1. Read P , P & P ; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

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1 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P , P & P ; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 Intro to Solutions 2. P. 381 # 1, 3, 5, 8. Solubility Curves Finish the Solubility Curves Assignment P. 307 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10. Concentration Concentration of a solution describes the amount of solute that has been dissolved into a given amount of solvent. Concentration solutions have a large amount of solute dissolved and dilute solutions only have a small amount solute dissolved. Quantitatively, concentration can be expressed by one of the following: 1. Percent volume per volume π‘‰π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝑖𝑛 π‘šπΏ % 𝑣 𝑣 = π‘₯ 100% π‘‰π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› 𝑖𝑛 π‘šπΏ 4. Parts per million (ppm) π‘π‘π‘š = 2. Percent mass per volume π‘š π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝑖𝑛 𝑔 % π‘š 𝑣 = π‘₯ 100% π‘‰π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› 𝑖𝑛 π‘šπΏ 3. Percent mass per mass π‘š π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝑖𝑛 𝑔 % π‘š π‘š = π‘₯ 100% π‘š π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› 𝑖𝑛 π‘šπΏ π‘š π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝑖𝑛 𝑔 π‘₯ 10! 𝑉 π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› 𝑖𝑛 π‘šπΏ 5. Molar concentration or molarity (mol/l or M) 𝑛 𝑖𝑛 π‘šπ‘œπ‘™ 𝐢 = 𝑉 𝑖𝑛 𝐿 Examples g of sulphuric acid was dissolved in 50 ml of water; determine the concentration of the solution in the following units. A. % m/v 𝑔 %π‘š 𝑣 = π‘₯ 100% 50.0 π‘šπΏ % π‘š 𝑣 = 9.81 B. ppm π‘π‘π‘š = 𝑔 π‘₯ 10! 50.0 π‘šπΏ π‘π‘π‘š = π‘π‘π‘š C. Molarity MM (H2SO4)= 98.1 g W1

2 # moles = Mass MM = g mol 98.1 g = C = = 1.00 mol 0.05 L L mol 2. How many grams of sulphuric acid can be obtained by heating 15 ml of 0.25 M calcium nitrate solution to dryness. n = C V = mol L = mol L m = n MM = mol g = g mol EXERCISE: 1. Calculate the concentration of the following solutions: A) 4.5 moles in 25.0 L of solution [0.18 mol/l] B) 2.4 moles in 10.5 L of solution [0.229 mol/l] 2. Calculate the number of moles in: A) 2. 5 L of a 0.5 mol/l solution [1.25 mol] B) 10.0 L of a 3.0 mol/l solution [30 mol] 3. Calculate the volume containing: A) 0.05 moles if conc. is 0.5 mol/l [0.1 L] B) 1.05 mole if conc. is 2.5 mol/l [0.42] 4. Calculate the concentration of: A) 15.0 g of NaNO 3 in 250 ml of solution [0.706 mol/l] B) 7.5 g of H 3 PO 4 in 1.5 L of solution [0.051 mol/l] 5. Calculate the number of grams needed to produce 1.00 L of these solutions: A) M KNO 3 [Ans. 101g] B) 1.85 M H 2 SO 4 [Ans. 181g] 6. Calculate the number of grams needed to produce each: A) 0.20 L of 1.5 M KCl [Ans. 22 g] B) 250 ml of 3.1 mol/l BaCl 2 [Ans. 0.16g] 7. How many grams of aluminum dihydrogenphosphate would there have to be in 230 ml of solution in order to have a 0.1 mol/l solution of this material? [7.314 g] 8. Hydrogen peroxide solution for the bleaching of hair is sold as solutions of approximately 5.0 g of hydrogen peroxide per 100 ml of solution. What is the concentration of commercial hydrogen peroxide? [1.5 mol/l] W2

3 g of sodium hydroxide NaOH was dissolved in sufficient water to make up 125 ml of solution. A) Find the concentration of the solution. [0.8 mol/l] B) What mass of sodium hydroxide could be obtained by heating a 20 ml sample of this solution to dryness? [0.64 g] C) If 30 ml of the solution were mixed with sufficient water to produce 480 ml of a more dilute solution, what would be the concentration of the dilute solution? [0.05 mol/l] D) If 200 ml of the more dilute solution were then mixed with 100 ml of the more concentrated solution, what would be the concentration of the mixed solution? [0.3 mol/l] 10. A student dissolves g of bluestone (CuSO 4.5H 2 O) in sufficient water to make up 2.0 x10 2 ml of solution. A) What is the concentration of the solution? [0.25 mol/l] B) If the student takes 100 ml of this solution, what would be the concentration of the 100 ml sample? [0.25 mol/l] C) If the 100 ml sample were then heated strongly to drive off all the water, what mass of copper (II) sulfate residue would remain? [4.0 g] 11. It has been reported that for the average drinker, the consumption of 44 g of pure alcohol, taken as either 90 ml of whiskey or 155 ml of martini, results in an average alcohol concentration in the blood of 0.08 g/100 ml of blood. If the total volume of blood in a human adult is 7.0 L, what percentage of the ingested alcohol is in the blood? [12.7%] 12. P. 402 # 1, 2, 7, 11; P. 411 # 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9; H3

4 Dilution 1. How many ml of a 14.0 M stock solution must be used to make ml of a 1.75 M solution? [31.2 ml] 2. You have ml of 6.0 M HF. What concentration results if this is diluted to a total volume of 1.0 L [1.2 M] ml of 6.0 M CuSO 4 must be diluted to what final volume so that the resulting solution is 1.5 M? [4.0 x 10 2 ml] 4. What concentration results from mixing ml of 2.0 M HCl with ml of 3.0 M HCl? [2.6M] 5. What is the concentration of NaCl when 3.0 L of 0.50 M NaCl are mixed with 2.0 L of 0.20 M NaCl? [0.38M] 6. What is the concentration of NaCl when 3.0 L of 0.5 M NaCl are mixed with 2.0 L of water? [0.3M] 7. Water is added to 4.0 L of 6.0 M antifreeze until it is 1.5 M. What is the total volume of the new solution? [16 L] 8. There are 3 L of 0.2 M HF. 1.7 L of this is poured out, what is the concentration of the remaining HF? [0.2 M] 9. P. 405 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 8; P. 420 # 69, 72, 79 Precipitation Reactions and Net Ionic EQUATIONS 1. For each of the following: (a) complete and balance the equation (b) identify the precipitate using the solubility rules (c) making the precipitate a solid and the soluble compound aqueous determine the Net Ionic Equation. A) Na 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq) ----> B) K 2 S (aq) + ZnCl 2(aq) ----> C) NH 4 Br (aq) + Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2(aq) ----> D) Sr(OH) 2(aq) + MgCl 2(aq) ----> 2. P. 428 # 2, 5, 6, 9, P Review questions H4

5 A) SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY Concentration of Solutions Name: Chemical Analysis 1. P. 439 # 1 (a) P. 441 # 8 (a), (d), 9, 11 Solution Stoichiometry 1. H 2 SO 4 reacts with NaOH, producing water and sodium sulfate. What volume of 2.0 M H 2 SO 4 will be r equired to react completely with 75 ml of 0.50 mol/l NaOH? [9.4 ml] 2. How many moles of Fe(OH) 3 are produced when 85.0 L of iron(iii) sulfate at a concentration of mol/l reacts with excess NaOH? [102 mol] 3. What mass of precipitate will be produced from the reaction of 50.0 ml of 2.50 mol/l sodium hydroxide with and excess of zinc chloride solution. [6.21 g] 4. a)what volume of 0.20 mol/l AgNO 3 will be needed to react completely with 25.0 ml of 0.50 mol/l potassium phosphate? [0.19 L] b) What mass of precipitate is produced from the above reaction? [5.2 g] 5. What mass of precipitate should result when L of mol/l aluminum nitrate solution is mixed with L of 1.50 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution? [9.36 g Al(OH) 3 ] 6. A solution of limewater, Ca(OH) 2 (aq) is basic. It is used to test for the presence of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is weakly acidic and turns limewater milky. Use a chemical equation to explain what happens during the test. What type of reaction occurs? 7. Write a net ionic equation for each reaction. What do you notice about the net ionic equation? a. sodium carbonate + hydrochloric acid b. acetic acid + calcium hydroxide 8. Consider the following equation: Ca(OH) 2 (s) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) A) What type of chemical reaction is taking place? B) How many liters of M HCl would be required to react completely with 5.00 grams of calcium hydroxide? [1.35L] C) If I combined 15.0 grams of calcium hydroxide with 75.0 ml of M HCl, how many grams of calcium chloride would be formed? [2.08g] D) What is the limiting reagent from the reaction in problem #3c? [HCl] E) How many grams of the excess reagent will be left over after the reaction in problem #1c is complete? [13.6 g of Ca(OH) 2 ] W5

6 ml of 0.200M aqueous potassium hydroxide is mixed with 100.0mL of 0.200M aqueous magnesium nitrate. What mass of magnesium hydroxide is formed? What is/are the concentration of any ions remaining in the solution? [0.583g, [K + ] = 0.1 M, [NO 3 - = 0.2M] 10. How many liters of a 0.75 M solution of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 will be required to react with 148 g of Na 2 CO 3? Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (s) CaCO 3 (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) [1.86L] 11. If 525 ml of 0.80 M HCl solution is neutralized with 315 ml of Sr(OH)2 solution what is the molarity of the Sr(OH)2? HCl(aq) + Sr(OH)2(aq) SrCl2(s) + H2O (l) [ 0.67M] 12. Calculate the mass of AgCl formed when an excess of M solution of NaCl is added to L of M AgNO3. [2.87g] 13. To neutralize the acid in 10.0 ml of 18.0 M H2SO4 that was accidentally spilled on a laboratory bench top, solid sodium bicarbonate was used. The container of sodium bicarbonate was known to weigh g before this use and out of curiosity its mass was measured as g afterwards. The reaction that neutralizes sulphuric acid this way is as follows. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NaHCO 3 (s) > Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) Was sufficient sodium bicarbonate used? Calculate the limiting reactant and the maximum grams of sodium sulphate. [NaHCO 3 - LF, m= 8.85g] yield in 14. Barium nitrate and potassium sulphate solutions react and form a precipitate. What is the precipitate? How many ml of 0.40 M Ba(NO 3 ) 2 solution are required to precipitate completely the sulphate ions in 25 ml of 0.80 M K 2 SO 4 solution? [0.05L] 15. What mass of silver chloride can be precipitated from a silver nitrate solution by ml of a solution of 0.50 M CaCl 2? [29 g] 16. P. 449 # 7, 8, 9 H6

7 Acids and Bases 1. P. 475 # 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 (a), 7, 8(a), 12 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 1. What is the conjugate base of the following substances? H 2 O NH 4 + HNO 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 2. What is the conjugate acid of the following substances? HCO 3 - H 2 O HPO 4 2- NH 3 3. Identify the acid, base, conjugate acid, conjugate base, and conjugate acid-base pairs. a) HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) e) H 3 PO 4(aq) + OCl (aq) H 2 PO 4 (aq) + HOCl (aq) b) OH (aq) + HCO 3 (aq) CO 3 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) f) HCO 3 (aq) + S 2 (aq) HS (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq) c) HF (aq) + SO 3 2 (aq) F (aq) + HSO 3 (aq) d) CO 3 2 (aq) + HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + HCO 3 g) H 2 CO 3(aq) + OH (aq) HCO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) h) H 2 PO 4 - (aq) + NH 4 + (aq) H 3 PO 4(aq) + i) H 3 O + (aq) + HSO 3 (aq) H 2 O (l) + H 2 SO 3(aq) j) OH (aq) + HSO 3 (aq) + SO 3 2 k) OH - + HCN H 2 O + CN l) HPO H 2 O OH - + H 2 PO 4-2. For each of the following compounds, write a reaction showing how the compound can act as a Bronsted- Lowry acid or base (Hint write the compound reacting with water). a) HClO 3 (acid) b) NH 3 (base) c) H 2 PO 4 - (acid and base) d) H 2 O (acid and base) 3. Complete the following table. Acid Base Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base Equation HNO 2 H 2 O HNO 2 + H 2 O NO H 3 O + HF OH - S 2- + H 2 O OH - + HS - HSO 4 - PO Write an equation that shows the reaction of ammonia with hydrobromic acid. Label the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. H7

8 ph Calculations 1. What is the molar concentration of hydronium ion in a solution of ph 8.25? [5.6 x 10-9 M] 2. What is the ph of a solution that has a molar concentration of hydronium ion of 9.15 x 10-5 M? [ph = 4.038] 3. What is the poh of a solution that has a molar concentration of hydronium ion of 8.55 x M? [poh = 4.932] 4. What is the molar concentration of hydronium ion in a solution of ph 2.45? [3.5 x 10-3 M] 5. What is the poh of a solution that has a molar concentration of hydronium ion of 4.99 x 10-4 M? [poh=10.698] 6. What is the ph of a 3.4x10-5 M H 2 SO 4 solution? [ph = 4.17] 7. What is the ph of a solution if the poh = 5? [poh = 9] 8. What is the ph of a 10-liter KOH solution if grams of KOH were used to prepare the solution? [ph = 12] 9. If the ph of a KOH solution is 10.75, what is the molar concentration of the solution? What is the poh? What is the [H + ]?[poh = 3.25],[ [H 3 O + ]=1.8 x M],[[KOH]=5.6 x 10-4 M] 10. What is the ph of a 0.05 M H 2 SO 4 solution? [ph=1] 11. What is the ph of a 0.50 M Ca(OH) 2 solution? [ph=14] 12. Find the concentration of HNO 3( aq) with a ph of 4.0 [1 x10-4 M] 13. Find the concentration of H 2 CO 3( aq) with a ph of 6.0 [5 x10-7 M] 14. Find the concentration of KOH ( aq) with a ph of 13.0 [1 x10-1 M] 15. Find the concentration of Ba(OH) 2( aq) with a ph of 9.0 [5 x10-6 M] 16. Which is a higher concentration of hydronium ions, a solution with ph of 2 or a solution with ph of 3? is more concentrated by times. 17. Which is a more acidic a solution with ph of 4 or a solution with ph of 6? is times more concentrated Acid-Base Reactions - Titration Calculations ml of HCl(aq) was neutralized by 40.0 ml of 0.10 mol/l Ca(OH) 2 solution. What was the concentration of HCl? [0.32] 2. A truck carrying sulfuric acid is in an accident. A laboratory analyzes a sample of the spilled acid and finds that 20 ml of acid is neutralized by 60 ml of 4.0 mol/l NaOH solution. What is the concentration of the acid? [6.0M] 3. What volume of 1.50 mol/l H 2 S will neutralize a solution containing 32.0 g NaOH? [0.267L] 4. A student finds that ml of a M NaHCO 3 solution is required to titrate a mL sample of sulfuric acid solution. What is the molarity of the acid? H 2 SO NaHCO 3 Na 2 SO H 2 O + 2 CO 2 [0.3829M 5. What mass of Sr(OH) 2 will be required to neutralize ml of M HBr solution?[ g] 6. Calculate the ph of the solution that results when ml of 0.03 M HCl (aq) reacts with 0.28 g of Mg(OH) 2 pellets? Hint: Remember Limiting reagent. [ph= 12.78] 7. What volume of a 2.0 M CaO solution (lime) would need to be placed into the lake 1,500,000,000 L (with known molarity of 0.5M HCl) to raise the ph to 7. CaO + 2HCl CaCl 2 + H 2 O. Would this be realistic to do? Show work! [V= 3.75x 10 8 L] 8. Complete the following Textbook questions P. 481 # 1, 2, 4, 5; P. 485 # 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9 REVIEW - SOLUTIONS & ACIDS/BASES P. P read over all the questions, attempt as many as possible (write solutions to questions you find challenging). H8

9 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION WORKSHEET Name: W9

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