water. The strong base will be the predominant source of hydroxide. The autoionization of water can be ignored. The concentration of hydroxide ion will be equal to the concentration of the strong base, when the metal ion is a Group I. Remember that hydroxides of Group II metals will yield two moles of hydroxide per mole of base. 2) Weak bases do not yield a hydroxide directly but undergo an acid base reaction with water to generate the hydroxide ion. This is the base ionization reaction. Water acts as an acid here. B(aq) + H 2 O(l) BH + (aq) + OH - (aq) (Ex. of neutral base like the nitrogen containing compounds) B - (aq) + H 2 O(l) BH(aq) + OH - (aq) (Ex. of anion base like CN - ) a) The equilibrium for the reaction is equal to K b, the base ionization constant. K b = [BH + ][OH - ]/[B] for the first example. b) As with weak acids, where K a is usually small, the K b values are also small. As with weak acids, where the larger K a indicates a stronger acid, a larger K b indicates a stronger base. c) To determine the ph of a weak base solution, follow the steps as you did for weak acid solutions. Remember that in these problems, x will be equal to the hydroxide concentration, not the proton concentration. To avoid silly mistakes, be sure to write down the chemical reaction of interest. Be sure to use the base ionization reaction for bases. Polyprotic Acids: 1) These acids have more than one acidic hydrogen. The hydrogens are released as protons, one at a time. 2) Each dissociation has its own K a value. 3) Since the K a values are usually quite different in magnitude, it will usually be the case, that all molecules will lose the first proton, before any lose a second proton. 4) The K a value for dissociation of the first proton will be larger than the second K a and the second larger than the third K a if there is one. 5) Since the K a values differ significantly, determining the ph of a polyprotic acid can be similar to that of a mix of two weak acids and only the dominant reaction will establish the ph. 6) The concentration of all species of acid can be determined. 7) Sulfuric acid is unique because the dissociation of the first proton is a strong acid, while the second is from a weak acid. The ph of the solution will be established by the first dissociation but the second equilibrium can be used to determine the concentration of SO Acid-Base Properties of Salts: 1) There is a relationship between the base ionization constant and the acid ionization constant. Consider the acid HA and its conjugate base A -. acid ionization: HA + H 2 O A - + H 3 O + equilibrium constant = K a base ionization: A - + H 2 O HA + OH - equilibrium constant = K b 2) The reactions can be added. When reactions are added together the equilibrium constants are multiplied. Thus the equilibrium constant for the net reaction is K a x K b. 3) The net reaction is 2 H 2 O OH - + H 3 O +. You should recognize this as the autoionization of water and the equilibrium constant for this is K w. 4) Thus, K a x K b = K w = 1 x and pk a + pk b = 14 General statements regarding the capacity of ions that are in salts to affect the ph 1) Cations from a strong base (group I and group II metals) will not affect the ph of the solution. 2) Anions from strong acids (conjugate bases) will not affect the ph of the solution. Thus, salts such as KCl, CaBr 2, NaClO 4, or Sr(NO 3 ) 2 will not change the ph.
6 3) Anions from weak acids (conjugate bases). Being conjugate bases of weak acids, these have a significant affinity for protons and will undergo base ionization. In base ionization, a hydroxide is formed and anions of this type produce basic solutions. Salts of this type would contain a cation from 1 above, such as KNO 2, NaCN, RbF. The reaction of interest would be: NO 2 - (aq) + H 2 O(l) HNO 2 (aq) + OH - (aq) 4) Cations from weak bases (conjugate acids) These are acids and will undergo acid ionization. Many of these are nitrogen containing molecules. Salts of this type would include an anion from 2 above, such as NH 4 Br. The important part of solving this type of problem is being able to identify if you have a conjugate base or a conjugate acid. Once you can do that, treat the problem as a weak acid problem or a weak base problem. Be sure to use the appropriate ionization (acid or base). Be sure to use the corresponding equilibrium constant, K a if an acid or K b if a base. Note, that you will usually be given the K a or K b for the parent acid or base. In these problems you are dealing with conjugate bases and conjugate acids so you will have to use K a x K b = K w to get the appropriate value. 5) If a salt contains an anion, conjugate base, from a weak acid AND a cation, conjugate acid, from a weak base, both will have the capacity to undergo ionization reactions. Compare the K b for the base present and the K a for the acid present. If the K b is larger than the K a, the solution will be basic. If K a is larger than the K b the solution will be acidic. If the ionization constants are nearly equal, the solution will have a ph of near 7. Examine ) A salt containing a highly charged metal will be acidic. The metal pulls on the electrons on the water oxygen, thus weakening the hydrogen oxygen bond and the hydrogen is released. Be able to predict whether dissolving a salt in water will give an acidic, basic, or neutral solution. Be able to calculate the ph of a salt solution. The Effect of Structure on Acid-Base Properties: Without knowing the actual pk a values, the relative strength of acids can be predicted based on structure. Consider: HA + H 2 O A - + H 3 O + 1) Acid ionization involves breaking the bond between H and the A. The weaker the bond, the stronger the acid. 2) When the hydrogen leaves as a proton, it leaves the electrons of the bond behind, thus the more electronegative A is, the stronger the acid. When comparing acid strength across a period, factor two is more important. If you compare HF, H 2 O, and NH 3, the electronegativities are F = 4.0, O = 3.5, and N = 3.0. We would predict that HF is the strongest acid. When comparing acid strength down a group, factor one is more important. Acid strength will increase as you go down a group. Why is this? Atomic radii increases down a group. The further apart two atoms are, the weaker the bond, the weaker the bond, the stronger the acid. Thus, as you compare, H 2 O, H 2 S, H 2 Se, and H 2 Te, the weakest bond is H 2 Te, which will be the strongest acid. 3) Electronegativity is important in relative strength of oxyacids. Addition of electronegative groups (halogens or oxygens) onto the central atom will make the acid stronger. Addition of electron repelling groups, such as CH 3 or CH 3 CH 2 will make the acid weaker. CH 3 CH 2 is more repelling than CH 3 which is more repelling than H. Compare: H-O-H and Cl-O-H Cl is more electronegative so the second is a stronger acid Compare: HCOOH and CH 3 COOH CH 3 is more repelling than H so the first is a stronger acid Compare: CH 3 COOH, CH 2 BrCOOH CH 2 Br will be more electronegative than CH 3 sp the second is a stronger acid Compare: O-Cl-OH, O 2 -Cl-OH, O 3 -Cl-OH The third has more electronegative ions so is the strongest acid. 4) What about bases? Since a base has to share electrons, the stronger base will have less electronegative groups or electron repelling groups. CH 3 NH 2 is a better base than NH 3 since CH 3 is more repelling than H. 4) Highly charged metals pull on oxygen and result in an acidic solution. The more charged the metal, the stronger the acid.
7 Given a group of related compounds, be able to predict which is the strongest or weakest acid. Acid-Base Properties of Oxides: This was covered in an earlier quarter. The oxides of metals usually form bases, and the oxides of non-metals usually form acids. The exception to this is for highly charges metals. They will usually form acids. Be able to predict if a solution would be acidic or basic upon the dissolution of an oxide. The Lewis Acid-Base Model: A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor. If given a reaction, be able to identify the acid or the base or predict if a compound would act as a Lewis acid or base.
Reactions in Solution (Acids and Bases): Chapter 0 Chapter Outline Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases The Arrhenius Theory The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) The BrØnstedLowry Theory
Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry
CHAPTER FOURTEEN ACIDS AND BASES For Review 1. a. Arrhenius acid: produce H + in water b. Bρrnsted-Lowry acid: proton (H + ) donor c. Lewis acid: electron pair acceptor The Lewis definition is most general.
Chem 1721 Brief Notes: Chapters 15 and 16 Chapter 15: Acids and Bases; Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Bronstsed-Lowry definitions of acids and bases are based on proton transfer acids are proton donors
Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.
Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties
CHAPTER 10 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts 1. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids & Bases 2. The Arrhenius Theory 3. The BrØnsted-Lowry Theory 4. The Lewis Theory 5. The Autoionization
Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 Some Definitions Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the
Water itself is a weak acid and weak base: Two water molecules react to form H 3 O + and OH - (but only slightly) H 2 O H 2 O H 3 O + OH - Autoionization of Water H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH
Chapter 16: Acids, Bases, and Salts Key topics: ph scale; acid-base properties of water K a = acid ionization constant; K b = base ionization constant Polyprotic acids BrØnsted Acids and Bases Acid: Base:
Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions Midterm Exam 2 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions
Definitions of Acids & Bases Unit 7: Acids & Bases Chapter 16 Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. Base: Substance that, when dissolved
Chapter 14 1. Students will be able to define an acid and base in terms of both the Arrhenius and the Bronsted-Lowry definitions and provide examples of each (including examples that follow the Bronsted-Lowry
CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless
16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Arrhenius concept of acids and bases: an acid increases [H + ] and a base increases [OH ]. 16.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases In the Brønsted-Lowry system, a Brønsted-Lowry
Chapter 15 Review Student: 1. Which is not a characteristic property of acids? A. tastes sour B. turns litmus from blue to red C. reacts with metals to yield CO 2 gas D. neutralizes bases E. reacts with
Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,
acid H appears in the formula base contains OHˉ group acid + base salt + H 2 O HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O ACIDS AND BASES In aqueous solution acids have the following properties: sour taste turn blue litmus
DO NOT WRITE ON QUIZ/EXAM - USE SCANTRON AND #2 PENCIL TEST # A Chapter 10 Test - AP Chemistry 2011/2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Some Definitions Chapter 16 AP Chemistry 2014-15 North Nova Education Centre Mr. Gauthier Arrhenius
Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.
1 of 14 After completing this chapter, you should, at a minimum, be able to do the following. This information can be found in my lecture notes for this and other chapters and also in your text. Correctly
15 Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chemistry th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University AcidBase Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.
Sample Exercise 16.1 Identifying Conjugate Acids and Bases (a) What is the conjugate base of each of the following acids: HClO 4, H 2 S, PH 4+, HCO 3? (b) What is the conjugate acid of each of the following
Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2
AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize
CHAPTER 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases Arrhenius model Acid supplies H + to an aqueous solution Base supplies OH - to an aqueous solution Bronsted-Lowry model Acid is a proton (H
Chapter 15: Acids and Bases Essentials of General Chemistry Ebbing Gammon Ragsdale 2nd Edition Dr. Azra Ghumman Memorial University of Newfoundland 1 Acids and Bases 15.1 Arrhenius Concept of Acids and
Self Ionization of Water H 2 O H + + OH - Acids & Bases ph poh [H + ] [OH - ] Pure Water [H + ] = [OH - ], remember: [ ] means concentration 1 x 10 7 = 1 x 10 7 [H + ] > [OH - ], there is an acidic solution
Acids, Bases, and Salts General Chemistry Ron Robertson I. Definitions The terms acid, base and salt are attempts to classify and organize reactions - these terms are used to model the behavior of species
Chapter 16 questions 1. Which of the following statements does not accurately describe a characteristic property of an Arrhenius acid? a) An Arrhenius acid is a substance that increases the concentration
CHAPTER 18 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA Section 18.1: Acids and Bases in Water Water (H 2 O) the most important molecule on earth. Even in pure water, there are small amounts of ions from the equilibrium below
Sample Test 2 CHAPTER 16 1. Acids and bases can be defined in several ways. Which of the following are definitions of bases according to these definitions? a compound the produces hydronium ions in water
Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of
Acid-Base Equilibrium Dr. Ron Rusay Fall 2007 Introduction to Aqueous Acids Acids: taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color. Copyright 2003-2007 R.J. Rusay Introduction to Aqueous Bases Bases:
WEAK ACIDS AND BASES [MH5; Chapter 13] Recall that a strong acid or base is one which completely ionizes in water. HCR! H + + CR NaOH! Na + + OH The above equations fit the Arrhenius definition of acids
Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry of the Water World Chapter Outline 15.1 Acids and Bases: The BrØnsted Lowry Model 15.2 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure 15.3 ph and the Autoionization of Water 15.4 Calculations
Acids and Bases 10 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 10.1 According to the Arrhenius theory: a. acids taste sour. b. acids neutralize bases. c. acids produce H 3 O + ions in water. d. potassium hydroxide
Acid Base Concepts Page 1 The Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, framed the first successful concept of acids and bases. He defined acids and bases in terms of their effect on water. According to Arrhenius,
Acids and Bases CHEM 102! T. Hughbanks! Basic Definitions & Concepts Most basic concepts are given clearly in your text - these notes will only list these as topics discussed, so there will be less detail.!
Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain
University of Califnia, Davis F use with UC Davis Chem 8 and 118 Series Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases There are 3 definitions of acids and bases. All three are used in both
ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS A second type of chemical reaction that occurs in aqueous solution is an acid-base neutralization reaction So, what are acids and bases? ACIDS
Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids
ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the
AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria 2 Warm-Ups (Show
Chapter 17 Practice Acids and Bases AP Chemistry 1984. The ph of 0.1-molar ammonia is approximately (A) 1 (B) 4 (C) 7 (D) 11 (E) 14 48. Which of the following ions is the strongest Lewis acid? (A) Na +
WEAK ACIDS AND BASES [MH5; Chapter 13] Recall that a strong acid or base is one which completely ionizes in water... In contrast a weak acid or base is only partially ionized in aqueous solution... The
Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases 1. Circle the letters of all the terms that complete the sentence correctly. 2. The properties of acids include _. a. reacting with metals to produce
The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 4.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent Water participates actively in the dissolution process The dissolution process Hydration (solvation) of the solute particles in
Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see
1. Acid Base theory by Three Definitions Lecture Slide 2. Acid/Base Theory: Arrhenius Acids and Bases Acid: Released H + in water (H3O + ) Base: Releases OH - in water My notes/reminders etc. Bronsted-Lowry
LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 9 ph and Buffers. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 9-1 through 9-23. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 9-1. Calculate the ph and poh of a molar acid
CHAPTER 16 (MOORE) ACIDS, BASES AND ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA This chapter deals with acids and bases and their equilibria. We will treat acids as proton (H + ) donors in solution and bases as proton acceptors.
Chapter 16 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Chapter 16 Cartoon from: http://www.nearingzero.net/sci_chemistry.html 1 Strong Acid/Base Neutralization When a strong acid and a strong base react, the products
AcidBase Properties of Salt Solutions and AcidBase Strength A salt is simply another name for an ionic compound. Remember, that most salts are strong electrolytes that completely dissociate in solution.
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break
Chem 105 Wed 10-2-2009 Acids and Bases Neutralization reactions OWL 10/2/2009 1 Definition Acid and Base Acid = Compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Base = Compound that produces OH
Reactions in aqueous solutions Acids, Bases and Neutralization reactions ACIDS Many acids and bases are industrial and household substances and some are important components of biological fluids. Hydrochloric
Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Acids and Bases 1. Calculate the ph, poh, and [H O ] for a solution that has a [OH - ] = 4.5 x 10-5? [H ] = 2.2 x 10-10 M; ph = 9.65; poh = 4.5 2. An aqueous solution has
Chapter 15 -Acids and Bases Principles of Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 1 st Ed. Nivaldo J. Tro Dr. Azra Ghumman Memorial University of Newfoundland The Nature of Acids and Bases Properties of Acids:
Class: Date: Chapter 13 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. In the Brønsted-Lowry model an acid is a. a proton donor. b. a proton
Acids and Bases Part II Dr. Sobers Lecture Notes Acid and Base Ionization Constants Ka and Kb Acid Ionization Constant An acid in water undergoes an ionization reaction. The equilibrium constant is the
CHEM1909 2003-N-8 November 2003 The H 2 PO 4 and HPO 4 2 ions play a major role in maintaining the intracellular ph balance. Write balanced equations to show how a solution containing these ions can act
(Hebden Unit it4 page 109 182) 182) We will cover the following topics: 1. Definition of Acids and Bases 2. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 2 1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance
Acids and Bases 1 The ph of a solution is 2 at 25 C What is the poh of this solution? (1) 0; (2) 2; (3) 12; (4) 14 2 In a solution with a ph of 3 the color of (1) litmus is red; (2) litmus is blue; (3)
Chem 1721/1821 Summary of Acid, Base, Salt, Buffer and Titration Calculations These descriptions are to serve as a guideline to set up the various problems we have discussed. These guidelines apply only
15.2 Acids Base Proton Transfer Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 201 Miramar College Important Notes: K a when H 3 O + is produced, K b when OH is produced 1 Acids Bases; Proton Transfer BrønstedLowry AcidsBases
s for Ch. 14 Acids and Bases Practice Questions 1. In the following reactions, label the Acid, Base, Conjugate Acid, and Conjugate Base. Also indicate the two conjugate acid-base pairs Plan Your Strategy
C MgCO Al Al(OH) PX212CH1516 1. Which of the following reactions is not readily explained by the Arrhenius concept of acids and bases? A) HCl(g) + NH 3 (g) NH 4 Cl(s) B) HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H
ph OF SOLUTIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To investigate the strengths of acids and bases 2. To examine the effect of concentration on the ph of a solution 3. To examine the effect of salt hydrolysis on ph 4. To determine
1 Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts 2 Ch 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory (also in Chapter Medley) Arrhenius Acids produce Arrhenius Bases produce H + in water OH - in water HCl hydrochloric acid KOH HNO
Chapter 16 Additional Practice Problems 1. Although pure NaOH and CaO have very different properties, their aqueous solutions possess many common properties. List some general properties of these solutions
ACIDS AND BASES Electrolytes substances which will conduct electricity when dissolved in water. Typical electrolytes are strong acids and salt solutions; e.g., NaCl(aq), HCl(aq), etc. Nonelectrolytes substances
Announcements First Exam December 21---Christmas Break begins December 22. Silberberg Chapter 17-18, Skoog 2-7, 11-13 10-15 Conceptual Multiple choice questions that have little if any math 3-5 multiple
Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.