Chemistry 105, Chapter 7 Exercises

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1 hemistry 15, hapter 7 Exercises Types of Bonds 1. Using the periodic table classify the bonds in the following compounds as ionic or covalent. If covalent, classify the bond as polar or not. Mg2 4 i2 a(3)2 2 a Ionic ompounds 2. omplete and balance the following combination reactions showing the formation of an ionic compound. a. a + I2 b. Mg + I2 c. e + 2 (for the product iron is +3) d. a + 2 e. e + (for the product iron is +3) f. Rb + 2 Lewis tructures 3. Write the Lewis structures for the following molecules and polyatomic ions. Unless otherwise noted, the first atom is the central atom. a. 3 i. Xe2 b. l4 j. I2 - c. 2 + k. Xe22 d. l2 l. B3 e. - ( is the central atom) m. e6 f. n. Il4 - g. + ( is the central atom) o. 4 h Draw Lewis structures (show all e- pairs) for the following species. The skeleton structure is shown. Multiple bonds may exist between bonded atoms. l l

2 5. or the following compounds the correct number of bonds is shown. upply the lone pairs of electrons. l 6. Draw resonance structures for the following. 2l ( is the central atom. The s and l are bonded directly to ) (This is also the skeleton structure.) 2 - ( is the central atom. The s and the are bonded directly to the.) ormal harges 7. Assign formal charges to each element in the following compounds. l l l 8. or the following two resonance structures assign formal charges and decide which is the most likely structure. 9. or the following two resonance structures assign formal charges and decide which is the most likely structure. You must first supply the lone pairs of electrons.

3 ybridization, Molecular Geometry, Molecular Polarity, igma and Pi Bonds 1. If the following atomic orbitals overlap, what type of hybrid orbital forms? What is the bond angle separating these? a. an s and one p orbital b. an s and three p orbitals c. an s and two p orbitals 11. or the following compounds and ions: a. write the electron dot structure b. draw the D representation of the 3-D shape c. give the molecular geometry d. give the bond angle around the central atom e. indicate if the molecule is polar f. give the hybridization for each atom (except where indicated not to) ( is the central atom) l2 - I2 - (skip hybridization) 6 (skip hybridization) 3-3 Rn4 (skip hybridization) Pl5 (skip hybridization) 2l ( is the central atom, all atoms are bonded to ) B3 22 ( is the central atom) 4 (skip hybridization) how the charge distribution in the following and indicate which molecules are polar. l l l l l l 13. Give the hybridization for each atom (except ) in the following organic solvent. Unshared electrons are not shown. ow many sigma and pi bonds are there? Give the hybridization for the nitrogens and oxygens in the following. Unshared electrons are not shown. ow many sigma and pi bonds are there in each? l 15. Give the hybridization for the carbons and oxygens in the following. Unshared electrons are not shown. ow many sigma and pi bonds are there in each? 3 l

4 hapter 7, Answers to Exercises 1. Mg2 ionic 4 polar covalent i2 polar covalent a3 ionic between the a 2+ and the 3 but polar covalent between and polar covalent 2 nonpolar covalent nonpolar polar polar nonpolar polar a polar ionic 2. a. 2a + I2 2aI b. Mg + I2 MgI2 c. 4e e23 d. 3a + 2 a32 e. 2e + 3 e23 f. 6Rb + 2 2Rb3 3. B l l l l e l Xe l l I l l l - I Xe 4. l l

5 5. l 6. l l l 7. l l l

6 most likely most likely 1. a. an s and one p orbital: sp hybrid orbital, 18 o b. an s and three p: sp 3, 19.5 o c. an s and two p: sp 2, 12 o 11. linear, 18 o, polar molecule, sp 2, sp, sp 2 I linear, 18 o, nonpolar - trigonal planar, 12 o, nonpolar, sp 2, = sp 2, - sp 3 Rn square planar, 9 o, nonpolar l trigonal pyramid, ~19.5 o, polar, sp 3, l sp 3 tetrahedral, 19.5 o, polar, sp 3, sp 3

7 linear, 18 o, polar, sp, sp 2, sp 2 l - bent, ~19.5 o, polar, l sp 3, sp 3 octahedral, 9 o, nonpolar trigonal planar, 12 o, nonpolar, sp 2, = sp 2, - sp 3 l l l P l l trigonal bipyramid, 9 o and 12 o, nonpolar B trigonal planar, 12 o, nonpolar, sp 3, B sp 2 square planar, 9 o, nonpolar 12. l l l l l l polar nonpolar polar nonpolar polar 13. Both 3 s are sp 3, the central is sp 2, is sp 2. There are 9 sigma bonds and 1 pi bond.

8 14. l - sp 3 sp 3 sp sp = sp 2 3σ 2π 1σ sp 3 sp 2 2π 2σ 3σ 1π l sp 3 sp 2 sp 2 sp 2 4σ sp - sp 3 - sp 3 2σ 2π = sp 2 = sp 2 3σ 1π 4σ 1π

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