AP Chemistry Semester One Study Guide

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1 AP Chemistry Semester One Study Guide Unit One: General Chemistry Review Unit Two: Organic Nomenclature Unit Three: Reactions Unit Four: Thermochemistry Unit Five: Electronic Structure of the Atom Unit Six: Bonding Unit Seven: Solids, Liquids and Gases Mr. Gray Rockwood Summit High School

2 The Real A.P. Chem Test Vs. The Semester 1 Final The Real AP Chem Test The AP Chem Semester 2 Final 1. Exam time is 195 minutes 1. Exam time is 110 minutes 2. Section I is 90 minutes 60 MC questions 50% of test grade no calculators periodic table provided equation sheet provided 2. Section I is 55 minutes 36 MC questions 50% of test grade no calculators periodic table provided equation sheet provided 3. Section II is 105 minutes 7 FR questions (3 multi-part, 4 single part) 50% of test grade Focuses on engaging students in: experimental design, analysis of authentic lab data and observations to identify patterns or explain phenomena, creating or analyzing atomic and molecular views to explain observations, articulating and then translation between representations, and following a logical / analytical pathway to solve a problem. 3. Section II is 55 minutes 4 FR questions (2 multi-part, 2 single part) 50% of test grade Focuses on major topics such as atomic and molecular structure, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, bonding, gases and solutions. Emphasis on data analysis and relation to your lab experiences will be incorporated wherever possible. Calculators allowed Periodic table provided Equation sheet provided Calculators allowed Periodic table provided Equation sheet provided 2

3 The Composition of Your Semester 1 Final Exam Unit Questions on Final Topics 1. Math a. Scientific notation, significant figures and dimensional analysis 1. General Chemistry Review The Atom a. Structure of the atom b. a X z notation, ions, isotopes, c. how to calculate atomic mass d. Mass spectroscopy 3. Nomenclature a. Ionic, covalent, hydrate, and acids 4. Stoichiometry a. Be fluent with the ENTIRE mole map (especially gases and liquids) b. Problems: limiting reactants, percent yields, titrations, determining concentration of any species in solution, percent composition, obtaining empirical and/or molecular formulas from given data 2. Organic Nomenclature 1 5. Nomenclature a. Hydrocarbon chains and functional groups b. isomers 3. Reactions 7 6. Reactions a. Know all reaction types on green sheet b. Net ionic reactions and solubility rules c. Know oxidation rules, how to identify redox reactions and how to balance redox reaction using half reaction method; know what an activity series is and how to read/use it d. Know the 7 strong acids and 9 strong bases (because they are ions in solution) 3

4 4. Thermochemistry 1 7. Thermochemistry a. Know the 1 st Law of Thermodynamics b. Draw and interpret enthalpy diagrams for exo-/endo- thermic reactions c. Calculate enthalpy by: energy diagrams, thermochemical equations (using dimensional analysis), calorimetry, Hess Law, Enthalpies of formation (data tables), bond enthalpies d. Know how to calculate specific heat and heat capacity e. Problems: calorimetry of acid/base, hot metal dropped in cool liquid 5. Electronic Structure of the Atom 4 8. Electronic Structure of the Atom a. Know something about the research of Bohr, Rutherford, Millikan and others b. Basic wave calculations, parts and sequence of electromagnetic spectrum c. Explanation of line spectra, Planck s formula for quantizing energy (also Einstein s energy of electron), Bohr model of atom d. Calculate transition energy in Hydrogen e. Quantum numbers, orbital diagrams, electron configurations and how they correspond to periodic table (Aufbau, Hund's, Pauli rules), PES 9. Periodic Table a. Trends (atomic radii, ion size, electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, metallic character) 6. Bonding Bonding a. Ionic, covalent, metallic, lattice energy, coordinate covalent, characteristics of multiple covalent bonds, bond polarity (based on electronegativity) b. Lewis structures, formal charges, resonance, octet rule and exceptions c. VSEPR Theory (molecular shapes), and Valence Bond Theory (hybridization), molecular polarity, MO Theory 4

5 11. IMF a. Strengths of intermolecular forces and how they relate to properties (b.p, m.p., surface tension, viscosity, vapor pressure, etc) b. Rank substances in order of their melting or boiling points c. Enthalpy of phase changes and graphs d. Vapor pressure curves, cooling curves, solubility curves and phase diagrams 7. Solids, Liquids, Gases Gases a. All gas laws, especially Ideal, Dalton, Graham s and Avogadro s b. Use Ideal gas law to solve for molar mass and density c. Kinetic Molecular Theory d. Ideal vs. Non ideal gas 13. Solutions a. Factors that affect solubility of solids, liquids and gases b. Units of concentration (molarity, molality, mole fraction, percent mass,etc.) 8. Labs Concepts from any lab we have performed in General, Honors, or AP Chemistry could appear in any question. a. Be familiar with proper lab and safety techniques, common errors and outcomes of all labs we did (volumetric glassware, aspirin/gravimetric analysis, emp/mol formulas, calorimetry/heat of neutralization, chromatography, spectrophotometry/beer's law, bonding types, etc.) 5

6 Things You Should Have Memorized 1. Element names and symbols 2. Polyatomic ion names, formulas, and charges 3. All Reaction types 4. Solubility rules of nitrates, acetates, ammonium salts and group I metal salts 5. All VSEPR shapes and angles 6. Mole map 7. Organic functional groups (names and general formula for identification) 8. Organic hydrocarbon chain prefixes (meth, eth, prop, but, etc.) 9. Prefixes for covalent nomenclature (mono, di, tri, tetra, etc.) Strong acid names and formulas Strong base names and formulas 12. Parts of the EMS in order from low to high energy 13. Every type of IMF and their relative strengths 14. Periodic Trends 15. Colors of common flame tests and precipitates Calculations You Should Know How To Do (from Collegeboard) 1. Percentage composition 2. Empirical and molecular formulas from experimental data 3. Molar masses from gas density, freezing point, and boiling point measurements 4. Gas laws, including the ideal gas law, Dalton s law, and Graham s law 5. Stoichiometric relations using the concept of the mole; titration calculations 6. Molarity of solutions 7. Thermodynamic and thermochemical calculations (enthalpy, calorimetry, specific heat) 6

7 Descriptive / Qualitative Chemistry You Should Know Flame Test Colors ION Li +, Sr 2+, Ca 2+ Na + K + Ba 2+ Cu 2+ Mg 2+ FLAME COLOR Red Yellow/orange Purple Green Blue-Green White Other Colors to Know Fluorine gas Chlorine gas NO 2 gas Br 2 liquid Iodine solid Yellow/green Green brown Orange/brown Purple Colors of Transition Metals (in solution) Sc Colorless Ti Violet Colorless V Violet Green Blue Yellow Cr Blue Green Yellow/orange Mn Pink brown Dk. Green Purple Fe Green Yellow/brown Co Pink Orange/yellow Ni Green Cu Colorless Blue Zn colorless Colors of Precipitates White Blue Yellow Black Green Red/brown AgCl Many with Cu 2+ AgI Many sulfides Many with Fe 2+ Many with Fe 3+ BaSO 4 PbI 2 PbCl 2 Many nontransition metal hydroxides, carbonates and sulfates 7

8 VSEPR Shapes to Memorize 8

9 9

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