Chapter 24 Section 1 Latin American Peoples Win Independence

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1 Chapter 24 Section 1 Latin American Peoples Win Independence People in Latin America use Enlightenment ideas and discontent to rebel. Revolution in Haiti The Fight for Freedom o Toussaint L Ouverture emerges to lead 100,000 slaves in revolt o Moves into the Spanish half of island frees slaves there o Halts revolution when France agrees to end slavery o French accuse him of planning another uprising he is sent to prison in France and dies o Jean-Jaques Dessalines continues the fight declares Haiti free Latin America Sweeps to Freedom Social System o Only peninsulares could hold high office o Creoles and peninsulares held the wealth and power in the colonies Creoles Spearhead Independence o Creoles were the least oppressed and best educated Latin Americans o Many were educated in Europe where they learned and adopted Enlightenment ideas and brought them back to Latin America o Creoles also felt Spain had treated them unfairly European Events Trigger Latin American Revolutions o Napoleon conquers Spain and makes his brother the new king Creoles felt no loyalty to a king placed there by France By the time Napoleon is defeated, revolutions are already underway. They would continue to victory, even when the Spanish king is restored The Libertadores End Spanish Rule o Bolivar s Route to Victory Simon Bolivar leads Venezuela to independence Marches through Colombia to attack moves into Ecuador

2 o San Martin Triumphs and Withdraws Led Argentina to independence Marches over Andes to free Chile, meets Bolivar in Ecuador Bolivar defeats Spanish in Peru with unified army Spanish colonies in Latin America are now free Mexico Ends Spanish Rule Cry for Freedom o Priest Miguel Hidalgo calls for independence (grito de Dolores) o He is defeated by the Spanish and creole army o Jose Maria Morelos takes over is defeated by Iturbide o Iturbide makes himself emperor, declares independence from Spain o Iturbide is overthrown in 1821 United Provinces of Central America declares independence from Mexico Brazil s Royal Liberator Portuguese Royal Family in Brazil o As Napoleon took over Europe, the Portuguese Royal Family fled to Brazil, ruling the Portuguese empire from there o After Napoleon s defeat, Brazil was to become a colony again Brazilians petitioned the king s son to declare independence He agrees, and Brazil is freed through a bloodless revolution Key Concepts: Spanish colonial social system keeps power in the hands of a few people Creoles use Enlightenment ideas to spark independence movements Napoleon s actions in Europe help foster independence movements Simon Bolivar defeats Spanish in Peru, freeing Spanish colonies in America Native Americans and Mestizos rebel against Spain in Mexico, with creoles eventually taking control and winning freedom L Ouverture and Dessalines free slaves on Haiti and win independence

3 Chapter 24 Section 3 Case Studies: Italy and Germany The Ideal of Nationalism Bonds that create a nation-state o Nationality belief in a common ancestry o Language different dialects of one language one is official o Culture a shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, etc.) o History a common past, common experiences o Religion - shared by all or most of the people o Territory a certain territory that belongs to the group its land Cavour Unites Italy The Movement for Unity Begins o Giuseppe Mazzini (the heart) starts Young Italy no one over 40 Rebellions fail Mazzini forced into exile Sardinia Leads Italian Unification o Camillo di Cavour (the brain) uses diplomacy and cunning to expand Sardinia s territory and power Uses France to gain control of northern lands from Austria Cavour Looks South o Giuseppe Garibaldi (the sword) and his Red Shirts gained control of Sicily and then moved into southern Italy o Voters gave him permission to unite with the North o Cavour arranged to have his king rule a united Italy Challenges After Unification o Centuries of separation had made provinces fierce rivals o Industrialized north vs. agricultural south o Barely understood each other s dialects o Government changed frequently political instability

4 The Rise of Prussia Prussia Leads German Unification o Wilhelm I wanted to reform parliament would not grant money o Otto von Bismarck appointed as PM to help with the problem Used realpolitik politics of reality no room for idealism Announced his intention to rule without parliament s consent and without a legal budget This went against the constitution Blood and Iron speech given - Prussia would not succeed through talk, negotiations and majority decisions. Success only comes through blood (war) and iron (weapons and industrial capacity). Militarism. Germany Expands o Bismark used neighbors to achieve his goals Teamed with Austria to start a fight with Denmark Won two provinces from Denmark split with Austria Germany Eliminates Austria o Bismark created border conflicts to start a war with Austria Austria lost land to Italy and Prussia Franco-Prussian War o Bismark wanted the German states in the south to join Prussia o Bismark published an altered telegram to incite the French o France declares war on Prussia o Prussia defeats France, nationalism sweeps the south, they join o Germany is now unified The Balance of Power Shifts The Congress of Vienna created 5 equally strong nations o Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Prussia o Mid-1800 s wars made Prussia strong it is now Germany o Britain and Germany are strongest militarily and economically o Austria, Russia, Italy lag far behind, the rest are in the middle The old balance of power had broken down

5 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire o Consisted of Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs and Italians very diverse population o Split into Austria and Hungary after pressure from Hungarians o Empire splits into nation-states after WW I Russian Empire Crumbles o Made up of Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Poles Romanians, etc. o Russification imposing Russian culture strengthened nationalism o WW I and the communist revolution end czarist rule The Ottoman Empire Weakens o Made up of Greeks, Slavs, Turks, Arabs, Armenians, Bulgarians Made some reforms but rulers wanted no real change Ottomans massacred Armenians in response to nationalism Empire falls apart after WW I Yugoslavia Breaks up Ethnic tensions caused the outbreak of war in the 1990s in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Human rights abuses take place. Key Concepts: Bonds among people create a nation-state Nationalism creates new nations such as Italy and Germany Cavour uses diplomacy and cunning to unite Italy Bismark uses blood and iron (and realpolitik) to unite Germany The old balance of power in Europe ends Metternich system is dead Nationalism destroys aging empires like the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and czarist Russia

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