ATP. The point is to make ATP!

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ATP. The point is to make ATP!"

Transcription

1 ATP The point is to make ATP!

2 The energy needs of life Organisms are endergonic systems. What do we need energy for? synthesis building biomolecules reproduction movement active transport temperature regulation

3 Where do we get the energy from? Work of life is done by energy coupling. Use exergonic (catabolic) reactions to fuel endergonic (anabolic) reactions. digestion + + energy synthesis + + energy

4 Living economy Fueling the body s economy eat high energy organic molecules food = carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids break them down digestion = catabolism capture released energy in a form the cell can use Need an energy currency a way to pass energy around need a short term energy storage molecule ATP

5 How does ATP store energy? AMP ADP ATP O O O O O O P O P O PO O P O P O O O O O O Each negative PO 4 more difficult to add a lot of stored energy in each bond most energy stored in 3rd P i 3rd P i is hardest group to keep bonded to molecule Bonding of negative P i groups is unstable spring-loaded P i groups pop off easily & release energy Instability of its P bonds makes ATP an excellent energy donor

6 Oxidation & reduction (redox) Oxidation Reduction removing H adding H loss of electrons gain of electrons releases energy stores energy exergonic endergonic oxidation C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP reduction

7 Cellular respiration

8 Glycolysis Breaking down glucose glyco lysis (splitting sugar) glucose pyruvate 6C 2x 3C In the cytosol? Why does that make evolutionary sense? occurs in cytosol ancient pathway which harvests energy where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration but it s inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose

9 Evolutionary perspective Prokaryotes first cells (had no organelles) Anaerobic atmosphere Enzymes of glycolysis are well-conserved Life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O 2 ) in the atmosphere. Energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O 2. Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life. ALL cells still utilize glycolysis.

10 Glycolysis summary ENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP ENERGY PAYOFF G3P C-C-C-P 4 ATP exergonic harvest a little ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bank NET YIELD net yield 2 ATP 2 NADH

11 Substrate-level Phosphorylation In the last steps of glycolysis, where did the P come from to make ATP? P is transferred from PEP to ADP kinase enzyme ADP ATP the sugar substrate (PEP) ATP H 2 O 9 enolase Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) ADP ATP Pyruvate 10 pyruvate kinase Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Pyruvate H 2 O ADP ATP O - C O C O CH 2 O - C O C O CH 3 P I get it! The P i came directly from the substrate!

12 Fermentation (anaerobic) Bacteria, yeast pyruvate ethanol + CO 2 3C NADH NAD + beer, wine, bread dead-end process 2C Animals, some fungi pyruvate lactic acid 3C NADH NAD + 3C cheese, anaerobic exercise (no O 2 ) 1C back to glycolysis back to glycolysis reversible process; lactic acid pyruvate in liver

13 Pyruvate (product of glycolysis) is a branching point Pyruvate O 2 O 2 fermentation (anaerobic respiration) mitochondria Krebs cycle (aerobic respiration)

14 Pyruvate oxidized to Acetyl CoA NAD + reduction Pyruvate C-C-C CO 2 Coenzyme A oxidation Acetyl CoA C-C Yield = 2C sugar + NADH + CO 2 2 x [ ]

15 Krebs cycle aka Citric Acid Cycle Occurs in mitochondrial matrix Evolved later than glycolysis does that make evolutionary sense? bacteria 3.5 billion years ago (glycolysis) free O billion years ago (photosynthesis) eukaryotes 1.5 billion years ago (aerobic respiration = organelles mitochondria) Hans Krebs

16 Count the carbons! pyruvate 3C 4C 2C acetyl CoA 6C citrate This happens twice for each glucose molecule 4C 4C oxidation of sugars x2 6C 5C CO 2 4C 4C CO 2

17 Count the electron carriers! pyruvate NADH 3C 2C 4C 6C acetyl CoA citrate CO 2 NADH This happens twice for each glucose molecule 4C 4C reduction of electron carriers x2 6C 5C CO 2 NADH FADH 2 4C ATP 4C CO 2 NADH

18 Electron Carriers = Hydrogen Carriers Krebs cycle produces large quantities of electron carriers NADH FADH 2 go to Electron Transport Chain! ADP + P i ATP H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H +

19 Value of Krebs cycle? If the yield is only 2 ATP then how was the Krebs cycle an adaptation? value of NADH & FADH 2 electron carriers & H carriers reduced molecules move electrons reduced molecules move H + ions to be used in the Electron Transport Chain like $$ in the bank

20 ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4 ATP! There s got to be a better way! I need a lot more ATP! A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second!

21 There is a better way! Electron Transport Chain series of proteins built into inner mitochondrial membrane along cristae transport proteins & enzymes transport of electrons down ETC linked to pumping of H + to create H + gradient yields ~36 ATP from 1 glucose! only in presence of O 2 (aerobic respiration) That sounds more like it! O 2

22 Mitochondria Structure Double membrane energy harvesting organelle smooth outer membrane highly folded inner membrane cristae intermembrane space fluid-filled space between membranes matrix inner fluid-filled space DNA, ribosomes enzymes outer intermembrane space inner membrane membrane cristae matrix What cells would have AP a lot Biology of mitochondria? mitochondrial DNA

23 But what pulls the electrons down the ETC? O 2 H 2 O electrons flow downhill to O 2 oxidative phosphorylation

24 Electrons flow downhill Electrons move in steps from carrier to carrier downhill to oxygen each carrier more electronegative controlled oxidation controlled release of energy

25 Chemiosmosis The diffusion of ions across a membrane build up of proton gradient so H + could flow through ATP synthase enzyme to build ATP Chemiosmosis links the Electron Transport Chain to ATP synthesis So that s the point!

26 Cellular respiration 2 ATP 2 ATP ~36 ATP + +

27 Summary of cellular respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ~40 ATP Where did the glucose come from? Where did the O 2 come from? What is it used for? Where did the CO 2 come from? Where did the CO 2 go? Where did the H 2 O come from? Where did the ATP come from? What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? Why do we breathe?

28 Taking it beyond What is the final electron acceptor in Electron Transport Chain? O 2 NADH So what happens if O 2 unavailable? ETC backs up nothing to pull electrons down chain NADH & FADH 2 can t unload H ATP production ceases cells run out of energy and you die! H + Q NADH dehydrogenase H + e C e FADH 2 FAD 1 NAD + 2 cytochrome bc complex H + e 2H + + O 2 H 2 O cytochrome c oxidase complex

29 Credits Adapted, with permission, from the fabulous work of Kim B. Foglia, ExploreBiology.com.

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

ATP accounting so far ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS. The Essence of ETC: The Electron Transport Chain O 2

ATP accounting so far ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS. The Essence of ETC: The Electron Transport Chain O 2 accounting so far The final stage of cellular respiration: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS Glycolysis 2 Kreb s cycle 2 Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4! There

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic

More information

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy? Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

More information

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

More information

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 )

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ) The vital role of A This is the energy-rich compound that is the source of energy for all living things. It is a nucleotide, comprising a 5C sugar (ribose); an organic base (adenosine); and 3 phosphate

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Text, Diagrams, Assessments, and Link to Standards Focus Questions 1) What is cellular respiration? 2) How is cellular respiration connected to breathing? 3) If

More information

Metabolism Poster Questions

Metabolism Poster Questions Metabolism Poster Questions Answer the following questions concerning respiration. 1. Consider the mitochondrial electron transport chain. a. How many hydrogen ions can be pumped for every NADH? b. How

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

Is ATP worth the investment?

Is ATP worth the investment? Is ATP worth the investment? ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) can be thought of as the currency of the cell. Most cellular metabolic processes cost a certain amount of ATP in order to happen. Furthermore,

More information

Cellular Respiration. Chapter Outline. Before You Begin

Cellular Respiration. Chapter Outline. Before You Begin 8 Cellular Respiration Triathlete racing past photosynthesizing trees and vegetation. A triathlete racing a bike, a bacterium with undulating flagella, an ocelot climbing a tree, or a snail moving slowly

More information

Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10)

Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10) Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10) I. Photosynthesis overview A. Purpose B. Location II. The light vs. the dark reaction III. Chloroplasts pigments A. Light absorption B. Types IV. Light reactions A. Photosystems

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

Biology I. Chapter 8/9

Biology I. Chapter 8/9 Biology I Chapter 8/9 NOTEBOOK #1 Interest Grabber Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank

More information

Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane

Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane Each of respiratory enzyme complexes couples the energy released by electron transfer across it to an uptake of protons from water in

More information

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Name Period Chapter 10: Photosynthesis This chapter is as challenging as the one you just finished on cellular respiration. However, conceptually it will be a little easier because the concepts learned

More information

1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Bio 101 Section 001: Practice Questions for First Exam

Bio 101 Section 001: Practice Questions for First Exam Do the Practice Exam under exam conditions. Time yourself! MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. The substrate fits in the of an enzyme: (A) allosteric site (B) active site (C) reaction groove (D) Golgi body (E) inhibitor

More information

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Concept 1 - Thinking Practice 1. If the following molecules were to undergo a dehydration synthesis reaction, what molecules would result? Circle the parts of each amino acid that will interact and draw

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3

Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3 Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally

More information

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Name: KEY Period: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Plant cells and some Algae contain an organelle called the chloroplast. The chloroplast allows plants to harvest energy from sunlight to carry on a process

More information

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis: The BIG Picture Photosynthesis is the process by which PHOTOAUTOTROPHS convert the energy in SUNLIGHT into the energy stored

More information

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). photons SUN

More information

Cell. (1) This is the most basic unit of life inside of our bodies.

Cell. (1) This is the most basic unit of life inside of our bodies. Cytology Overview Cell (1) This is the most basic unit of life inside of our bodies. ATP (2) Each of our cell s requires energy in order to carry out its day to day func>ons. This is the energy all cells

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis?

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis: synthesis from light The broad outline: Plants take in CO 2 and release water and O 2 Light is required

More information

> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis- is the process that converts light energy into chemical energy. This chemical energy is usually a carbohydrate. Only photoautrotrops can do photosynthesis. Heterotrophs must obtain their

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í ENZYMES

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í ENZYMES = substances that... biological reactions 1. Provide an alternative reaction route which has a lower... energy 2. Reactions catalysed by enzymes occur under mild conditions + good yield + fast 3. Enzymes

More information

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because:

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: Section 10 Multiple Choice 1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but

More information

Advanced Subsidiary GCE Biology

Advanced Subsidiary GCE Biology Advanced Subsidiary GCE Biology Unit F214 - Communication, Homeostasis and Energy - High banded OCR has produced these candidate style answers to support teachers in interpreting the assessment criteria

More information

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100 COURSE: MIB 303 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (3 Units- Compulsory) Course Duration: Three hours per week for 15 weeks (45 hours). Lecturer: Jimoh, S.O. B.Sc., M.Sc, Ph.D Microbiology (ABU, Zaria)

More information

Photosynthesis. Name. Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction Electronegativity Photosystem Electron carrier NADP+ Concentration gradient

Photosynthesis. Name. Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction Electronegativity Photosystem Electron carrier NADP+ Concentration gradient Vocabulary Terms Photoautotroph Chemoautotroph Electromagnetic spectrum Wavelength Chloroplast Thylakoid Stroma Chlorophyll Absorption spectrum Photosynthesis Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction

More information

carbon-carbon bond formation dehydration hydration decarboxylation oxidation reduction substrate level phosphorylation isomerization

carbon-carbon bond formation dehydration hydration decarboxylation oxidation reduction substrate level phosphorylation isomerization 1. A. Name each enzyme present in the citric acid cycle and specify which of the following describes the reaction that is catalyzed when the cycle functions in the physiological direction: carbon-carbon

More information

MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH? THE SUN!!

MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH? THE SUN!! MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH? THE SUN!! THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists Autotrophs generate their own organic

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Student name ID # 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration? In photosynthesis? O2, NADP+

Student name ID # 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration? In photosynthesis? O2, NADP+ 1. Membrane transport. A. (4 pts) What ion couples primary and secondary active transport in animal cells? What ion serves the same function in plant cells? Na+, H+ 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron

More information

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes This unit is an introduction to the scientific process. This unit consists of a laboratory exercise where students go through the QPOE2 process step by step

More information

Metabolism Lecture 7 METABOLIC_REGULATION Restricted for students enrolled in MCB102, UC Berkeley, Spring 2008 ONLY

Metabolism Lecture 7 METABOLIC_REGULATION Restricted for students enrolled in MCB102, UC Berkeley, Spring 2008 ONLY Bryan Krantz: University of California, Berkeley MCB 102, Spring 2008, Metabolism Lecture 7 Reading: Ch. 15 of Principles of Biochemistry, Principles of Metabolic Regulation, Illustrated with Glucose and

More information

PRACTICE SET 1. Free energy changes and equilibrium constants

PRACTICE SET 1. Free energy changes and equilibrium constants PRACTICE SET 1 Free energy changes and equilibrium constants 1. Calculate the standard free-energy changes of the following metabolically important enzyme-catalyzed reactions at 25 C and ph 7.0 from the

More information

Photosynthesis January 23 Feb 1, 2013 WARM-UP JAN 23/24. Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1

Photosynthesis January 23 Feb 1, 2013 WARM-UP JAN 23/24. Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1 WARM-UP JAN 23/24 Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration What is the connection between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration? Energy Production Inorganic Molecules Specialized

More information

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis. Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis. Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light

More information

APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips

APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips Big picture: why are we doing this? A) photosynthesis will explain shortly, b) more generally, interaction of light

More information

Q: How are proteins (amino acid chains) made from the information in mrna? A: Translation Ribosomes translate mrna into protein

Q: How are proteins (amino acid chains) made from the information in mrna? A: Translation Ribosomes translate mrna into protein ranslation (written lesson) Q: How are proteins (amino acid chains) made from the information in mrn? : ranslation Ribosomes translate mrn into protein ranslation has 3 steps also! 1. ranslation Initiation:

More information

Equation for Photosynthesis

Equation for Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Definition The process by which cells harvest light energy to make sugars (glucose). -Sugar is used to power the process of cellular respiration, which produces the ATP that cells utilize

More information

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3of 51 Inside

More information

Cell Structure & Function!

Cell Structure & Function! Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell

More information

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy whereby carbon dioxide and water are converted into organic molecules. The process occurs in most algae,

More information

Integration of Metabolism

Integration of Metabolism I. Central Themes of Metabolism 1. ATP is the universal energy carrier. Integration of Metabolism Bryant Miles 2. ATP is generated by the oxidation of metabolic fuels Glucose Fatty Acids Amino Acids 3.

More information

tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are )

tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are ) Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids

More information

Photosynthesis Reactions. Photosynthesis Reactions

Photosynthesis Reactions. Photosynthesis Reactions Photosynthesis Reactions Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH NADPH is similar to NADH seen in mitochondria; it is an electron/hydrogen carrier The complete process of photosynthesis

More information

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light

More information

2. 1. What are the three parts of an ATP molecule? (100 points)

2. 1. What are the three parts of an ATP molecule? (100 points) Photosynthesis Date Created: 12/8/14, 11:22:50 AM Questions: 34 Date Modified: 12/17/14, 8:27:08 AM 1. ATP & Photosynthesis Review Game 30 Multiple Choice Questions Final Question Correct Answers = +$100

More information

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEW SHEET FOR TEST Part A: Match the terms below with the correct description Chlorophyll Chloroplast Electromagnetic spectrum Electron transport chain Grana Light-dependant reactions

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy Photosynthesis 6 + 12H 2 O + light energy Summary Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O 6 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosythesis provides

More information

Problem Set 2 (multiple choice) Biochemistry 3300

Problem Set 2 (multiple choice) Biochemistry 3300 1. What classes of reactions do Lyases catalyse? a) Bond formation coupled with ATP hydrolysis b) Isomerizations c) Group elimination to form double bonds d) Transfer of functional groups e) Hydrolysis

More information

Syllabus Chemistry 431B Biochemistry Winter 2013. Course Prerequisite: Grade of C- or better in Biochemistry I (Chem 431A)

Syllabus Chemistry 431B Biochemistry Winter 2013. Course Prerequisite: Grade of C- or better in Biochemistry I (Chem 431A) Syllabus Chemistry 431B Biochemistry Winter 2013 Instructor: Jamil Momand, Ph.D. Class location and time: Salazar Hall, C-265 MWF 11:40-12:30 Office Hours: La Kretz Hall, Room 270 M 10-11, T 10-11 Email:

More information

Get It Right. Answers. Chapter 1: The Science of Life. A biologist studies all living things.

Get It Right. Answers. Chapter 1: The Science of Life. A biologist studies all living things. Discover Biology 'N' Level Science Chapter 1 Chapter 1: The Science of Life A biologist studies all living things. In order to carry out the scientific method, we need to ask questions. Discover Biology

More information

A. Incorrect! No, while this statement is correct, it is not the best answer to the question.

A. Incorrect! No, while this statement is correct, it is not the best answer to the question. Biochemistry - Problem Drill 18: Photosynthesis No. 1 of 10 1. What is photosynthesis? Select the best answer. (A) Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplasts. (B) Light absorption by chlorophyll induces

More information

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: The Cell Theory Terminology Parts of Plant Cells: Organelles Difference between plant and animal cells

More information

8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis

8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis Lesson Objectives Describe what happens during the light-dependent reactions. Describe what happens during the light-independent reactions. Identify factors that affect

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

7.2 Cells: A Look Inside

7.2 Cells: A Look Inside CHAPTER 7 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 7.2 Cells: A Look Inside Imagine a factory that makes thousands of cookies a day. Ingredients come into the factory, get mixed and baked, then the cookies are packaged.

More information

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys

The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys Subject area: Science / Biology Topic focus: The Cell: components, types of cells, organelles, levels of organization Learning Aims: describe similarities and differences

More information

Essentials of Cell Biology

Essentials of Cell Biology Introduction to Essentials of Cell Biology Learn Science at Scitable http://www.nature.com/scitable/ebooks/essentials-of-cell-biology-14749010 Page 1 of 1 Essentials of Cell Biology What do an amoeba and

More information

GCE. Biology. Mark Scheme for January 2011. Advanced GCE Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis & Energy. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

GCE. Biology. Mark Scheme for January 2011. Advanced GCE Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis & Energy. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations GCE Biology Advanced GCE Unit F: Communication, Homeostasis & Energy Mark Scheme for January 0 Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA) is a leading UK awarding body, providing

More information

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best.

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. Photosynthesis Practice Fill in the blanks. Name Date Period 1. Molecules that collect light energy are called _P. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. 3. _C is the main

More information

Photosynthesis Chapter 8 E N E R G Y T O M A K E F O O D?

Photosynthesis Chapter 8 E N E R G Y T O M A K E F O O D? Photosynthesis Chapter 8 H O W D O E S T H E P L A N T U S E T H E S U N S E N E R G Y T O M A K E F O O D? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pe82qtkssh4 Autotroph vs. Heterotroph Autotrophs/Producers-organisms

More information

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads The Parts of the Cell 3 main parts in ALL cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material this is about the parts of a generic eukaryotic cell Plasma Membrane -is a fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid

More information

ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology

ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology ATP All cells need for life. Some things we use energy for are: Moving Thinking Sleeping Breathing Growing Reproducing ENERGY Labeled Sketch: The principal chemical

More information

Review Questions Photosynthesis

Review Questions Photosynthesis Review Questions Photosynthesis 1. Describe a metabolic pathway. In a factory, labor is divided into small individual jobs. A carmaker, for example, will have one worker install the front windshield, another

More information

Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE

Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE 1 Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE MULTIPLE CHOICE: CIRCLE ALL THE ANSWERS THAT ARE TRUE. THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE CORRECT ANSWER! 1. Which molecule stores more than 90 times

More information

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which

More information

Figure 10.1 How does sunlight help build the trunk, branches, and leaves of this broadleaf tree? photosynthesis Autotrophs (Figure 10.

Figure 10.1 How does sunlight help build the trunk, branches, and leaves of this broadleaf tree? photosynthesis Autotrophs (Figure 10. 10 Photosynthesis Key Concepts 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food 10.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of and NADPH 10.3 The Calvin

More information

Photosynthesis-Review. Pigments. Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts 5. Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. An Overview of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis-Review. Pigments. Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts 5. Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. An Overview of Photosynthesis An Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis-Review 1. Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 +

More information

The chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

The chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function. 12.1 What are animals and plants built from? All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. to relate the structure of different types

More information

Jan Baptisa van Helmont (1648)

Jan Baptisa van Helmont (1648) Instructions To help you navigate these slides, you should set your viewer to display thumbnails of these slides. On many viewers, this can be done by pressing the F4 key. The slides should be viewed in

More information

Biology I New Summit School High School Diploma Program

Biology I New Summit School High School Diploma Program Course Description: Biology I Syllabus Biology I is a two semester course. Students completing this course will earn 1.0 unit upon completion. Required Materials: 1. Student Text: Biology-Principles and

More information

B2 1 Cells, Tissues and Organs

B2 1 Cells, Tissues and Organs B2 Cells, Tissues and Organs 5 minutes 5 marks Page of 7 Q. The diagram shows a bacterium. On the drawing, name the structures labelled A, B, C and D. (Total 4 marks) Q2. (a) The diagrams show cells containing

More information

called a cell wall. The cell wall protects against mechanical stress and keeps the cell from becoming over-filled with water.

called a cell wall. The cell wall protects against mechanical stress and keeps the cell from becoming over-filled with water. What are Cells? By: Byron Norelius About Cells A cell is the basic unit of life. All living organisms are composed of one (unicellular) or more (multicellular) cells. In unicellular organisms, like many

More information

6023-1 - Page 1. Name: 4) The diagram below represents a beaker containing a solution of various molecules involved in digestion.

6023-1 - Page 1. Name: 4) The diagram below represents a beaker containing a solution of various molecules involved in digestion. Name: 6023-1 - Page 1 1) Which one of the following situations indicates a serious organ system malfunction? A) Mitochondria stop functioning in a unicellular organism exposed to pollutants. B) White blood

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

(Figure revised from Johnson and Raven, 2004, Biology, Holt Rinehart and Winston, p. 110)

(Figure revised from Johnson and Raven, 2004, Biology, Holt Rinehart and Winston, p. 110) Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast Adapted from Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast Investigation in the School District of Philadelphia Biology Core Curriculum 2011 by Drs. Jennifer Doherty and Ingrid Waldron,

More information

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells).

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells

More information

ecture 16 Oct 7, 2005

ecture 16 Oct 7, 2005 Lecture utline ecture 16 ct 7, 005 hotosynthesis 1 I. Reactions 1. Importance of Photosynthesis to all life on earth - primary producer, generates oxygen, ancient. What needs to be accomplished in photosynthesis

More information

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY 2 PROCESSES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is actually 2 processes: light reactions - convert solar energy (sunlight) to chemical energy (ATP &

More information

4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis

4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. Radiant Energy Chemical Energy A. Organisms are classified according to how they obtain energy. 1. Autotroph/Producers

More information

8 kcal/mole of ATP 2 ATP 16 kcal 16 kcal/2 moles of ATP 686 kcal/mole of glucose 2.3%

8 kcal/mole of ATP 2 ATP 16 kcal 16 kcal/2 moles of ATP 686 kcal/mole of glucose 2.3% 4. The cell s supply of ADP, P i, and NAD + is finite (limited). What happens to cellular respiration when all of the cell s NAD + has been converted to NADH? If NAD is unavailable, the cell is unable

More information

4. Power: Pathways that make ATP

4. Power: Pathways that make ATP Page 1 of 40 4. Power: Pathways that make ATP 4.1 The human body has a duel power system In hybrid cars, such as a Prius TM, power is supplied by two systems. For long-term travel, gasoline is used to

More information

1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain.

1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain. Lipid Metabolism 1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain. 2. How can excess acetyl CoA trapped in the mitochondria, be utilized as a substrate for fatty

More information

Photosystems I and II

Photosystems I and II Photosystems I and II March 17, 2003 Bryant Miles Within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast, are two photosystems. Photosystem I optimally absorbs photons of a wavelength of 700 nm. Photosystem

More information

AP Biology Syllabus 2012-2013

AP Biology Syllabus 2012-2013 n AP Biology, an emphasis is on students making connections between the big ideas within the AP Biology Curriculum Framework. he two main goals of AP Biology are to help students develop a conceptual framework

More information

Unsaturated and Odd-Chain Fatty Acid Catabolism

Unsaturated and Odd-Chain Fatty Acid Catabolism Unsaturated and dd-hain Fatty Acid atabolism March 24, 2003 Bryant Miles The complete oxidation of saturated fatty acids containing an even number of carbon atoms is accomplished by the β-oxidation pathway.

More information

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells Comparing Plant And Animal Cells http://khanacademy.org/video?v=hmwvj9x4gny Plant Cells shape - most plant cells are squarish or rectangular in shape. amyloplast (starch storage organelle)- an organelle

More information