Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables. A discrete RV has a finite list of possible outcomes.


 Lewis Nelson
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 1 Discrete Probability Distributions Section 4.1 Random Variable its value is a numerical outcome of a random phenomenon. We use letters such as x or y to denote a random variable. Examples Toss a coin 10 times and record the number of heads Ask 100 people if they approve of the president and record the number of yes answers. Record scores on an exam for each student Count the number of defective items in a production line. Probability Distribution for a random variable x is the relative frequency distribution for the entire population; it shows what values of x occurred and how often these values occurred. Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables A discrete RV has a finite list of possible outcomes. The probability distribution of a discrete RV specifies all the values of x and their probabilities. We can make a probability histogram to show the probability distribution of a discrete random variable. The probabilities must satisfy the following two properties: o Every probability P(x) falls between 0 and 1. o All the probabilities sum to one. Parameters 1) Population Mean/ Expected Value: = E(X) = xp (x) 2 2 2) Population Standard Deviation: = ( x ) P( x) = E [( x ) ]
2 2 Example Grades in a very large statistics class are given according to the following distribution: A B C D F 15% 35% 30% 16%? a) Define the random variable X as the number of grade points given for each grade. Write the probability distribution of X. b) Is this a legitimate probability distribution? c) What is the probability that X is less than 3? d) What is the probability that X is less than or equal to three?
3 3 e) If there were exactly 100 students in the class, then 15 would have an A, 35 would have a B, 30 would have a C, 16 would have a D, and 4 would have an F. What is the expected grade for these 100 students?
4 4 Section 4.2 The Binomial Distribution: Probability for Counts with Binary Data The distribution of X = (number of successes) is called a Binomial Distribution with parameters n and p if it meets the following conditions: There are a fixed number of trials, n. The n trials are all independent. The outcome of each observation is either a success or a failure. Each trial has the same probability of success, p. The probability of failure (using compliment rule) is q = 1p. Comment: The book uses P(S) for the probability of success. Notation: X ~ Bin (n, p) Examples Determine whether each of the following situations meet the criteria of a binomial distribution. If so, identify n and p. a) Toss a balanced coin n times and count the number of heads. b) Ask 100 randomly selected students if they drank when they were underage. Make sure that the questioning is handled in a way that the respondent s answer would be confidential. Count the number of students who answer yes to the question.
5 5 c) A shipment of 10,000 batteries arrives at a toy manufacturing company. To decide if they will purchase the whole shipment, a sample of 10 batteries is selected at random and tested. The number of defective batteries in the sample is counted. Unknown to the manufacturer, 1000 of the batteries in the shipment are defective. Population Proportion: p Sample Proportion: ^ p Population Mean: Sample Mean: X = np ^ n p Population Standard deviation: np ( 1 p) Sample Standard Deviation: s = n p(1 p) ^ ^ Calculating Probabilities for a Binomial Distribution P ) x n x ( x) ncx p (1 p for x = 0, 1,2,, n Where n! n C x and n! n( n 1)( n 2)...(2)(1) x!( n x)!
6 6 Example The juror pool for the upcoming murder trial of a celebrity actor contains the names of 100,000 individuals in the population who may be called for jury duty. The proportion of the available jurors on the population list who are Hispanic is.40. a jury of size 12 is selected at random from the population list of available jurors. Let X = the number of Hispanics selected to be jurors for this jury. a) Is it reasonable to assume that X has a binomial distribution? If not, why? If so, identify the values of n and p. b) Find the probability that no Hispanic is selected. c) How many jurors out of the 12 would you expect to be Hispanic? d) Find the standard deviation of this distribution.
7 7 Example A particular medication causes side effects on 35% of patients. Eight patients at our clinic are currently receiving that medication. Let X = number of these patients that experience side effects. a) Is the distribution of X binomial? b) Write down the sample space for this distribution. c) Find the probability that 6 out of the 8 patients experience side effects. d) How many patients out of 8 would you expect to experience side effects?
8 8 e) What is the probability that at most 3 patients experience side effects? f) What is the probability that at least 4 patients experience side effects? g) What is the probability that between 1 and 6 patients experience side effects (not inclusive)?
9 9 Help for Calculating Binomial Probabilities Calculate individual probabilities using the binomial formula for that particular value of x. Key words: exactly To calculate cumulative probabilities, sum the binomial formula results for each value of x. We will also look at how to use the Binomial Table. Key words: at least, at most, or more, or less. P ( X n) P( X n 1) = 1 P ( X n) P ( X n) P( X n 1) = 1 P ( X n) P ( m X n) P( X n) P( X m) = P( X n 1) P( X m ) for n > m
10 10 Section 4.3 The Poisson Distribution: Probability for the Number of Occurrences in an Event The distribution of X = (number of events that occur in an interval) is called a Poisson Distribution with parameter, where the average number of events that occur in an interval. Poisson distributions are: Unimodal Skewed Centered roughly at The spread increases as increases Notation: X ~ Pois ( ) Examples a) The number of deaths by horse kicking in the Prussian army. b) Cars pass through the I275 and I91interstate exchange at an average rate of 300 per hour. c) A life insurance salesman sells on the average 3 life insurance policies per week.
11 11 Poisson Distribution Population Mean: Sample Mean: ^ Population Standard deviation: Sample Standard Deviation: ^ = ^ Calculating Probabilities for a Poisson Distribution P( x) x e x! for x = 0, 1,2,, n Where x! x( x 1)( x 2)...(2)(1)
12 12 Example The births in a hospital occur randomly at an average rate of 1.8 births per hour. Let X = number of births in a given hour. a) What is the probability of observing 4 births in a given hour at the hospital? b) What is the probability of observing 2 or more births in a given hour at the hospital? c) What is the probability of observing 5 births in a given 2 hour interval?
13 13 Transformations with the Poisson Distribution
14 14 The Link Between the Binomial and Poisson Distribution When n is large and p is small, so that np<7, then a Bin(n, p) can be approximated with a Pois( ) where = np. In other words, under sufficient constraints on n and p: Bin(n, p) is approximately equivalent in distribution to a Pois( = np). Example Given that 5% of a population is lefthanded, use the Poisson distribution to estimate the probability that a random sample of 100 people contains 2 or more lefthanded people.
15 15 The Link Between the Binomial and Poisson Distribution When n is large and p is small, so that np<7, then a Bin(n, p) can be approximated with a Pois( ) where = np. In other words, under sufficient constraints on n and p: Bin(n, p) is approximately equivalent in distribution to a Pois( = np). Example: A company makes electric motors. The probability an electric motor is defective is.01. What is the probability that a sample of 300 electric motors will contain exactly 5 defective motors?
Lecture 5 : The Poisson Distribution
Lecture 5 : The Poisson Distribution Jonathan Marchini November 10, 2008 1 Introduction Many experimental situations occur in which we observe the counts of events within a set unit of time, area, volume,
More information3.4. The Binomial Probability Distribution. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
3.4 The Binomial Probability Distribution Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Binomial Probability Distribution There are many experiments that conform either exactly or approximately
More informationRandom Variable: A function that assigns numerical values to all the outcomes in the sample space.
STAT 509 Section 3.2: Discrete Random Variables Random Variable: A function that assigns numerical values to all the outcomes in the sample space. Notation: Capital letters (like Y) denote a random variable.
More informationChapter 3: DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS. Part 3: Discrete Uniform Distribution Binomial Distribution
Chapter 3: DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Part 3: Discrete Uniform Distribution Binomial Distribution Sections 35, 36 Special discrete random variable distributions we will cover
More informationChapter 3: DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Chapter 3: DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Part 4: Geometric Distribution Negative Binomial Distribution Hypergeometric Distribution Sections 37, 38 The remaining discrete random
More informationSOLUTIONS: 4.1 Probability Distributions and 4.2 Binomial Distributions
SOLUTIONS: 4.1 Probability Distributions and 4.2 Binomial Distributions 1. The following table contains a probability distribution for a random variable X. a. Find the expected value (mean) of X. x 1 2
More informationSection 6.1 Discrete Random variables Probability Distribution
Section 6.1 Discrete Random variables Probability Distribution Definitions a) Random variable is a variable whose values are determined by chance. b) Discrete Probability distribution consists of the values
More informationMAT 155. Key Concept. September 27, 2010. 155S5.5_3 Poisson Probability Distributions. Chapter 5 Probability Distributions
MAT 155 Dr. Claude Moore Cape Fear Community College Chapter 5 Probability Distributions 5 1 Review and Preview 5 2 Random Variables 5 3 Binomial Probability Distributions 5 4 Mean, Variance and Standard
More informationImportant Probability Distributions OPRE 6301
Important Probability Distributions OPRE 6301 Important Distributions... Certain probability distributions occur with such regularity in reallife applications that they have been given their own names.
More informationBinomial Distribution Problems. Binomial Distribution SOLUTIONS. Poisson Distribution Problems
1 Binomial Distribution Problems (1) A company owns 400 laptops. Each laptop has an 8% probability of not working. You randomly select 20 laptops for your salespeople. (a) What is the likelihood that 5
More informationYou flip a fair coin four times, what is the probability that you obtain three heads.
Handout 4: Binomial Distribution Reading Assignment: Chapter 5 In the previous handout, we looked at continuous random variables and calculating probabilities and percentiles for those type of variables.
More informationChapter 5. Random variables
Random variables random variable numerical variable whose value is the outcome of some probabilistic experiment; we use uppercase letters, like X, to denote such a variable and lowercase letters, like
More informationThe Binomial Probability Distribution
The Binomial Probability Distribution MATH 130, Elements of Statistics I J. Robert Buchanan Department of Mathematics Fall 2015 Objectives After this lesson we will be able to: determine whether a probability
More information+ Section 6.2 and 6.3
Section 6.2 and 6.3 Learning Objectives After this section, you should be able to DEFINE and APPLY basic rules of probability CONSTRUCT Venn diagrams and DETERMINE probabilities DETERMINE probabilities
More informationAn Introduction to Basic Statistics and Probability
An Introduction to Basic Statistics and Probability Shenek Heyward NCSU An Introduction to Basic Statistics and Probability p. 1/4 Outline Basic probability concepts Conditional probability Discrete Random
More informationChapter 4. Probability Distributions
Chapter 4 Probability Distributions Lesson 41/42 Random Variable Probability Distributions This chapter will deal the construction of probability distribution. By combining the methods of descriptive
More informationCh5: Discrete Probability Distributions Section 51: Probability Distribution
Recall: Ch5: Discrete Probability Distributions Section 51: Probability Distribution A variable is a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values. o Various letters of the alphabet (e.g.
More information4. Continuous Random Variables, the Pareto and Normal Distributions
4. Continuous Random Variables, the Pareto and Normal Distributions A continuous random variable X can take any value in a given range (e.g. height, weight, age). The distribution of a continuous random
More informationAP Statistics 7!3! 6!
Lesson 64 Introduction to Binomial Distributions Factorials 3!= Definition: n! = n( n 1)( n 2)...(3)(2)(1), n 0 Note: 0! = 1 (by definition) Ex. #1 Evaluate: a) 5! b) 3!(4!) c) 7!3! 6! d) 22! 21! 20!
More informationStats Review Chapters 56
Stats Review Chapters 56 Created by Teri Johnson Math Coordinator, Mary Stangler Center for Academic Success Examples are taken from Statistics 4 E by Michael Sullivan, III And the corresponding Test
More informationChapter 4. Probability and Probability Distributions
Chapter 4. robability and robability Distributions Importance of Knowing robability To know whether a sample is not identical to the population from which it was selected, it is necessary to assess the
More informationThe normal approximation to the binomial
The normal approximation to the binomial The binomial probability function is not useful for calculating probabilities when the number of trials n is large, as it involves multiplying a potentially very
More information1) What is the probability that the random variable has a value greater than 2? A) 0.750 B) 0.625 C) 0.875 D) 0.700
Practice for Chapter 6 & 7 Math 227 This is merely an aid to help you study. The actual exam is not multiple choice nor is it limited to these types of questions. Using the following uniform density curve,
More informationStatistics 100 Binomial and Normal Random Variables
Statistics 100 Binomial and Normal Random Variables Three different random variables with common characteristics: 1. Flip a fair coin 10 times. Let X = number of heads out of 10 flips. 2. Poll a random
More informationSection 5 Part 2. Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables
Section 5 Part 2 Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables Review and Overview So far we ve covered the following probability and probability distribution topics Probability rules Probability
More informationChapter 4 Lecture Notes
Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Random Variables October 27, 2015 1 Section 4.1 Random Variables A random variable is typically a realvalued function defined on the sample space of some experiment. For instance,
More informationDETERMINE whether the conditions for a binomial setting are met. COMPUTE and INTERPRET probabilities involving binomial random variables
1 Section 7.B Learning Objectives After this section, you should be able to DETERMINE whether the conditions for a binomial setting are met COMPUTE and INTERPRET probabilities involving binomial random
More informationDiscrete Random Variables and their Probability Distributions
CHAPTER 5 Discrete Random Variables and their Probability Distributions CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable 5.2 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable
More informationReview the following from Chapter 5
Bluman, Chapter 6 1 Review the following from Chapter 5 A surgical procedure has an 85% chance of success and a doctor performs the procedure on 10 patients, find the following: a) The probability that
More informationSTAT 315: HOW TO CHOOSE A DISTRIBUTION FOR A RANDOM VARIABLE
STAT 315: HOW TO CHOOSE A DISTRIBUTION FOR A RANDOM VARIABLE TROY BUTLER 1. Random variables and distributions We are often presented with descriptions of problems involving some level of uncertainty about
More informationModels for Discrete Variables
Probability Models for Discrete Variables Our study of probability begins much as any data analysis does: What is the distribution of the data? Histograms, boxplots, percentiles, means, standard deviations
More informationLecture 10: Depicting Sampling Distributions of a Sample Proportion
Lecture 10: Depicting Sampling Distributions of a Sample Proportion Chapter 5: Probability and Sampling Distributions 2/10/12 Lecture 10 1 Sample Proportion 1 is assigned to population members having a
More informationMAS108 Probability I
1 QUEEN MARY UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 2:30 pm, Thursday 3 May, 2007 Duration: 2 hours MAS108 Probability I Do not start reading the question paper until you are instructed to by the invigilators. The paper
More informationExploratory Data Analysis
Exploratory Data Analysis Johannes Schauer johannes.schauer@tugraz.at Institute of Statistics Graz University of Technology Steyrergasse 17/IV, 8010 Graz www.statistics.tugraz.at February 12, 2008 Introduction
More information2 Binomial, Poisson, Normal Distribution
2 Binomial, Poisson, Normal Distribution Binomial Distribution ): We are interested in the number of times an event A occurs in n independent trials. In each trial the event A has the same probability
More informationTEACHER NOTES MATH NSPIRED
Math Objectives Students will understand that normal distributions can be used to approximate binomial distributions whenever both np and n(1 p) are sufficiently large. Students will understand that when
More informationChapter 5  Practice Problems 1
Chapter 5  Practice Problems 1 Identify the given random variable as being discrete or continuous. 1) The number of oil spills occurring off the Alaskan coast 1) A) Continuous B) Discrete 2) The ph level
More informationCHAPTER 6: Continuous Uniform Distribution: 6.1. Definition: The density function of the continuous random variable X on the interval [A, B] is.
Some Continuous Probability Distributions CHAPTER 6: Continuous Uniform Distribution: 6. Definition: The density function of the continuous random variable X on the interval [A, B] is B A A x B f(x; A,
More informationRandom variables, probability distributions, binomial random variable
Week 4 lecture notes. WEEK 4 page 1 Random variables, probability distributions, binomial random variable Eample 1 : Consider the eperiment of flipping a fair coin three times. The number of tails that
More informationAP STATISTICS 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES
2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Intent of Question The primary goals of this question were to (1) assess students ability to calculate an expected value and a standard deviation; (2) recognize the applicability
More informationBinomial Probability Distribution
Binomial Probability Distribution In a binomial setting, we can compute probabilities of certain outcomes. This used to be done with tables, but with graphing calculator technology, these problems are
More informationProbability Distributions
Learning Objectives Probability Distributions Section 1: How Can We Summarize Possible Outcomes and Their Probabilities? 1. Random variable 2. Probability distributions for discrete random variables 3.
More informationUnit 21: Binomial Distributions
Unit 21: Binomial Distributions Summary of Video In Unit 20, we learned that in the world of random phenomena, probability models provide us with a list of all possible outcomes and probabilities for how
More informationSection 53 Binomial Probability Distributions
Section 53 Binomial Probability Distributions Key Concept This section presents a basic definition of a binomial distribution along with notation, and methods for finding probability values. Binomial
More informationSHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
Math 1342 (Elementary Statistics) Test 2 Review SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Find the indicated probability. 1) If you flip a coin
More informationREPEATED TRIALS. The probability of winning those k chosen times and losing the other times is then p k q n k.
REPEATED TRIALS Suppose you toss a fair coin one time. Let E be the event that the coin lands heads. We know from basic counting that p(e) = 1 since n(e) = 1 and 2 n(s) = 2. Now suppose we play a game
More informationST 371 (IV): Discrete Random Variables
ST 371 (IV): Discrete Random Variables 1 Random Variables A random variable (rv) is a function that is defined on the sample space of the experiment and that assigns a numerical variable to each possible
More informationSummary of Formulas and Concepts. Descriptive Statistics (Ch. 14)
Summary of Formulas and Concepts Descriptive Statistics (Ch. 14) Definitions Population: The complete set of numerical information on a particular quantity in which an investigator is interested. We assume
More informationChapter 9 Monté Carlo Simulation
MGS 3100 Business Analysis Chapter 9 Monté Carlo What Is? A model/process used to duplicate or mimic the real system Types of Models Physical simulation Computer simulation When to Use (Computer) Models?
More information0 x = 0.30 x = 1.10 x = 3.05 x = 4.15 x = 6 0.4 x = 12. f(x) =
. A mailorder computer business has si telephone lines. Let X denote the number of lines in use at a specified time. Suppose the pmf of X is as given in the accompanying table. 0 2 3 4 5 6 p(.0.5.20.25.20.06.04
More informationm (t) = e nt m Y ( t) = e nt (pe t + q) n = (pe t e t + qe t ) n = (qe t + p) n
1. For a discrete random variable Y, prove that E[aY + b] = ae[y] + b and V(aY + b) = a 2 V(Y). Solution: E[aY + b] = E[aY] + E[b] = ae[y] + b where each step follows from a theorem on expected value from
More informationPROBABILITIES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Published in "Random Walks in Biology", 1983, Princeton University Press PROBABILITIES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Howard C. Berg Table of Contents PROBABILITIES PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS THE BINOMIAL
More informationChapter 5. Discrete Probability Distributions
Chapter 5. Discrete Probability Distributions Chapter Problem: Did Mendel s result from plant hybridization experiments contradicts his theory? 1. Mendel s theory says that when there are two inheritable
More information2. Discrete random variables
2. Discrete random variables Statistics and probability: 21 If the chance outcome of the experiment is a number, it is called a random variable. Discrete random variable: the possible outcomes can be
More informationExpected values, standard errors, Central Limit Theorem. Statistical inference
Expected values, standard errors, Central Limit Theorem FPP 1618 Statistical inference Up to this point we have focused primarily on exploratory statistical analysis We know dive into the realm of statistical
More informationCHAPTER 7 SECTION 5: RANDOM VARIABLES AND DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
CHAPTER 7 SECTION 5: RANDOM VARIABLES AND DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS TRUE/FALSE 235. The Poisson probability distribution is a continuous probability distribution. F 236. In a Poisson distribution,
More information6. Let X be a binomial random variable with distribution B(10, 0.6). What is the probability that X equals 8? A) (0.6) (0.4) B) 8! C) 45(0.6) (0.
Name: Date:. For each of the following scenarios, determine the appropriate distribution for the random variable X. A) A fair die is rolled seven times. Let X = the number of times we see an even number.
More informationThe normal approximation to the binomial
The normal approximation to the binomial In order for a continuous distribution (like the normal) to be used to approximate a discrete one (like the binomial), a continuity correction should be used. There
More informationQuestion: What is the probability that a fivecard poker hand contains a flush, that is, five cards of the same suit?
ECS20 Discrete Mathematics Quarter: Spring 2007 Instructor: John Steinberger Assistant: Sophie Engle (prepared by Sophie Engle) Homework 8 Hints Due Wednesday June 6 th 2007 Section 6.1 #16 What is the
More informationCharacteristics of Binomial Distributions
Lesson2 Characteristics of Binomial Distributions In the last lesson, you constructed several binomial distributions, observed their shapes, and estimated their means and standard deviations. In Investigation
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Ch. 4 Discrete Probability Distributions 4.1 Probability Distributions 1 Decide if a Random Variable is Discrete or Continuous 1) State whether the variable is discrete or continuous. The number of cups
More information6.2. Discrete Probability Distributions
6.2. Discrete Probability Distributions Discrete Uniform distribution (diskreetti tasajakauma) A random variable X follows the dicrete uniform distribution on the interval [a, a+1,..., b], if it may attain
More informationLecture 2: Discrete Distributions, Normal Distributions. Chapter 1
Lecture 2: Discrete Distributions, Normal Distributions Chapter 1 Reminders Course website: www. stat.purdue.edu/~xuanyaoh/stat350 Office Hour: Mon 3:304:30, Wed 45 Bring a calculator, and copy Tables
More informationNormal Distribution as an Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
Chapter 1 Student Lecture Notes 11 Normal Distribution as an Approximation to the Binomial Distribution : Goals ONE TWO THREE 2 Review Binomial Probability Distribution applies to a discrete random variable
More informationDISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES
DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLES Documents prepared for use in course B01.1305, New York University, Stern School of Business Definitions page 3 Discrete random variables are introduced
More informationAP Statistics 2013 FreeResponse Questions
AP Statistics 2013 FreeResponse Questions About the College Board The College Board is a missiondriven notforprofit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in
More informationProbability Distributions
CHAPTER 6 Probability Distributions Calculator Note 6A: Computing Expected Value, Variance, and Standard Deviation from a Probability Distribution Table Using Lists to Compute Expected Value, Variance,
More informationChapter 5 Discrete Probability Distribution. Learning objectives
Chapter 5 Discrete Probability Distribution Slide 1 Learning objectives 1. Understand random variables and probability distributions. 1.1. Distinguish discrete and continuous random variables. 2. Able
More informationProbability distributions
Probability distributions (Notes are heavily adapted from Harnett, Ch. 3; Hayes, sections 2.142.19; see also Hayes, Appendix B.) I. Random variables (in general) A. So far we have focused on single events,
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. C) (a) 2 (b) 1
Unit 2 Review Name Use the given frequency distribution to find the (a) class width. (b) class midpoints of the first class. (c) class boundaries of the first class. 1) Miles (per day) 12 9 34 22 56
More informationMath 150 Sample Exam #2
Problem 1. (16 points) TRUE or FALSE. a. 3 die are rolled, there are 1 possible outcomes. b. If two events are complementary, then they are mutually exclusive events. c. If A and B are two independent
More informationNormal distribution. ) 2 /2σ. 2π σ
Normal distribution The normal distribution is the most widely known and used of all distributions. Because the normal distribution approximates many natural phenomena so well, it has developed into a
More informationCopyright 2013 by Laura Schultz. All rights reserved. Page 1 of 6
Using Your TINSpire Calculator: Binomial Probability Distributions Dr. Laura Schultz Statistics I This handout describes how to use the binompdf and binomcdf commands to work with binomial probability
More informationPart I Learning about SPSS
STATS 1000 / STATS 1004 / STATS 1504 Statistical Practice 1 Practical Week 5 2015 Practical Outline In this practical, we will look at how to do binomial calculations in Excel. look at how to do normal
More informationHypothesis Testing COMP 245 STATISTICS. Dr N A Heard. 1 Hypothesis Testing 2 1.1 Introduction... 2 1.2 Error Rates and Power of a Test...
Hypothesis Testing COMP 45 STATISTICS Dr N A Heard Contents 1 Hypothesis Testing 1.1 Introduction........................................ 1. Error Rates and Power of a Test.............................
More informationWHERE DOES THE 10% CONDITION COME FROM?
1 WHERE DOES THE 10% CONDITION COME FROM? The text has mentioned The 10% Condition (at least) twice so far: p. 407 Bernoulli trials must be independent. If that assumption is violated, it is still okay
More informationPractice Problems #4
Practice Problems #4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR HOMEWORK 4 (1) Read section 2.5 of the text. (2) Solve the practice problems below. (3) Open Homework Assignment #4, solve the problems, and submit multiplechoice
More information, for x = 0, 1, 2, 3,... (4.1) (1 + 1/n) n = 2.71828... b x /x! = e b, x=0
Chapter 4 The Poisson Distribution 4.1 The Fish Distribution? The Poisson distribution is named after SimeonDenis Poisson (1781 1840). In addition, poisson is French for fish. In this chapter we will
More informationNormal Probability Distribution
Normal Probability Distribution The Normal Distribution functions: #1: normalpdf pdf = Probability Density Function This function returns the probability of a single value of the random variable x. Use
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
STATISTICS/GRACEY PRACTICE TEST/EXAM 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Identify the given random variable as being discrete or continuous.
More informationThe Big 50 Revision Guidelines for S1
The Big 50 Revision Guidelines for S1 If you can understand all of these you ll do very well 1. Know what is meant by a statistical model and the Modelling cycle of continuous refinement 2. Understand
More informationChapter 2, part 2. Petter Mostad
Chapter 2, part 2 Petter Mostad mostad@chalmers.se Parametrical families of probability distributions How can we solve the problem of learning about the population distribution from the sample? Usual procedure:
More information4.1 4.2 Probability Distribution for Discrete Random Variables
4.1 4.2 Probability Distribution for Discrete Random Variables Key concepts: discrete random variable, probability distribution, expected value, variance, and standard deviation of a discrete random variable.
More informationThe Math. P (x) = 5! = 1 2 3 4 5 = 120.
The Math Suppose there are n experiments, and the probability that someone gets the right answer on any given experiment is p. So in the first example above, n = 5 and p = 0.2. Let X be the number of correct
More informationnumber of favorable outcomes total number of outcomes number of times event E occurred number of times the experiment was performed.
12 Probability 12.1 Basic Concepts Start with some Definitions: Experiment: Any observation of measurement of a random phenomenon is an experiment. Outcomes: Any result of an experiment is called an outcome.
More informationStatistics I for QBIC. Contents and Objectives. Chapters 1 7. Revised: August 2013
Statistics I for QBIC Text Book: Biostatistics, 10 th edition, by Daniel & Cross Contents and Objectives Chapters 1 7 Revised: August 2013 Chapter 1: Nature of Statistics (sections 1.11.6) Objectives
More informationSampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion
Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion From earlier material remember that if X is the count of successes in a sample of n trials of a binomial random variable then the proportion of success is given
More informationChiSquare Test. Contingency Tables. Contingency Tables. ChiSquare Test for Independence. ChiSquare Tests for GoodnessofFit
ChiSquare Tests 15 Chapter ChiSquare Test for Independence ChiSquare Tests for Goodness Uniform Goodness Poisson Goodness Goodness Test ECDF Tests (Optional) McGrawHill/Irwin Copyright 2009 by The
More informationSample Questions for Mastery #5
Name: Class: Date: Sample Questions for Mastery #5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. For which of the following binomial experiments could
More informationChapter 15 Binomial Distribution Properties
Chapter 15 Binomial Distribution Properties Two possible outcomes (success and failure) A fixed number of experiments (trials) The probability of success, denoted by p, is the same on every trial The trials
More information5/31/2013. 6.1 Normal Distributions. Normal Distributions. Chapter 6. Distribution. The Normal Distribution. Outline. Objectives.
The Normal Distribution C H 6A P T E R The Normal Distribution Outline 6 1 6 2 Applications of the Normal Distribution 6 3 The Central Limit Theorem 6 4 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
More informationCHAPTER 5 THE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION AND RELATED TOPICS
CHAPTER 5 THE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION AND RELATED TOPICS THE BINOMIAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION (SECTIONS 5.1, 5.2 OF UNDERSTANDABLE STATISTICS) The binomial probability distribution is discussed in Chapter
More informationChapter 3 RANDOM VARIATE GENERATION
Chapter 3 RANDOM VARIATE GENERATION In order to do a Monte Carlo simulation either by hand or by computer, techniques must be developed for generating values of random variables having known distributions.
More informationLecture 14. Chapter 7: Probability. Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule 3: Nancy Pfenning Stats 1000
Lecture 4 Nancy Pfenning Stats 000 Chapter 7: Probability Last time we established some basic definitions and rules of probability: Rule : P (A C ) = P (A). Rule 2: In general, the probability of one event
More informationBINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
MODULE IV BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION A random variable X is said to follow binomial distribution with parameters n & p if P ( X ) = nc x p x q n x where x = 0, 1,2,3..n, p is the probability of success & q
More informationELEMENTARY PROBABILITY
ELEMENTARY PROBABILITY Events and event sets. Consider tossing a die. There are six possible outcomes, which we shall denote by elements of the set {A i ; i =1, 2,...,6}. A numerical value is assigned
More informationProbability and Statistics Vocabulary List (Definitions for Middle School Teachers)
Probability and Statistics Vocabulary List (Definitions for Middle School Teachers) B Bar graph a diagram representing the frequency distribution for nominal or discrete data. It consists of a sequence
More informationContinuous Random Variables. and Probability Distributions. Continuous Random Variables and Probability Distributions ( ) ( ) Chapter 4 4.
UCLA STAT 11 A Applied Probability & Statistics for Engineers Instructor: Ivo Dinov, Asst. Prof. In Statistics and Neurology Teaching Assistant: Neda Farzinnia, UCLA Statistics University of California,
More informationProbability Distributions
CHAPTER 5 Probability Distributions CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable 5.2 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution 5.3 The Binomial Distribution
More informationTHE MULTINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION. Throwing Dice and the Multinomial Distribution
THE MULTINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION Discrete distribution  The Outcomes Are Discrete. A generalization of the binomial distribution from only 2 outcomes to k outcomes. Typical Multinomial Outcomes: red A area1
More information