Boyle s law - For calculating changes in pressure or volume: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2. Charles law - For calculating temperature or volume changes: V 1 T 1

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1 Common Equations Used in Chemistry Equation for density: d= m v Converting F to C: C = ( F - 32) x 5 9 Converting C to F: F = C x Converting C to K: K = ( C ) n x molar mass of element Percent composition of an element = molar mass of compound x 100% - where n = the number of moles of the element in one mole of the compound % yield = molarity (M) = actual yield theoretical yield x 100% moles of solute liters of solution Dilution of Solution: M i V i = M f V f Boyle s law - Constant T and n: PV = k Boyle s law - For calculating changes in pressure or volume: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Charles law - Constant P and n: V T = k Charles law - For calculating temperature or volume changes: V 1 T 1 = V 2 T 2 Avogadro s law - Constant P and T: V = kn Ideal Gas equation: PV = nrt Calculation of changes in pressure, temperature, or volume of gas when n is constant: P 1 V 1 T = P 2V 2 1 T 2

2 Calculation of density or molar mass of gas: d = PM RT Dalton s law of partial pressures - for calculating partial pressures: P i = X i P T Root-mean-square speed of gas molecules: urms = ( 3RT M )0.5 Van der waals equation; for calculating the pressure of a nonideal gas: (P + an 2 V 2 ) (V - nb) = nrt Definition of heat capacity, where s is specific heat: C = ms Calculation of heat change in terms of specific heat : q = ms t Calculation of heat change in terms of heat capacity: q = C t Electrical force: F el = k q 1q 2 r 2 Potential energy: V = k q 1q 2 r Calculation of standard enthalpy of reaction: H rxn = n H f (products) - m H f (reactants) [where n and m are coefficients in equation] Mathematical statement of the first law of thermodynamics: E = q + w Work done in gas expansion or compression: w = - P V Definition of enthalpy: H = E + PV Enthalpy (or energy) change for a constant-pressure process: H = E +P V Enthalpy (or energy) change for a constant-pressure process: E = H - RT n, where n is the change in the number of moles of gas. Relationship of wavelength and frequency: u = λν Energy of a photon: E = hν

3 Energy of an electron in the nth state in a hydrogen atom: En = -RH( 1 n 2 ), where R H = Rydberg constant = 2.18 x J Energy of a photon emitted as the electron undergoes a transition from the ni level to the nf level: E = hν = RH ( 1 n i 2-1 n f 2 ), where R H = Rydberg constant = 2.18 x J DeBroglie Relationship of wavelength of a particle to its mass m and velocity h v: λ = mv Uncertainty in the position (x) or in the momentum (p) of a particle: x p h 4π Formal charge on an atom in a Lewis structure = total number of valence electrons in the free atom - total number of nonbonding electrons (total number of bonding electrons) Enthalpy change of a reaction from bond energies: H = BE (reactants) - BE (products) Dipole moment in terms of charge (Q) and distance of separation (r) between charges: µ = Q x r Bond order = Error! Bragg equation for calculating the distance between planes of atoms in a crystal lattice: 2d sin θ = νλ Clasius-Clapeyron equation for determining Hvap of a liquid: ln P = - H vap RT + C Calculation of H vap, vapor pressure, or boiling point of a liquid: ln P 1 P = H vap 2 R ( T 1 - T 2 T 1 T ) 2

4 Entropy change of heat flow at constant temperature: S = q T Calculating the molality of a solution: molality (m) = Henry s law for calculating solubility (c) of gases: c = kp moles of solute 1000 g solvent Raoult s law relating the vapor pressure of a liquid to its vapor pressure in a solution: P 1 = X 1 P 1 Vapor pressure lowering in terms of the concentration of solution: P = X 2 P 1 Boiling point elevation: T b = K b m Freezing point depression: T f = K f m Osmotic pressure of a solution: π = MRT The van t Hoff factor for an electrolyte solution: actual number of particles in soln after dissociation i = number of formula units initially dissoved in soln Rate law expression. The sum (x+ y) gives the overall order of the reaction: rate = k[a] x [B] y Relationship between concentration and time for a first-order reaction: ln [A]o [A] = kt Equation for the graphical determination of k for a first-order reaction: ln [A] = -kt + ln [A]o Half-life for a first-order reaction: t 1/2 = ln 2 k = k Relationship between concentration and time for a second-order reaction: = 1 [A]o + kt 1 [A]

5 The Arrhenius equation expressing the dependence of the rate constant on activation energy and temperature: k = Ae -E a /RT Equation for the graphical determination of activation energy: ln k = (- E a R ) ( 1 T ) + ln A Relationships of rate constants at two different temperatures: ln k 1 k = 2 E a R ( T 1 - T 2 T 1 T ) 2 Law of Mass Action - General expression of equilibrium constant: K = [C]c [D] d Relationship between K p and K c : K p = K c (0.0821*T) n [A] a [B] b The equilibrium constant for the overall reaction is given by the product of the equilibrium constants for the individual reactions: K c = K c K c Ion-product constant of water: Kw = [H + ][OH - ] Definition of ph of a solution: ph = -log [H + ] Definition of poh of a solution: poh = -log [OH - ] Another form of ion-product constant of water: ph + poh = Percent ionization = ionized acid concentration at equilibrium initial concentration of acid x 100% Relationship between the acid and base ionization constants of a conjugate acid-base pair: K a K b = K w Henderson-Hasselbach equation: ph = pk a + log [conjugate base] [acid] The second law of thermodynamics (spontaneous process): S univ = S sys + S surr > 0 The second law of thermodynamics (equilibrium process): S univ = S sys + S surr = 0

6 Standard entropy change of a reaction: S rxn = ns (products) - ms (reactants), where n and m are coeffecients in the equation Free-energy change at constant temperature: G = H -T S Standard free-energy change of a reaction: G rxn = n G f (products) - m G f (reactants), where n and m are coefficients in the equation Relationship between free-energy change and standard free-energy change and reaction quotient: G = G + RT ln Q Relationship between standard free-energy change and the equilibrium constant: G = -RT ln K Standard emf of an electrochemical cell: E cell = E ox - E red = E cathode - E anode Standard free energy change: G = -nfe cell, where F is the Faraday constant Relationship of the standard emf of the cell to the equilibrium constant: E cell = RT nf ln K The Nernst equation - For calculating the emf of a cell under non-standard conditions: E = E - RT nf ln Q Relationship between mass defect and energy released: E = ( m)c 2

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