Chemistry Curriculum Guide for North Carolina - By Objective

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1 COMPETENCY GOAL 1: The learner will build an understanding of the structure and properties of matter. (27% of test items) 1.01 Summarize the development of current John Dalton's atomic theory. atomic theory. J. J. Thomson - discovery of the electron (2%) E. Rutherford gold foil experiment, nucleus R. A. Millikan - charge on the electron N. Bohr - Hydrogen spectrum and electron arrangement (No names will be tested) 1.02 Examine the nature of atomic structure: Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic mass Atomic number Electron configuration Energy levels Isotopes Apply the language and symbols of chemistry Properties of sub-atomic particles: relative mass, charge, and location in atom Symbols: A and Z, Principle quantum numbers; s, and p sublevels; Electron configuraton Orbitals notation using up/down arrows for opposite spin Valence electrons Lewis electron dot diagrams for atoms A 238 Isotope notation: Z E (ie. 92 U or U-238) Identify isotopes by mass and atomic number Binary nomenclature: Stock system for metal-nonmetal compounds and Greek prefix system for nonmetal-nonmetal compounds. Stock system for compounds with polyatomic ions. State symbols: (s), (l), (g) Name the 6 strong acids and acetic Arrows indicating reactions and equilibria. Quantum numbers: azimuthal, magnetic and spin Computation of energies and wavelengths in H spectrum. Organic nomenclature, functional groups and named reactions Identify substances using their physical properties: Melting points Boiling points Density Color Solubility Analyze and explain the nature and behavior of the atomic nucleus including radioactive isotopes and their practical application Identify substances using their physical properties. Students should be able to read and apply information from the reference tables. Characteristics of alpha, beta, gamma radiation: Relative masses, charges, symbols, penetrating ability; Shielding: air (alpha), metal (beta), and distance (qualitative use of inverse square law). Concepts of half-life, fission, and fusion. Uses: dating, cancer therapy, smoke detectors, imaging and production of energy decay equations inverse square law calculations 1

2 1.06 Analyze the basic assumptions of kinetic molecular theory and its applications: Ideal Gas Equation Combined Gas Law Graham s Law Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Assess the structure of compounds relating bonding and molecular geometry to chemical and physical properties; Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Metallic bonds. (3%) Chemistry Curriculum Guide for North Carolina - By Objective Five assumptions of KMT: calculations of KE or average speeds Avogadro's Law, PV=nRT, Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, P 1 V 1 /T 1 =P 2 V 2 /T 2, of molecules, Maxwell's distribution 1 mole of any gas at STP = 22.4 L calculate molecular weight from Differentiate between real and ideal gases (factors nor calculations) effusion of gases Graham's Law P t =P 1 +P ; collecting a gas over water and vapor pressure of water. Use Electronegativity general trend to predict nature of bond, ion formation and stable arrangements (i.e. inert gas structure) predict physical properties based on bonding (melting point etc.) Lewis structures including single, double, triple bonds VSEPR Theory: Geometry: linear, bent, trigonal planar and tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal. Polar / nonpolar bonds, polar / nonpolar molecules and solubility in polar or nonpolar solvents. ("like dissolves like"). Include intermolecular forces to explain polarity. Intermolecular forces: dipole, london dispersion, hydrogen bonding. resonance formal charge calculations Geometries: trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral. hybrid orbital theory molecular orbital theory COMPETENCY GOAL 2: The learner will build an understanding of regularities in chemistry. ( 35% of test items) 2.01 Analyze periodic nature of trends in Define family (group) and period. chemical properties and examine the use of the Periodic Table to predict properties of Location on Periodic Table (PT)- alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition elements; metals, rare earth metals, metalloids, halogens, inert gases. Also s, p, and d block Symbols. elements Groups(families) Periods. General trends of electronegativity, and ionization energy Transition elements. Use PT to predict chemical and physical properties as well as ionic charge Ionization energy. General trends in atomic and ionic radii, Atomic and ionic radii. Relate periodicity to electron configurations Electronegativity Students will always be allowed to have and use a PT Analyze the mole concept and Avogadro's number and use them to calculate: Mole to molecule Mass to moles Volume of a gas to moles Solution concentrations. Conversion factors using moles, mole-mole, mole-mass, mass-mass conversion problems 1 mole of any gas at STP = 22.4 L Molarity Limiting factors, theoretical and actual yields Gravimetric and volumetric analysis Determine empirical and molecular formulas normality % concentration Molality 2

3 2.03 Identify various types of chemical equations and balance those equations: Single replacement Double replacement Decomposition Synthesis Combustion. (7%) Use references table of reaction types to identify reaction types and predict products. Use activity series for single replacement reaction Use solubility table and/or solubility rules for double replacement reaction Write ionic and net ionic equations Arrhenius acid/base neutralization reactions 2.04 Calculate quantitative relationships in chemical reactions (stoichiometry) (7.5%) 2.05 Identify the indicators of chemical change: Formation of a precipitate Evolution of a gas Color change Absorption or release of heat Track the transfer of electrons in oxidation/reduction reactions and assign oxidation numbers: Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents Assess practical applications of oxidation and reduction reactions. stoichiometry mole-mole problems mass-mass problems mass-volume problems volume-volume problems gas laws and PV=nRT molarity Recognize occurrence of reaction based on indicators of change such as formation of precipitate, evolution of a gas, color change and/or energy changes. Use the solubility rules and activity series in reference materials to predict the outcome of reactions. Using PT and ion chart to assign oxidation state for each element in a compound. Show transfer of electrons by writing simple half reactions. Only simple metal/metallic ions will be tested. Identify the element or ion oxidized, element or ion reduced, oxidizing agent, and reducing agent. Know that redox reactions occur in batteries, combustion, corrosion, and electroplating Galvanic and electrolytic cells description COMPETENCY GOAL 3: The learner will build an understanding of energy changes in chemistry. (20% of test items) 3.01 Observe and interpret changes Hydrogen spectrum and Bohr model, electron transfer between "orbits" and relation (emission/absorption) in electron energies in to energy given off as light. Use reference table. the hydrogen atom including the quantized Use electromagnetic spectrum to relate wavelength and energy. Use equations only levels and their relationship to atomic spectra: as illustration of relationship between energy and wavelength. c= fλ, E=hf Electromagnetic radiation. Particle and wave nature of light Light. Redox equation balancing primary vs secondary cells. Voltage calculations No calculation of wavelength between two Bohr orbits 3

4 3.013 Photons. (3%) 3.02 Analyze the law of conservation of energy, energy transformation, and various forms of energy involved in chemical reactions. Connect to calorimetry, calculations of heat based on temperature change of a quantity of water (q=mc T), definitions of enthalpy, exothermic, endothermic, heats of reaction and stoichiometry Energy vs pathway diagram showing energy of reactants, energy of products, enthalpy change, activation energy for exothermic and endothermic reactions. Heating and cooling curves. Phases Diagrams Hess's law, enthalpy calculations, heats of formation 3.03 Compare and contrast the nature of heat and temperature Analyze calorimetric measurement in simple systems and the energy involved in changes in state Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and disorder in the universe: Nuclear Fossil fuels, Solar, Alternative sources ((2%) Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of molecules Heat as q=mc T, energy transfers from hot object to cold object Specific heat - water given in reference tables if others are needed they will be given in the problem. Calorimetry applications Heating curve for ice and r water showing plateaus at phase changes, include heat of fusion, vaporization for water. General knowledge of how a nuclear reactor works. Describe energy sources and the pros/cons of each energy source Definition of entropy and its implications. Calculations of entropy, enthalpy or Gibbs free energy COMPETENCY GOAL 4: The learner will build an understanding of equilibrium and kinetics. (18% of test items) 4.01 Explain the dynamics of physical and ice/water and water/vapor equilibrium, chemical equilibria: Some reactions don't go to completion, and an equilibrium is established. Write Phase changes. equilibrium express but no calculations. Predict shifts in direction Forward and reversible reactions. Phase diagrams (3%) 4.02 Explain the factors that alter the equilibrium in a chemical reaction. Le Chatelier's Principle - concentration, pressure, temperature Use the terms "shift to the right, shift to the left" or make more produce, make more reactant to describe changes Equilibrium expression as it relates to weak and strong acids but no calculations Equilibrium expressions or calculations triple point Equilibrium expressions or calculations 4.03 Assess reaction rates and factors that affect reaction rates. Rate as change in concentration (or pressure) as function of time. Factors affecting rate: concentration, pressure, temperature, presence of a catalyst (lowers activation energy) Reaction order, time/concentration equations. Reaction mechanisms or rate determining steps 4

5 4.04 Compare and contrast the nature, behavior, concentration, and strength of acids and bases: Acid-base neutralization Degree of dissociation or ionization Electrical conductivity ph. Properties of acids and bases; Strength vs concentration; strength of weak acids and bases - partial dissociation. Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowery theories Acid/base titration and stoichiometry. (nmv = nmv) Weak Vs strong acids ph scale and calculations with ph=-log[h + ], poh=-log[oh - ], ph + poh = 14, [OH]= 10 -poh [H + ]=10 -ph Buffer systems (qualitative discussion only) acid -base equilibria equations Lewis theory K a and K b calculations Buffer calculations 5

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