AAHS-CHEMISTRY FINAL EXAM PREP-REVIEW GUIDE MAY-JUNE 2014 DR. GRAY CLASS OF 2016

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1 AAHS-CHEMISTRY FINAL EXAM PREP-REVIEW GUIDE MAY-JUNE 2014 DR. GRAY CLASS OF 2016 UNIT I: (CHAPTER 1-Zumdahl text) The Nature of Science and Chemistry 1. Explain why knowledge of chemistry is central to many human activities. 2. Explain the organization of matter into pure substances and mixtures. 3. Know the various types of mixtures and the characteristics of each type. 4. Identify and utilize SI units of measurement 5. Compute significance in measurements and calculations. 6. Be familiar with the temperature scales and be able to convert units from one scale to another. 7. Demonstrate an understanding of dimensional analysis, conversion factors and manipulation of equations and describe their use in solving chemistry problems. 8. List and describe the basic safety rules that must be followed when working in the chemistry laboratory. 9. Know some of the basic differences between the metals, metalloids, and non-metals 10. Know the special features and qualities of the noble gases. 9. Name and describe the states of matter and energy. 10. Explain the law of conservation of matter and energy. 11. Recognize the difference between a pure substance and a mixture. 12. Recognize the difference between an element and a compound. 13. Know the definition of solubility and be able to interpret results from a given problem. II. UNIT II: (Chapter 2-Zumdahl) The Structure of Matter (PART 1) 1. Be familiar with the atom and its historical development. 2. Know the relationship of atomic structure to electricity and radioactivity. 3. Know the importance of Thomson, Rutherford, Millikin, and Curie in the development of modern atomic theory. 4. Describe the experiments which each of the previously mentioned scientists conducted to the elaboration of the modern view of atomic structure. 5. The Rutherford-Bohr model and quantum mechanical model of the atom. 6. Describe the major sub-atomic particles and their characteristics using the nuclear model of the atom. 7. Describe the Electromagnetic Spectrum and identify parts of a wave. 1

2 III. UNIT III: (Chapters 7-The Structure of Matter (PART 2) 1. Locate electrons around a nucleus using quantum numbers 2. Utilize the modern theory of atomic structure and the quantum mechanical model of atoms and their quantum numbers to determine 3. Be familiar with periodicity and the trends of the periodic table, particularly as it relates to modern atomic theory. 4. Identify an element on the Periodic Table based on its electron configuration or orbital diagram. 5. Know the groups of the periodic table by their special names and the special characteristics of each of the chemical groups. 5 Know the electromagnetic spectrum. Know the layout of the spectrum and the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy. Be able to calculate the energy of a photon in kj per mole. 6. Know the Bohr model of the atom. 7. Know the quantum mechanical model of the atom. 8. Be able to compare the characteristics and qualities of the quantum mechanical model of the atom to the Bohr model of the atom. 9. Be familiar with the importance of each of the quantum numbers of the atom. 10. Being provided a set of values for a grouping of quantum number be able to describe the electrons associated with a particular level, sublevel, or orbital. 11. Know the periodic trends of the table. Know how the periodic trends are related to the subatomic particles-particular the effect which the electron has on each of these periodic trends. 12. Know the rules for the filling of shells and subshells for the placement of an electron within any given period or group in the periodic table. 13. Know the special features/qualities of the lanthanides and the actinides. 14. Know about the contributions of Seaborg, Mendeleev, and Lewis in the development and organization of the modern periodic table and valance designation. 15. Know how electrons gain and release energy as they move to an energy level of greater energy or less. PLEASE 2

3 III. UNIT IV-CHEMICAL BONDING (CHAPTER 8-MASTERTON TEXT): 1. Terms associated with chemical bonding. 2. Differences between ionic, polar and covalent bonds. 3. Names for ionic compounds based on their charges. 4. Know how to construct a Lewis structure for a given molecule, compound, or ionic specie. 5. Discuss the relationship between chemical bonding, chemical behavior and molecular architecture. 6. Describe the phenomenon of molecular resonance. 7. Predict the behavior of simple molecules based on electron distribution. 8. Name covalent and ionic compounds 10. Be able to recognize and name the various types of polyatomic ions, oxyanions, and oxoacids. 11. Be able to provide the chemical name of a molecule or compound or the molecular structure of a desired chemically named specie. 12. Be able to describe and detail the difference between an ionic compound and a binary compound. 13. Know the rules for naming the various classes of compounds. 14. Know the atoms which do not apply to the octet rule and know the octet rule. 15. Know molecular geometry types and species types if you are provided the molecular formula or chemical name of given chemical specie. UNIT 4- (CHAPTER 3 OF ZUMDAHL) STOICHIOMETRY- 1. Define a mole and discuss its importance. 2. Calculate molar mass, number of moles and weight of a sample. 3. Given the amount in moles of a particular reactant or product of a chemical reaction, be able to determine the number of atoms of a given element or sub-atomic entities. 4. Balance a chemical equation. 5. Construct a chemical equation with chemical symbols from a word description of the reaction. 6. Calculate percentage composition. 7. Find empirical and molecular formulas. 8. Calculate the percentage yield of product for a given chemical reaction. 9. Identify and solve different types of stoichiometry problems, percent yield and limiting reagents. 3

4 UNIT 7 (CHAPTER 6 OF ZUMDAHL)-THERMOCHEMISTRY- 1. Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions. 2. Define the terms associated with heat, enthalpy and calorimetry. 3. State the difference between specific heat of a substance and molar heat of a substance. 4. Explain the difference between the standard enthalpy of formation of a substance and the standard enthalpy of reaction for a substance. 5. State Hess Law and calculate calories and heats of reaction. 6. Know how the different types of calorimeters operate and how to solve problems with each of them. 7. Understand the difference between a state function and a path function. 8. Understand the concept concerning a system and an environment. 9. Know all of the units and equations concerning thermochemistry. 10. Know the rules of enthalpy and how they apply to the solution method of a given enthalpy problem. UNIT 8-CHAPTERS 5, 10, AND 11) -THE CHEMISTRY OF GASES/SOLUTION CHEMISTRY- 1. Describe the behavior of gases, liquids and solids in light of the kinetic molecular theory. 2. Describe the different types of intermolecular forces and account for the structure of substances in light of those forces. 3. State and apply the laws that govern the behavior of gases. 4. Explain the difference between Boyle s law, Charles law, Avogadro s law, and the ideal gas equation. 5. Explain Dalton s law of partial pressures and relate it to the gas laws. 6. Utilize the graphing calculator and solve problems using the gas laws. 7. Explain the kinetic theory of gases. 8. Explain the idea of standard temperature and pressure and their relation to the solution of gas law problems. 9. List and describe the properties of solutions and identify the different types of solutions. 10. Define those terms associated with solutions. 11. Describe those factors which affect the rate of solubility. 12. Calculate the concentration of solutions in terms of molarity and molality and colligative properties. 4

5 13. Be able to define and recognize a reversible reaction. 14. Write ionic equations and net ionic equations. 15. Describe the organization of ph and poh scales. 16. Name acid and bases. Be able to recognize and describe strong v. weak acids and bases. Understand what happens when a strong acid or base is introduced into aqueous solution. 17. Understand the concept and use of conjugate acid-base pairs in the construction and description of chemical reactions between strong acids/bases and weak acids/bases. ****IMPORTANT PREPERATION POINTS: Please be prepared to apply your knowledge of each of the Chemistry units concepts and definitions to questions which will challenge your ability to understand these concepts and apply them to given situations. You should be able to perform calculations in stoichiometry involving each of the problem types we have covered (from mole/mass relationships to empirical formula determinations). Carefully review all of the example problems and understand why various mathematical formulas are used with certain reactants and products from a balanced chemical equation. You should be able to apply the concepts from the thermochemistry unit to calorimetry, heats of reaction, Hess law, and general enthalpy problems. Be sure that you are aware of the units used in enthalpy problems vs. standard enthalpy of formation problems (heats of reaction determination) Continue to carefully review all of your gas law Chemistry and the important associated concepts. Please don t forget the concepts and definitions related to solution Chemistry as well (molarity, molality, colligative properties, ph, strong/weak acids, strong/weak bases). As you continue to review your notes, starter activities, HW problem sets, and reading notes, please try to continually make the important connections between units. Start with trying to balance a chemical equation from a sentence format, and then work with mass/mole relationships, then use the moles in the ideal gas law, then think of the properties that a given gas would have according to solutions and the kinetic theory of gases. This is the integrated approach which you need to be using to really understand and be successful with Chem., or any science material. 5

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